• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paddy fields

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The Status and Characteristics of Wetlands Created from within Abandoned Rice Paddy Fields in South Korea (유휴농경지에서 발생되는 습지의 현황 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Mi-Young;Yim, Yu-Ra;Kim, Kwi-Gon;Joo, Young-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2006
  • As the imports of foreign agricultural products are liberalized and the consumption of agricultural products declines, abandoned rice paddy fields continues to rise. However, such abandoned rice paddy fields has not been precisely surveyed yet. In this backdrop, a necessity to develop technology to utilize such abandoned rice paddy fields has emerged. Utilization of abandoned rice paddy fields as wetlands may be a good example. This study aimed to survey the current status and characteristics of wetlands created within abandoned rice paddy fields by selecting abandoned rice paddy fields throughout the nation and conducting field surveys on the sites that had transformed into wetlands. The abandoned rice paddy fields almost transformed into wetland and the types of wetlands transformed from abandoned rice paddy fields were mainly Inland/Moutain/Depression/Abandoned rice paddy fields/Marsh/Phragmites communis community and Inland/Moutain/Depression/Abandoned rice paddy fields/Swamp/Salix koreensis community. Abandoned rice paddy fields that had transformed into wetlands was depending heavily on waterways for water supply than other reservoirs and lakes do. Abandoned rice paddy fields transformed into wetlands was most observed in mountainous area. Abandoned rice paddy fields are because agricultural land is no longer profitable due to international and social changes and is not cultivated as government policy. Wetland period and dimension originated from abandoned rice paddy fields are very various and its surrounding land its mostly forest and the next largest follow roads and rural community. The abandoned rice paddy fields transformed into wetlands is mostly deserted currently. Despite their value as wetlands, no restoration and utilization efforts are made in Korea today. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct a precise current status survey on these areas and introduce management and restoration plans at the government level in the case of important habitats.

Occurrence and distribution characteristics of weed species in organic paddy fields

  • Hwang, Ki Seon;Jung, Sunghoon;Kim, Sung-Chul;Chung, Doug-Young;Park, Kee Woong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the dominance and distribution of weed species in organic and conventional paddy fields. The organic paddy fields were maintained for organic farming for more than five years in Anseong, Gyeonggi province of Korea. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, 42 and 36 weed species were found in the organic paddy fields in 2015 and 2016, respectively, while 38 and 36 weed species were found in the conventional paddy fields in 2015 and 2016, respectively. As a result of two years' survey, 53 species from 24 families in the organic paddy fields were identified and classified as 32 annuals, 3 biennials and 18 perennials. In conventional paddy fields, 51 species from 24 families (30 annuals, 6 biennials, and 15 perennials) were identified. According to the classification by family, the most abundant weed species were Compositae (9 species), followed by Poaceae (8 species) and Polygonaceae (6 species) in organic paddy fields. In conventional paddy fields, Compositae (9 species) were the most abundant weed species, followed by Cruciferae (6 species), Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Cyperaceae. This result indicates that the difference in diversity of weeds in paddy fields was influenced more by the agricultural environment than the type of cultivation. Our results could be used as a base data to control the occurrence of weed species in the paddy fields.

Seed Quality of Soybean Produced from Upland and Drained-Paddy Field

  • Kim Sun-Lim;Park Keum-Yong;Lee Yeong-Ho;Ryu Yong-Hwan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the seed quality of soybeans produced from upland and drained-paddy fields. Soybeans from drained-paddy field showed significantly higher in the 100 seeds weight and greater in the size of seed length than those from upland fields. However, there are no significant differences in seed width and thickness between upland and paddy fields. In case of Hunter's color value, the lightness (L) was significantly higher in the upland soybeans, but the a (redness) and b (yellowness) values were higher in the drained-paddy field soybeans. Seed appearance of drained-paddy field was poor than that of upland field. Soybeans produced from the drained-paddy field showed higher protein content, whereas, lipid and ash contents were higher in the upland field. Soybeans from upland field had lower contents of total amino acids compared to drained-paddy fields. No statistical differences were found in palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic, but stearic, oleic, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) showed significant differences between soybean seeds from upland and drained-paddy fields. Genistein content was higher in the drained-paddy fields, while daidzein and glycitein contents were higher in the upland fields. This result suggested that the soil condition of drained-paddy field is more favorable to synthesis genistein than daidzein and glycitein.

