• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paddy field ecosystem

Search Result 47, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Development of a Method to Estimate Distribution of Paddy Fields in Southeast Asia Using Terra/ASTER Data

  • Sasaki, Gaku;Takeuchi, Wataru;Yasuoka, Yoshifumi
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1180-1182
    • /
    • 2003
  • In Asian countries, paddy field is indispensable for our lives not only as a source of food but also ecosystem, hydrology, landscape, culture and global warming. In this sense it is necessary to get the detailed spatial distribution of paddy field in Asian region. Remote sensing seems to be the most appropriate tool to estimate paddy field. In this study, two Terra/ASTER images acquired on different date were used to get a map of paddy field with different planting. ASTER's 15-m resolution was found to be enough to be recognize individual paddy field . Paddies with different planting stages were divided into five types using their spectral patterns. As a result a map of paddies with different planting was obtained with tolerably high accuracy.

  • PDF

CO2 Respiration Characteristics with Physicochemical Properties of Soils at the Coastal Ecosystem in Suncheon Bay (순천만 연안 생태계에서 토양의 이화학적 성질에 의한 이산화탄소 호흡 특성)

  • Kang, Dong-Hwan;Kwon, Byung-Hyuk;Kim, Pil-Geun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.217-227
    • /
    • 2010
  • This paper was studied $CO_2$ respiration rate with physicochemical properties of soils at wetland, paddy field and forest in Nongju-ri, Haeryong-myeon, Suncheon city, Jeollanam-do. Soil temperature and $CO_2$ respiration rate were measured at the field, and soil pH, moisture and soil organic carbon were analyzed in laboratory. Field monitoring was conducted at 6 points (W3, W7, W13, W17, W23, W27) for wetland, 3 points (P1, P2, P3) for paddy field and 3 points (F1, F2, F3) for forest in 10 January 2009. $CO_2$ concentrations in chamber were measured 352~382 ppm for wetland, 364~382 ppm for paddy field and 379~390 ppm for forest, and the average values were 370 ppm, 370 ppm and 385 ppm, respectively. $CO_2$ respiration rates of soils were measured $-73{\sim}44\;mg/m^2/hr$ for wetland, $-74{\sim}24\;mg/m^2/hr$ for paddy field and $-55{\sim}106\;mg/m^2/hr$ for forest, and the average values were $-8\;mg/m^2/hr$, $-25\;mg/m^2/hr$ and $38\;mg/m^2/hr$. $CO_2$ was uptake from air to soil in wetland and paddy field, but it was emission from soil to air in forest. $CO_2$ respiration rate function in uptake condition increased exponential and linear as soil temperature and soil organic carbon. But, it in emission condition decreased linear as soil temperature and soil organic carbon. $CO_2$ respiration rate function in wetland decreased linear as soil moisture, but its in paddy and forest increased linear as soil moisture. $CO_2$ respiration rate function in all sites increased linear as soil pH, and increasing rate at forest was highest.

Growth Characteristics of Tubificidae spp. by Flooding during Winter in Paddy Fields (겨울철 논의 담수처리에 따른 실지렁이류의 생육특성)

  • Han, Min-Su;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Miran;Choe, Lak-Jung;Cho, Kwang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.19-26
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to provide preliminary data for increasing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystem and investigate availability of using Tubificidae spp. for environment-friendly agriculture through the survey of growth of Tubificidae spp. in flooded paddy fields during winter. We estimated the number of Tubificidae spp. in rice paddy where had been flooded during the previous winter in Ganghwa-gun, Suwon-si, and Hwaseong-si (Bongdam-eup and Paltan-myeon) between March and April from 2010 to 2012. During growing period of rice, the number of Tubificidae spp. was compared between flooded and non-flooded paddy field in Ganghwa-gun. As results, mean density of Tubificidae spp. in winter flooded paddy field was 7,235.5 $ind./m^2$ in Ganghwa-gun, 14,347.5 $ind./m^2$ in Suwon-si, 59,989.9 $ind./m^2$ in Bongdam-eup, and 2,610.6 $ind./m^2$ in Paltan-myeon. Mean density of Tubificidae spp. was the highest in flooded paddy fields of Bongdam-eup that was kept wet until rice harvest time and had shallow water. While mean density was the lowest in Paltan-myeon where had deep water and later flooded paddy field than others. In Ganghwa-gun, during growing period of rice, mean density of Tubificidae spp. in flooded paddy fields (171,109.0 $ind./m^2$) and flooded fallow paddy fields (321,084.2 $ind./m^2$) was much higher than non-flooded paddy fields (1,006.6 $ind./m^2$). Flooded paddy field during winter can help increase the number of Tubificidae spp. which can control weeds and enhance biodiversity in paddy fields for environment-friendly agriculture. Early flooding and shallow water of paddy fields could be a good agriculture practice to encourage the growth of Tubificidae spp..

