• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paddy field

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The Effects of the Growth and Yield of Paddy Rice in the Upland Cultivation (수도 밭재배에 관한 연구)

  • Sang-Hyun Yoon;Yong-Jae Kim;Won-Yul Choi;Chang-Soon Ahn
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1976
  • Two paddy rices and two upland rices were cultivated both in the paddy-field and in the upland in order to find out the effects of the different cultural environments on the growth and yield of the four varieties. Three plots (standard fertilizer without irrigation, standard fertilizer with irrigation and nitrogen-increased fertilizer with irrigation) were set in the upland and one plot (standard fertilizer with conventional water control) was set in the paddy-field. The weight of brown rice of paddy rices was higher in the paddy-field than in the upland, while that of upland rices was higher in the upland. The heading-date of paddy rices was later about a week in the upland than in the paddy-field. The maturity ratio and the weight of 1, 000 grains of upland were higher and heavier than those of paddy rices in both cultural conditions. The results show that it is very desirable for the culture of paddy rices to be cultivated under the upland condition, on the view point of its yield and quality compared with those of upland rices.

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Change of Growth and Nitrogen Uptake of Rice at the Paddy Field with Previous Upland Condition (논.밭윤환 복원논의 벼 생육특성 및 질소흡수량 변화)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Chung-Keun;Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Chun-Ki;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2010
  • Excess nitrogen (N) uptake of rice, which could cause much lodging, disease and reduction of rice quality, could be occurred at the paddy field with previous upland condition at which much soil N could be mineralized by soil-drying effect. N fertilizers of 0, 3, and 6 kg N $10a^{-1}$ were applied to early-maturity rice, cultivar Joanbyeo at the paddy field of first and second year after upland condition, and rice growth and nitrogen uptake were investigated to know the increase of rice N uptake at the paddy field with previous upland condition for one-year. Total dry matter (DM) and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased more than continuous paddy field. Total DM and N uptake of rice at the paddy field with previous upland condition increased linearly to N fertilizer 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field owing to vigorous growth compared to continuous paddy field. Rice N uptake was higher at the paddy field of the first year than the second year after upland condition in considering N uptake at the plot of no N fertilizer. Vigorous growth at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher rice yield which was related with high panicle and spikelet, but much N fertilizer as much as 6 kg $10a^{-1}$ at the paddy field with previous upland condition resulted in higher lodging and protein content of brown and milled rice. Particularly, protein content of brown and milled rice increased more when the same N fertilizer was applied two times splitly at transplanting and panicle initiation stage than when N fertilizer was applied one time at transplanting as basal N. N application with under 3 kg $10a^{-1}$ as only basal N was recommended at the paddy field with previous upland condition to obtain high quality rice without lodging.

Irrigation water temperature and cold water damage of paddy (관개수온과 벼의 냉수피해)

  • 정상옥;오창준
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 1998
  • In 1996, a cold-water damage occured in the paddy field at downstream of the Unmoon dam. To study the cause and the preventive measures of the cold-water damage a field study was performed during the growing season of 1997. Field measurements such as water temperatures at reservoir, irrigation canal and in the paddy field were made. As a result, there was no cold-water damage due to the right irrigation water management practice in 1997. The cold-water damage is passible to happen, however, and the preventive measures were provided.

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A Study on the Water Quality Management in Fallow Paddy Fields (휴경논에서의 수질관리 연구)

  • Kim Hyung-Jong;Kim Sun-Joo;Kim Phil-Shik;An Yeul;Yang Yong-Suck
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2006
  • Fallow paddy areas have been increased due to the import of cheap agricultural product, and the unbalance between farming cost and rice price since 1990. The increasing fallow paddy area needs to be protected from the devastation by weed breeding for the re-cultivation. In this study, two fallow paddy fields managed with different water depth were selected for monitoring and analysing of water quality, water balance and plant body change. The managed fallow paddy fields were more effective in water quality purification and plants growth control than non-managed fallow paddy fields. And the fallow paddy field managed with some degree of water depth was the most effective field in terms of weed control.