Excessive soil water stress responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) cultivated from paddy fields with different topographic features

  • Ryu, Jongsoo;Baek, Inyeoul;Kwak, Kangsu;Han, Wonyoung;Bae, Jinwoo;Park, Jinki;Chun, Hyen Chung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.749-760
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    • 2018
  • In Korea, the largest agricultural lands are paddy fields which have poor infiltration and drainage properties. Recently, the Korean government has pursued cultivating upland crops in paddy fields to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. For this policy to succeed, it is critical to understand the topographic information of paddy fields and its effects on upland crops cultivated in the soils of paddy fields. The objective of this study was to characterize the growth properties of sesame and perilla from paddy fields with three soil topographic features and soil water effects which were induced by the topographic features of the sesame and perilla. The crops were planted in paddy fields located in Miryang, Gyeongnam with different topographies: mountain foot slope, local valley and alluvial plain. Soil water contents and groundwater levels were measured every hour during the growing season. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope was significantly effective in alleviating wet injury for the sesame and perilla in the paddy fields. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope had a decreased average soil water content and groundwater level during cultivation. Stress day index (SDI) from the alluvial plain paddy field had the greatest values from both crops and the smallest from the ones from the paddy field of the mountain foot slope. This result means that sesame and perilla had the smallest stress from the soil water content of the paddy field on the mountain foot slope and the greatest stress from the soil water content of the alluvial plain. It is important to consider the topography of paddy fields to reduce wet injury and to increase crop yields.

Community changes in carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) through ecological succession in abandoned paddy fields

  • Do, Yu-No;Jeong, Kwang-Seuk;Lineman, Maurice;Kim, Ji-Yoon;Kim, Hang-Ah;Joo, Gea-Jae
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.269-278
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    • 2011
  • Carabid beetle community changes in paddy fields, abandoned paddy fields, and mountains were investigated to understand differences in species diversity and composition of different habitat types in small agricultural landscapes in South Korea. A total of 2,938 individuals from 37 species were identified and classified from the studied habitats. Diversity in the mountains was higher than that in abandoned paddy fields. As the number of years since abandonment increased, the diversity and stability of the carabid beetle community also increased. Abandoned paddy fields in some paddy field areas and adjoining mountainous areas, left with preconditions for management and control, have provided the opportunity to improve the diversity and habitat of small agricultural landscapes. Species composition changed continuously from the paddy fields to the mountains, in accordance with individual species habitat preferences. Abandoned paddy fields in small agricultural landscapes are believed to play an important role as transitional buffer zones between paddy fields and the adjacent mountainous areas.

HSPF-Paddy Development for Simulating Pollutant Loadings from Paddy Fields

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Yoon, Chun G.;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Jang, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.47 no.7
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2005
  • The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was modified to simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings from paddy fields using a field experimental data collected during 2001-2002. The concept of a 'dike height' was added in a modified HSPF code, named HSPF-Paddy, to consider the function of retaining water by a weir at the field outlet. The effect of fertilization on the variances of nutrients on the soil surface and shallow soil layer was described mathematically with a Dirac delta function (or first-order kinetics). As confirmed through model verification, the HSPF-Paddy modifications were shown to represent the function of retaining water, varied ponded water, and surface runoff by forced drain during both rainy and non-rainy seasons and reasonably predicted the water balance and nutrients behavior in paddy fields. It is a distributed watershed model which, with the paddy modifications, can now simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings where paddy fields are dominant, and it can be used to evaluate the effects of paddy fields on the water quality at a basin scale, and assess the impacts of proposed BMPs applied to paddy fields.

Outflow of Dissolved Organic Matter from Agricultural Fields in an Irrigation Period (관개기간 중 농경지로부터의 용존 유기물의 유출)

  • Shim, Sooyoung;Kim, Bumchul;Hosoi, Yoshihiko;Masuda, Takanori
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to quantify and characterize the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from paddy fields and crop fields in Tottori, Japan. DOC and ultraviolet (UV) absorption were measured in the filtrated water of each sample. The DOC concentration and the SUVA (specific UV absorption) of biodegradation analysis samples were determined around 50 days after their incubation. In the Fukui paddy fields, DOC concentration varied seasonally from 1.1 to $10.1mg\;Cl^{-1}$, becoming higher during heavy runoffs in April, a non-agriculture period. Variations in DOC concentration did not always correspond to rainfall, though. The Obadake paddy fields showed a DOC concentration pattern similar to that of the Fukui paddy fields. The daily DOC discharge per area in the Fukui (up), Fukui (down), Obadake (south) and Obadake (north) paddy fields influent from paddy fields were 0.02, 0.0161, 0.0135 and $0.0027kg\;a^{-1}day^{-1}$, respectively. These differences resulted from differences in agricultural types and customs of farmers according to paddy fields and other kinds of fields. Also, the SUVAs [which are indirect means to evaluate humic substances (hydrophobic fractions)] of the studied influent waters from paddy fields were generally lower than those of the influent waters from crop fields. Nonbiodegradable DOC accounted for 50.2 - 98% and 46.8 - 85.5% of the total DOC in the paddy fields and in the crop fields, respectively.