Habitat Characteristics and Management of Abandoned Rice Paddy Field Wetlands in Mountain - In Case of the Uldae Wetland in Bukhansan National Park - (도시 내 묵논습지 생물서식 특성 및 관리방안 -북한산국립공원 울대습지를 대상으로-)

  • Yoo, So-Yeon;Hur, Myung-Jin;Han, Bong-Ho;Choi, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.11-23
    • /
    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the ecological characteristics and biological interactions between species of the abandoned rice paddy field in mountainous areas and to suggest a management strategy for stable food chain formation and biodiversity enhancement. The study site is located in Uldae wetland of Songchu district Bukhansan National Park, site characteristics and biological habitat characteristics were identified through site survey and literature survey. With regard to physical environment, among geographical features, the Uldae Wetland and the neighborhood inside the basin was a gently sloping area($5{\sim}15^{\circ}$). And 64.0% of basin faced the north. With regard to water environment, the Uldae Wetland was wetland of rainfed paddy field depending on precipitation and the system of stream flowing into the wetland from valley. According to the results of examining flora in plant ecology, in general, they were herbaceous wetland species. 88.6% of existing plants inside the Uldae Wetland basin was a forest in the mountain. And Quercus spp. community and Pinus densiflora community accounted for 64.6% of that, and was dominant. Except for that, Salix koreensis community was distributed. The existing vegetation of Uldae Wetland inhabited wetland species and terrestrialization indicator species, and it was thought that partial terrestrialization inside the Uldae Wetland was in progress after the discontinuation of paddy cultivation, such as the expansion of Salix koreensis distribution area. In the status of appearing faunae in the Uldae Wetland with regard to wildbirds of appearing principal species, The Uldae wetland was based on a abandoned rice paddy field various wildlife, and was a wildlife feeding, spawning, and resting place. The water environment was an important factor in maintaining the wetland living creatures function, habitat of waterbirds and benthic macroinvertebrates, amphibians and odonate are spawning ground and habitat, it was affecting the vegetation ecosystem based on wetlands. In order to maintain the diversity of wildlife, it was important to maintain smooth water supply and water level. A stable food chain will be formed and the Uldae wetland biodiversity will be abundant by establishing the relationship between the species of Uldae wetland, which is abandoned rice paddy field, and the habitat environment favored by species belonging to the ecosystem stepwise linkage. The ecological characteristics of the Uldae wetlands and the relation between the species were analyzed and the environmental conditions were reflected in the planning and management plan of Uldae wetland ecology.

Geographical Distribution of Diving Beetles (Dytiscidae) in Korean Paddy Ecosystem (우리나라 논 서식 물방개과의 지리적 분포)

