• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paddy field

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Effect of Different Drained Conditions on Growth, Forage Production and Quality of Sorghum, Sorghum × Sudangrass and Sudangrass Hybrids at Paddy Field (논에서 배수조건에 따른 수수류 품종의 생육특성, 생산성 및 품질 비교)

  • Ji, Hee-Chung;Cho, Jung-Ho;Ju, Jung-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was carried out to know adaptability and forage production and quality of sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass and sudangrass hybrids depend on drained condition at paddy field from 2007 to 2008 at Chungnam province. Growth, forage production and quality of sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass and sudangrass hybrids showed more well drained condition than poorly drained condition at paddy field. Among growth characteristics, 'SS405' hybrids were somewhat strong for waterlogging, then and good at stem diameter, disease resistance. The dry yield of 'SS405' hybrid at poorly drained paddy field was the highest as 12,938 kg per ha. Fresh yield of poorly drained paddy field was 52.7% compared to that of well drained paddy field. The dry matter yield of poorly drained paddy field was the lower as 66.4% than that of well drained condition. ADF (acid detergent fiber), NDF (neutral detergent fiber), CP (crude protein) and IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility) in poorly drained paddy field were 90.3%, 100.6%, 85.7% and 89.6% level compared to well drained paddy field.

Diseases and Weeds Occurrence and Control in Organic and Conventional Rice Paddy Field (유기 및 관행벼 재배지 병해와 잡초 발생 및 방제에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Sang-Guei;Lee Yong-Hoan;Kim Ji-Soo;Lee Byong-Mo;Kim Mi-Ja;Shin Jae-Hoon;Kim Han-Myeng;Choi Doo-Hoi
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 2005
  • Diseases were surveyed in 5 Rice paddy field areas of Organic paddy field and conventional paddy field. The 3 major diseases, rice leaf blast, bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight in rice were surveyed at duck raising, rice bran and conventional rice paddy field. They were serious in duck raising paddy field, rice bran paddy field more than conventional paddy field. The Ilpum variety were infected seriously more than Chucheong. At the effectivity test of the environment-friendly substance for the rice-seed sterilization, 1000-times diluted brown-rice vinegar showed controlling effect against Bakanae disease, and germination rate also was good. There was no Weeds Control efficacy by cultivating of hairy vetch in rice paddy field. However, extract of hairy vetch Leaf and root repressed the germinating of lettuce seed.

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Development of a Crawler Type Vehicle to Travel in Water Paddy Rice Field for Water-Dropwort Harvest

  • Jun, Hyeon-Jong;Kang, Tae-Gyoung;Choi, Yong;Choi, Il-Su;Choi, Duck-Kyu;Lee, Choung-Keun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.240-247
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a rubber-crawler type vehicle as a traveling device for harvesting water-dropwort cultivated in water contained paddy rice field in winter season. Methods: A commercial rubber-crawler type vehicle was used to investigate application of rubber crawler to the paddy rice field as preliminary test. As the result of the preliminary test, a both prototype traveling device with rubber crawlers for a water-dropwort harvest was designed with inclination of $45^{\circ}$ at the front-end and rear-end of crawler under the basic water depth of 0.6 m in the paddy rice field. The device was fabricated and attached to the experimental harvesting test devices on the front of the prototype vehicle. The size of the prototype crawler vehicle with a harvesting part is $2,800{\times}1,460{\times}1,040 $ (mm) ($L{\times}W{\times}H$) with weight of 9.21 kN (maximum). Sizes of the crawler of prototype vehicle are ground contact length of 900 mm, width of 180 mm, height of 1,070 mm and distance between center to center of crawlers of 720 mm. The side-overturn angle of the prototype was $26.4^{\circ}$. Results: Driving performance of the prototype vehicle in water contained paddy field were good at both forward and reverse (backward) directions as weights were applied. The drawbar pull and the maximum sinking depth of the prototype vehicle were 3.5 kN and 0.13 m respectively at water depth of 0.5 m, when the weight and bearing capacity of the prototype rubber crawler in the paddy field were 8.51 kN and 26.3 $kN/m^2$, respectively. Conclusions: Results of the driving test performance of the prototype crawler in paddy rice field at the water depth of 0.5 m were satisfactory. The prototype had enough drawbar pull and driving ability in the deep water contained paddy field.