Studies on the Forage Production and Utilization on Paddy Field in Korea (한국에 있어서 답리작을 이용한 양질 조사료 생산기술)

  • Seo, Sung;Yook, W.B.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Grassland Science Conference
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    • pp.5-56
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    • 2002
  • The problems in the current domestic forage production were evaluated, and the prospective improvement was suggested in this paper. Grassland development in forest, production of high quality forages in upland and paddy land, efficient utilization of rice straw, development of new varieties of forages suitable for our environmental conditions and imported forages were described Among them, preferential production and utilization of forages using paddy field after rice harvest . should be enlarged for domestic supply of forages in Korea. Several studies were carried out to select the promising forage crops and barley cultivars for whole crop silage production, to determine productivity, nutritive value and production cost of forages produced in paddy field, and feeding effect of forages with Hanuwoo and milking cow for whole crop silage with forages produced in paddy field, 1999 to 2001, and also discussed restraint factors and activation plans for enlargement of forage production in paddy land. The promising forage crops in paddy field were rye and barley for Middle region, and rye, barley, early maturing Italian ryegrass and wheat for Southern region. The promising barley cultivars for whole crop silage in paddy field were Albori in Suwon, Keunalbori, Milyang 92, Saessalbori, and Naehanssalbori in Iksan, and Keunalbori, Albori, Naehanssalbori, and Saegangbori in Milyang, respectively. Silage production, quality and animal palatability of silage by trench and round bale were also compared. The production yields of whole crop barley silage(WBS) were 17,135kg as a fresh matter, and 6,011kg as a dry matter per ha, and the quality of WBS was 2∼3 grade, while that of rice straw silage was 4 grade as a farm basis. The production cost of WBS per kg was 83won as a fresh matter, and 238won as a dry matter. Feeding of WBS as forages on Hanwoo was very desirable for the improvement of live-weight gain, beef quality and farm income, particularly in growing stage of Hanwoo. Milk production and income were also increased, and feed cost was decreased by feeding of WBS. The daily voluntary intake of WBS in milking cow was 26.3kg as a fresh matter(DM 7.7kg) per head. Milk production when WBS was fed, was very similar to that of imported hay feeding such as Kentucky bluegrass or domestic corn silage. The issues to be solved in near future f3r stable forage production and supply in paddy land are sustainable livestock-forages policy, development & seed production of new varieties of barley, rye, Italian ryegrass and other promising forages, efficient demand & supply system of forages, solidification for mass production and utilization of forages, efficient application management of animal slurry on paddy field considering environmental agriculture/livestock industry, and break k development of bottleneck technique in production field. Domestic production & supply of high cost agricultural machine (round baler, wrapper, handler and so on), plastic wrapping film, and silage additives are also important.

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A Study on the Outlet Drain Discharge from Paddy Field (논의 배수물꼬의 유량에 관한 기초연구)

  • 최진규;김현영;손재권
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to evaluate the drain runoff characteristics from one paddy field, and to provide the basic data required for the determination of flood discharge and unit drainage water for drainage improvement and farmland consolidation. For this purpose, under the assumption that drain discharge from paddy field was similar to outflow of reservoir, runoff model based on storage equation was applied to the experimental field, and simulated results were compared to the measured discharge at weir point. To estimate effective storage volume of paddy field with water depth, 4 regression formula were examined such as linear, exponential, power, and combined. From the observed runoff characteristics, it was shown to be 3.3~16.3${\ell}$/sec in weir discharge, 57.2~98% in runoff ratio, and relative error of simulated result was 3.0~39.4%, 8.5 ~56.0 % for peak flow and runoff ratio, respectively. Curve number by SCS method was calculated as mean value of 96.4 using measured rainfall and runoff data, it was considered relatively high because paddy field has generally flooding depth contrary to the upland watershed area.

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Selection of Optimum Fulcrum Type for Measurement and Geo-statistical Analyze of Elevation within Rice Paddy Field (수도작 포장의 고저차 측정을 위한 최적 받침대 선정)

  • Sung J. H.;Jang S. W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.268-273
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the specificities of four fulcrum types for geo-statistical analysis of elevation within rice paddy field. In Korea, the spaces between inter-rows and between hills for rice transplanting are 30cm and 11cm to 14cm, respectively. So, the size and shape of fulcrum for field elevation measurement should be considered according to the inter-row and the hill spaces. Four kinds of fulcrum were chosen such as round-shape with 2.5cm diameter, circular-shape with 10cm diameter, 10cm (one third of inter-row space) by 24cm (double of hill space) rectangular-shape, and 20cm (two-thirds of inter-row space) by 24cm rectangular-shape. The resulting descriptive statistics couldn't determine the best fulcrum type to measure the rice paddy field elevation. But the results of geo-statistical analysis could determine the best fulcrum type. In the case of 10cm by 24cm rectangular-shape fulcrum, Nugget and range, meaning measurement error and/or noise, and limit of spatial connection, respectively, were minimum; Q value meaning weight of spatial structure and $r^2$ value were minimum, and residual sum of squares was minimum. It means that 10cm by 24 cm rectangular-shape fulcrum could best describe the rice paddy field elevation.