  • Han, Min-Su;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Bang, Hea-Son;Na, Young-Eun;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kang, Kee-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.209-215
    • /
    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: The paddy ecosystem is periodically disturbed with a relatively consistent cycle in short term. However, in long term aspect, the paddy as habitats of organisms has been affected by the change in farming practices. Accordingly, the composition and their densities of fauna species inhabiting the wet paddy has been changed. The geological distribution of a species is very helpful to understand the past and current status of habitats and biodiversity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We monitored 290 sites of open plain paddy or terraced valley paddy located in 138 cities or counties of South Korea and analyzed examine geological distribution of a taxon of freshwater invertebrates, diving beetles (Dytiscidae) which inhabited the paddy ecosystem. This survey was conducted from 2005 through 2007. The total species of diving beetles found in the paddy were identified to be 15 genus 26 species among the family of Dytiscidae. Among them, 24 species were found in the terraced valleys-in paddy fields, and 19 species were found in the open plain paddy fields. Eleven species of them were rarely found in the paddy. The average body size of the adult diving beetles of each species was between 2.0 and 35.0 mm. Most of the diving beetle species except for 11 species with rare frequency of occurrence were found in almost all sites of the terraced valley paddy fields but three species (Agabus browni, Agabus japnicus, and Ilybius apicalis) were not found in the open plain paddy fields. The species distributed relatively widely over some sites of the open plain paddy fields were Guignotus japonicus, and Rhantus pulverosus. Specifically, Ilybius apicalis was found in a specific region, the east-southern part of Korean peninsula, whereas Coelambus chinensis was found only in valley paddy field of the region where Ilybius apicalis was not found. Overall distribution range of diving beetles in open plain paddy fields was limited to few area than in terraced valley paddy fields. CONCLUSION(s): The differences in the range of distribution of diving beetles between terraced valley paddy fields and open plain paddy fields was thought to be the result of an complex action of physico-chemical environments such as annual water status and the degree of chemical application involving differences in the extent of disturbance of the paddy ecosystem, the connectivity of the paddy to an adjacent biotope, and interrelationships among competitors.

Assessment of the Functions of Vegetation and Soil on the Nutrient Cycling in Paddy Field Ecosystem with Inflow of Animal Wastes (빗물에 의해 축산폐수가 유입되는 논 생태계에서 영양물질 순환에 미치는 토양과 식생의 영향평가)

  • Ahn, Yoon-Soo;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Kim, Sae-Geun;Roh, Kee-An;Park, Moo-Eon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.162-169
    • /
    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to assess the roles of soil and vegetation on the nutrient cycling in paddy ecosystem where excessive amounts of animal wastes were flowed in due to the rain. Experimental sites included one abandoned and four cropping paddy fields which were moderately terraced under a small farm village raising 90 milk cows and 35 deer under open-air condition. The watershed covered 4 ha with every 50% of uptown and fodder crops. Concentrations of $NH_4-N$ and $P_2O_5$ in waste water flowed into the abandoned paddy field, enforced by the rain of $56.4mm\;day^{-1}$, were $8.3mg\;{\ell}^{-1}$ and $1.8mg\;{\ell}^{-1}$, respectively. Total mass of rainfall inflow to abandoned field during rice growing period (1 May to 30 Sept.) was $20,900Mg\;ha^{-1}$. Total amounts of $NH_4-N$ and $P_2O_5$ contained in that inflow were estimated as 173 kg and 38 kg, respectively. Concentrations in the outflow water through one abandoned and four rice paddy fields were reduced by 92% for $NH_4-N$ and 95% for $P_2O_5$, as compared to those in the inflows. The reserved portions of nutrients in the abandoned paddy field ecosystem, which were the summation of the uptake by weed and residues in soil, were 29% of the inflow amount for $NH_4-N$ and 30% for $P_2O_5$. These results demonstrated that soil and vegetation in paddy field ecosystem reduced the excessive nutrients from the animal waste inflow to the extents that might be suitable not only for the better growth of rice plant, located at the lower paddy fields, but also for preservation of the downstream from eutrophication.

  • PDF

Evaluation of Carbon Balance for Carbon Sink/Emission with Different Treatments in Paddy Field (벼논에서 양분관리별 탄소의 흡수·배출에 대한 탄소수지 평가)

  • Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Jong-Sik;Lee, Sun-Il;Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Choi, Eun-Jung;Na, Un-sung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.715-725
    • /
    • 2017
  • Importance of climate change and its impact on agriculture and environment has increased with the rise in the levels of Green House Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. To slow down the speed of climate change, numerous efforts have been applied in industrial sectors to reduce GHGs emission and to enhance carbon storage. In the agricultural sector, several types of research have been performed with emphasis on GHGs emission reduction; however, only a few work has been done in understanding the role of carbon sink on reduction in GHGs emission. In this study, we investigated ecosystem carbon balance and soil carbon storage in an agricultural paddy field. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Evaluation of soil C sequestration in paddy field was average $3.88Mg\;CO_2\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK+rice straw compost treatment, average $3.22Mg\;C\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK+hairy vetch treatment, and average $1.97Mg\;CO_2\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK treatment; and 2) Net ecosystem production (NEP) during the paddy growing season was average $14.01Mg\;CO_2\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK+hairy vetch treatment, average $12.60Mg\;CO_2\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK+rice straw compost treatment, and average $11.31Mg\;CO_2\;ha^{-1}$ following NPK treatment. Therefore, it is proposed that organic matter treatment can lead to an increase in soil organic carbon accumulation and carbon sock of crop ecosystem in fields compared to chemical fertilizers.