HSPF-Paddy Development for Simulating Pollutant Loadings from Paddy Fields

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Yoon, Chun G.;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Jang, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.47 no.7
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2005
  • The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was modified to simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings from paddy fields using a field experimental data collected during 2001-2002. The concept of a 'dike height' was added in a modified HSPF code, named HSPF-Paddy, to consider the function of retaining water by a weir at the field outlet. The effect of fertilization on the variances of nutrients on the soil surface and shallow soil layer was described mathematically with a Dirac delta function (or first-order kinetics). As confirmed through model verification, the HSPF-Paddy modifications were shown to represent the function of retaining water, varied ponded water, and surface runoff by forced drain during both rainy and non-rainy seasons and reasonably predicted the water balance and nutrients behavior in paddy fields. It is a distributed watershed model which, with the paddy modifications, can now simulate nonpoint pollutant loadings where paddy fields are dominant, and it can be used to evaluate the effects of paddy fields on the water quality at a basin scale, and assess the impacts of proposed BMPs applied to paddy fields.

Growth Characteristics and Yield Potentials of Soybeans in Upland and Paddy Field (전과 답에서의 콩 생육특성과 수량성)

  • 황영현;박상구
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 1993
  • To obtain the basic information necessary for the development of soybean varieties well adaptable to upland-paddy field rotational croppings, the difference of growth characteristics between upland and paddy-field including yield potentials of current recommending soybean varieties were evaluated. The growth characteristics, both above and under-ground, which were measured at flowering stage were generally greater in paddy-field but the number of root nodules was much greater in upland, thus the artificial inoculation was practically recommended for soybean growing in paddy-fields. Mean seed yield was generally higher in paddy-fields than in upland. All soybean varieties showed higher seed yield in the early planting date, April 20, were somewhat susceptible to soybean mosaic virus(SMV), thus they could be escaped from the disasterous endemic necrotic soybean mosaic virus(SMV-N). Soybean varieties showed over 4.0 tons/ha seed yield in the paddy-field were Williams 79, Union, SS77053, and Namhaekong. At the same time, Jangyeobkong and Danyeobkong were the most stable soybean varieties among the tested soybean varieties with less than 10% of coefficient variation values in all planting dates in paddy fields. Compared with Hwangkeumkong which is most widely being cultivated on farmer's fields, soybean varieties showed high yields in paddy-field were higher in plant height, less in the number of branches, and more in the number of nodes on main stem. At the same time, they had medium seed size which would bring the good germination and stands. Disease resistance especially for necrotic soybean mosaic virus was also one of the most decisive factors in seed yields for the early planted soybeans.

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Effects of Conventional and Organic Farming on Ground-dwelling Invertebrates in Paddy Levees (관행농업과 유기농업이 논둑에 서식하는 토양배회성 무척추동물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choe, Lak-Jung;Han, Min-Su;Choi, Soon-Kun;Na, Young-Eun;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Eo, Jinu
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.539-556
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to compare the community structure and biodiversity of ground-dwelling invertebrates between conventional and organic paddy fields's levees. Ground-dwelling invertebrates were collected using a pitfall trap every month for two years (2010-2011) in levees of conventional and organic paddy fields. The numbers of species and individuals were higher in organic paddy field than in conventional paddy field. For the pests, the treatment of insecticide and herbicide reduced the number of Delphacidae, and Chrysomelidae, but did not affect the other pests such as Chronomidae, Culicidae, Thripidae, and Aphididae. For the natural enemies, the treatment reduced the number of individuals of most of enemy's taxon (except only one taxonomic group, Ichneumonidae) in the levee of conventional paddy field.

Modeling System for Unsteady Flow Simulations in Drainage Channel Networks of Paddy Field Districts (논 지구의 배수로 부정류 흐름 모의를 위한 모델링 시스템)

  • Kang, Min Goo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2014
  • A modeling system is constructed by integrating an one-dimensional unsteady flow simulation model and a hydrologic model to simulate flood flows in drainage channel networks of paddy field districts. The modeling system's applicability is validated by simulating flood discharges from a paddy field district, which consists of nine paddy fields and one drainage channel. The simulation results are in good agreement with the observed. Particularly, in the verification stage, the relative errors of peak flows and peak depths between the observed and simulated hydrographs range 8.96 to 10.26 % and -10.26 to 2.97 %, respectively. The modeling system's capability is compared with that of a water balance equation-based model; it is revealed that the modeling system's accuracy is superior to the other model. In addition, the simulations of flood discharges from large-sized paddy fields through drainage channels show that the flood discharge patterns are affected by drainage outlet management for paddy fields and physical characteristics of the drainage channels. Finally, it is concluded that to efficiently design drainage channel networks, it is necessary to analyze the results from simulating flood discharges of the drainage channel networks according to their physical characteristics and connectivities.