Characterizations of Yields and Seed Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Affected by Soil Moisture from Paddy Field Cultivation

  • Chun, Hyen Chung;Jung, Ki Yuol;Choi, Young Dae;Lee, Sanghun;Kim, Sung-Up;Oh, Eunyoung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.369-382
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    • 2017
  • Accurate and optimal water supply to cereal crop is critical in growing stalks and producing maximum yields. Recently, upland crops are cultivated in paddy field soils to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. In order to increase productivity of cereal crops in paddy fields which have poor percolation and drainage properties, it is necessary to fully understand crop response to excessive soil water condition and management of soil drainage system in paddy field. The objectives of this study were to investigate effects of excessive soil water to sesame growth and to quantify stress response using groundwater levels. Two cultivars of sesame were selected to investigate; Gunbak and Areum. These sesames were planted in paddy fields located in Miryang, Gyeongnam with different soil drainage levels and drainage systems. The experiment site was divided into two plots by drainage class; very poorly and somewhat poorly drained. Two different drainage systems were applied to alleviate excessive soil water in each plot: open ditch and pipe drainage system. Soil water contents and groundwater levels were measured every hour during growing season. Pipe drainage system was significantly effective to alleviate wet injury for sesame in paddy fields. Pipe drainage system decreased average soil moisture content and groundwater level during sesame cultivation. This resulted in greater yield and lignan contetns in sesame seeds than ones from open ditch system. Comparison between two cultivars, Gunbak had greater decrease in growth and yield by excessive soil water and high groundwater level than Areum. Seed components (lignan) showed decrease in seeds as soil water increased. When soil moisture content was greater than 40%, lignan content tended to decrease than ones from less soil moisture content. Based on these results, pipe drainage system would be more effective to reduce wet injury to sesame and increase lignan component in paddy field cultivation.

Interspecific Differences of the Capacities on Excessive Soil Moisture Stress for Upland Crops in Converted Paddy Field

  • Jung, Ki-Yuol;Choi, Young-Dae;Chun, Hyen-Chung;Lee, Sanghun;Kang, Hang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 2016
  • The interspecific estimation for tolerance capacities of upland crop species to excessive soil water stress in paddy field is significant in agricultural practices. Most of upland crops can be damaged by either excessive soil water or capillary rise of the water table during rainy season in paddy fields. The major objective of this study was to evaluate water stress of upland crops under different drainage classes in converted paddy field. This experiment was carried out in poorly drained soil (PDS) and imperfectly drained soil (IDS) of alluvial sloping area located at Toero-ri, Bubuk-myeon, Miryang-si, Gyeongsangnam-do. The soil was Gagog series, which was a member of the fine silty, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Aeric Endoaquepts (Low Humic-Gley soils). Two drainage methods, namely under Open ditch drainage methods (ODM) and, Closed pipe drainage methods (PDM) were installed within 1-m position at the lower edge of the upper paddy fields. The results showed that sum of excess water days ($SWD_{30}$), which was used to represent the moisture stress index, was 42 days (the lowest) in the PDM compared with 110 days in the ODM. Most of upland crops were more susceptible to excessive soil water during panicle initial stage on more PDS than on IDS. Yield of upland crops in the PDM was continuously increased by the rate of 15.1% on sorghum, 15.4% foxtail millet, 53.6% proso millet, 49.6% soybean and 47.9% adzuki bean as compared in the ODM. The capacity for tolerance by excessive soil water based on yield of each upland crop in the poorly drained sloping paddy fields was the order of sorghum, soybean, foxtail millet, proso millet and adzuki bean. Therefore, Sorghum is relatively tolerant to excessive soil water conditions and, may be grown successfully in converted paddy field.

Crop Rotation of the Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) and the Rice in Paddy Field (고려인삼(高麗人蔘)의 답전윤환재배(畓田輪換栽培) 효과(效果))

  • Jo, Jae-Seong;Kim, Choong-Soo;Won, Jun-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1996
  • The crop rotation of rice and ginseng in paddy field has very important meaning because up-land field suitable for ginseng cultivation is now being insufficient day by day in main ginseng production area. This studies were conducted to define basic problems related to ginseng cultivation and replanting in paddy field. In Keumsan district, the most serious problem on ginseng cultivation in paddy field was excess of mineral salts left behind in the soil of rice cultivation. The amounts of organic matters, CEC and the mineral elements including potassium were higher in the soil of paddy ginseng field compared to those of upland. Plant growth of 3 and 4 year old ginseng and root yield of four year old ginseng cultivated in paddy field of 1st and replanting were not decreased compared to those of 1st - planting of up-land field, but those were significantly decreased in replanted compared to those of first planted upland field. Crop rotation with ginseng and rice in paddy field seemed to be a good way to avoid hazards of continuous cropping of ginseng with it's outyield of root and less infection of diseases. Amounts of crude saponin and ginsenosides of ginseng cultivated in paddy field were not differ from those of upland field.

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