Seasonal Variation of Carbon Dioxide and Energy Fluxes During the Rice Cropping Season at Rice-barley Double Cropping Paddy Field of Gimje (김제 벼-보리 이모작 논에서 벼 재배기간동안의 CO2 및 에너지 플럭스의 계절적 변화)

  • Min, Sung-Hyun;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Kim, Yong-Seok;Jung, Myung-Pyo;Kim, Seok-Cheal;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.15 no.4
    • /
    • pp.273-281
    • /
    • 2013
  • Based on the results of continuous flux measurements at the Gimje paddy flux site in the southwestern coast of Korea, carbon dioxide and energy exchanges between customarily cultivated rice-barley double cropping paddy field and the atmosphere during the 2012 rice growing season (from $9^{th}$ Jun. 2012 through $20^{th}$ Oct. 2012) were analyzed. Carbon dioxide and energy (H, LE) fluxes were estimated by the eddy covariance method. Environmental parameters (net radiation, precipitation, etc.) and plant biomass (LAI, plant height, etc.) were measured along with fluxes. After the quality control and gap-filling, the observed fluxes were analyzed. The results have been showed that net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re) during the rice cropping period were -277.1, 710.3, and 433.2 g C $m^{-2}$, respectively.

Conservation of Biodiversity and Its Ecological Importance of Korean Paddy Field

  • Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Dong-Kyu;Choe, Zhin-Ryong;Han, Min-Soo;Pellerin, Kristie
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.51 no.6
    • /
    • pp.497-504
    • /
    • 2006
  • Biodiversity is closely related to the conservation of ecosystems. Ecosystems provide more subtle, but equally essential, services. Microorganisms decompose human's waste and renew the soils that produce our food crops. Biodiversity in Korean paddies encompass 54 families and 107 species of freshwater invertebrates. In terms of the number of aquatic insects affected by different sources, the order starting with the highest population was swine slurry > chemical fertilizer > fresh straw with reduced fertilizers > control. The number of freshwater invertebrate and aquatic macro-invertebrate in surface water of the plots without insecticidal application were 2 and 2.1 times greater than in fields receiving insecticide applications, respectively. The soil microfungal flora of the 85 isolates paddy fields in Korea was 30 species in 13 genera and 11 isolates were unidentified yet. Agricultural policy should be changed to assist the conservation of biodiversity because until now the agricultural ecosystems have been negatively affected from the development of high-yield varieties to enhance food production, and the expansion of fertilizer and chemical use. For the conservation of agricultural ecosystems, agricultural practices with less investment and more resource saving, as well as enhancing the safety of agricultural and livestock products are essential. Finally, this paper was written for the contribution for the development of environmentally friendly farming systems with neighboring or whole ecosystems.

Pollution of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils Around the Downstream Area of Abandoned Metal Mine and Efficiency of Reversed Soil Method as Its Remediation (폐금속광산 하부 농경지 토양의 중금속오염과 그 복구방법으로서 반전객토의 효율성)

  • Na, Choon-Ki;Lee, Mu-Seong;Chung, Jae-Il
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-135
    • /
    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the dispersion patterns and contamination level of heavy metals in the soil-ecosystem and to evaluate the efficiency of soil remediation by reversed soil method, soils and plants were collected from the Dongjin Au-Ag-Cu mine area and analysed for heavy metals. The dispersion patterns of heavy metals in soils and plants show that heavy metal pollutions caused by waste rump around Dongjin mine are mainly found in the vicinity of the waste rump and in the southward slanting of mine. Toxic metallic pollutants from the mine influence heavy metal contents in paddy soils in downstream area, and may be a potential sources of heavy metal pollution on crop plants. Soil samples collected from the remediated rice farming field by reversed method show similar levels of heavy metal content to those from the polluted rice farming field, but topsoil enrichment of heavy metals are not found. Heavy metal contents of the rice plants collected from remediated rice farming field are significantly lower than those from polluted rice farming field, and it suggests that the reversed soil method is effective for the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  • PDF