Microbial Risk Assessment in Reclaimed Wastewater Irrigation on a Paddy Field (하수의 농업적 재이용에 따른 논 담수 내 미생물 위해성 평가)

  • Rhee, Han-Pil;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Son, Jang-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2009
  • Water stress has become a major concern in agriculture. Korea suffers from limited agricultural water supply, and wastewater reuse has been recommended as an alternative solution. A study was performed to examine the effects of microorganism concentration in the ponded-water of a paddy rice field with reclaimed-water irrigation for evaluating the microbial risk to farmers and neighborhood children. Most epidemiological studies were performed based on an upland field, and they may not directly applicable to paddy fields. Beta-Poisson model was used to estimate the microbial risk of pathogen ingestion. Their risk value increased significantly high level after irrigation and precipitation. It implies that agricultural activities such as plowing, and fertilizing, and precipitation need be practiced a few days after irrigation considering health risks. The results about field application of the microbial risk assessment using E. coli showed difference according to monitoring time and treatment plot. Result of the microbial risk assessment showed that risk values of ground-water and reclaimed secondary wastewater irrigation were lower than directly use of wastewater treatment plants' effluent. This paper should be viewed as a first step in the application of quantitative microbial risk assessment of E. coli to wastewater reuse in a paddy rice farming.

Input and Output Budgets for Nitrogen of Paddy Field in South Korea

  • Jung, Goo-Bok;Hong, Seung-Chang;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Choi, Soon-Kun;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2016
  • The main objective of this research was to estimate the total mass of nitrogen discharged from various sources in paddy field area of South Korea in 2010 and 2013. Input and output budgets for nitrogen were estimated by mass balance approach. The mass balance approach reduces the effect of flow variations, and the large scale approach minimizes local effects, resulting in easier and faster establishment of strategy for nonpoint pollution problems. Nitrogen inputs were chemical fertilizer, compost, atmospheric deposition, biological fixation, and agricultural water, while crop uptake, denitrification, volatilization, and infiltration were nitrogen outputs. The estimated total nitrogen inputs for paddy field in South Korea were $266,211ton\;yr^{-1}$, $260,729ton\;yr^{-1}$, while those of total nitrogen outputs were $168,463ton\;yr^{-1}$, $164,994ton\;yr^{-1}$ in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Annual amounts of potential nitrogen outflow from paddy field were $97,748ton\;yr^{-1}$, $95,735ton\;yr^{-1}$ in 2010 and 2013. Also, annual rate of potential nitrogen outflow were 36.7%, 36.7% in 2010 and 2013, respectively.

Functional Evaluation of Small-scale Pond at Paddy Field as a Shelter for Mudfish during Midsummer Drainage Period (논 중간 낙수기에 미꾸라지 피난처로서 둠벙의 기능 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Ok;Shin, Hyun-Sang;Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Heon;Jang, Kyu-Sang;Kim, Bom-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecological function of small-scale pond and movement characteristics of mudfish (Misgurnus mizolepis) during midsummer drainage period. METHODS AND RESULTS: In situ experiments were performed in the paddy field with mudfish under the condition of midsummer drainage from 13 July to 29 July 2010. The mudfish used in this experiment is approximately 1,000 individuals with a cut tail. Mudfishs were released in the rice field before midsummer drainage and caught again in the small-scale pond and the paddy field after midsummer drainage. Results showed that the abundance of mudfish was higher in drainage canal than small-scale pond at the early stage of midsummer drainage, because flow was formed toward the drainage canal. In that time, 3% of the total marked mudfish were captured at outlet of drainage canal. As the paddy was drying, 5% of total marked mudfish moved to the small-scale pond during midsummer drainage period. Contrary to the general hypothesis, the marked mudfish was not found in holes in paddy field.of total caught in the small-scale pond ingested mainly animal prey, and it's frequency of empcy stomach was 10%.oOn the other hand, all m total collected in the paddy field showed empcy stomach. It was apparent from the experiment that m total are eeldng normally in the small-scale pond, while m total are not eat properly in paddy field. CONCLUSION(s): As the paddy was drying, mudfish moved to the small-scale pond during midsummer drainage period but mudfish was not found in holes in paddy field. It can be concluded that small-scale provides a shelter and prey to mudfish in the midsummer drainage period.