A Study on the Water Quality Management in Fallow Paddy Fields (휴경논에서의 수질관리 연구)

  • Kim Hyung-Jong;Kim Sun-Joo;Kim Phil-Shik;An Yeul;Yang Yong-Suck
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2006
  • Fallow paddy areas have been increased due to the import of cheap agricultural product, and the unbalance between farming cost and rice price since 1990. The increasing fallow paddy area needs to be protected from the devastation by weed breeding for the re-cultivation. In this study, two fallow paddy fields managed with different water depth were selected for monitoring and analysing of water quality, water balance and plant body change. The managed fallow paddy fields were more effective in water quality purification and plants growth control than non-managed fallow paddy fields. And the fallow paddy field managed with some degree of water depth was the most effective field in terms of weed control.

Water and mass balance analysis for hydrological model development in paddy fields

  • Tasuku, KATO;Satoko, OMINO;Ryota, TSUCHIYA;Satomi, TABATA
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.238-238
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    • 2015
  • There are demands for water environmental analysis of discharge processes in paddy fields, however, it is not fully understood in nutrients discharge process for watershed modeling. As hydrological processes both surface and ground water and agricultural water managements are so complex in paddy fields, the development of lowland paddy fields watershed model is more difficult than upland watershed model. In this research, the improvement of SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model for a paddy watershed was conducted. First, modification of surface inundated process was developed in improved pot hole option. Those modification was evaluated by monitoring data. Second, the monitoring data in river and drainage channel in lowland paddy fields from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed to understand discharge characteristics. As a case study, Imbanuma basin, Japan, was chosen as typical land and water use in Asian countries. In this basin, lowland paddy fields are irrigated from river water using small pumps that were located in distribution within the watershed. Daily hydrological fluctuation was too complex to estimate. Then, to understand surface and ground water discharge characteristics in irrigation (Apr-Aug) and non-irrigation (Sep-Mar) period, the water and material balance analysis was conducted. The analysis was composed two parts, watershed and river channel blocks. As results of model simulation, output was satisfactory in NSE, but uncertainty was large. It would be coming from discharge process in return water. The river water and ground water in paddy fields were exchanged each other in 5.7% and 10.8% to river discharge in irrigation and non-irrigation periods, respectively. Through this exchange, nutrient loads were exchanged between river and paddy fields components. It suggested that discharge from paddy fields was not only responded to rainfall but dynamically related with river water table. In general, hydrological models is assumed that a discharge process is one way from watershed to river. However, in lowland paddy fields, discharge process is dynamically changed. This function of paddy fields showed that flood was mitigated and temporally held as storage in ground water. Then, it showed that water quality was changed in mitigated function in the water exchange process in lowland paddy fields. In future, it was expected that hydrological models for lowland paddy fields would be developed with this mitigation function.

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Estimation of the Pollutant Loads from Paddy Fields by Cultivation Practices Using a Non-point-source Model (비점원오염모델을 이용한 논의 영농방법별 오염부하량 예측)

  • Han, Kuk-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the pollutant loads from paddy fields by cultivation practices using a non-point-sources models. One of them is CREAMS-PADDY model that was developed considering the water balance and mass balance of paddy fields. The CREAMS-PADDY model was applied to provide basic data to reduce runoff loadings under various scenarios such as various water management control and various fertilizer condition. The model was verified against T-N, T-P and runoff flow data collected during cropping periods at 2000. The model results agreed well with the measured data in verification. The results showed that the model could be used for estimating the runoff loadings from irrigated paddy fields by cultivation practices was possible. Comparison of simulated the standard height and the sluice management of T-N and T-P runoff loadings from paddy fields were +32.4%, +10.3% in 10 mm below the standard height, -29.2%, -35.9% in 20 mm above the standard height, 52.6%, 59.0% in 40 mm above the standard height, respectively. Comparison of simulated the standard fertilizer and the fertilizer control of T-N and T-P runoff loadings from paddy fields were -1.3%, -21.7%in reduction of conventional fertilizer 30%, -1.0%, -12.5% in reduction of standard fertilizer 30%, respectively. Therefore, reducing nonpoint-sources nutrient loading by reducing fertilization may not work well in the range of normal paddy rice farming practices, and instead it could be achieved by reducing surface drainage outflow.