• Title, Summary, Keyword: Paddy field

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Status of Weed Control Research in Korea (우리나라 잡초방제의 연구현황)

  • Jong-Hoon Lee;Byung-Hoa Kang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.5-11
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    • 1978
  • Since 1970, herbicides have been widely used in the crop production, especially in paddy field in Korea. In 1978, both preemergence and postemergence type herbicides are applied in the approximately 70% of total paddy field and 15% of upland to control weeds. Most herbicides control annual weeds effectively, but perennials have been problems in the paddy field. Under upland conditions, effectiveness of herbicides varies depending on many environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil physical properties, temperature, etc.) as well as uniform application of appropriate amounts of herbicides. In Korea, many research works have been concentrated on the screening of new herbicides in terms of herbicide effectiveness and yield or phytotoxicity of crops, and especially on the paddy field. However, physiological aspects of herbicidal action in plant and interaction of herbicides with the environments have not been studied approximately. Therefore, researches on the uptake of herbicides and the influence of herbicides on the physiological phenomena such as photosynthesis, respiration, nutrient uptake etc., to control troublesome perennial weeds in the paddy field are needed in future. Also some researches are needed to improve effectiveness of herbicirdes under upland conditions.

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Survey of major cropping system using paddy field in Korea

  • Choi, Weon Young;Hwang, Chung Dong;Seo, Jong Ho;Kim, Sang Yeol;Oh, Myung Kyu;Yoo, Sueng Oh
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.343-343
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate cropping system using paddy field in 152 cities and counties of Korea. Out of the 152 cities and counties, 106 regions responded(70%). The number of cultivated crops in 2 and 3 cropping system using paddy field was 48 crops. Among these, 35 crops were cultivated in winter and spring, 27 crops were cultivated in summer and fall. There were 33 crops in paddy field after cultivating rice. Among these, 11 crops were cultivated in spring and 26 crops were in fall-winter. There were 44 crops in paddy field without cultivating rice. Among these, 19 crops were cultivated in spring, 27 crops were in summer, 15 crops were in fall. Total cropping systems in Korea were 138 types, 2 cropping system were 119, among them outdoor crops were 77, using facility crops were 42, and 3 cropping system crops were 19. Cropping system of Jeonbuk province was 45 types and it was the most in Korea. Cropping systems of southern area were more various than those of middle-northern area in Korea.

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Growth and Yield of Job's Tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) at Different Planting Density and Time under Dry and Flooded Paddy Field (건답 및 담수논재배에서 파종기와 재식밀도에 따른 율무의 생육 및 수량)

  • 김정태;곽용호;김용철
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.558-562
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    • 1996
  • The growth and yield of Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) under the flooded paddy and upland (dry paddy) field conditions were compared at three sowing dates and two planting densities. Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was much shorter in plant height, but greater in number of tillers than those grown under upland. Photosynthesis rate of Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was higher and the weight of dry roots heavier but the damages of pest and leaf blight disease smaller than those grown under upland. For the above mentioned reasons, the grain yield of Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was higher by up to 85% than that grown under upland. There was no significant difference in grain yield between the planting densities. The earlier sowing brought about the less grain yield in upland field condition, while sowing plot on the 15th of May showed the highest grain yield in the flooded paddy field condition.

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Growth Characteristics of Tubificidae spp. by Flooding during Winter in Paddy Fields (겨울철 논의 담수처리에 따른 실지렁이류의 생육특성)

  • Han, Min-Su;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Miran;Choe, Lak-Jung;Cho, Kwang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to provide preliminary data for increasing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystem and investigate availability of using Tubificidae spp. for environment-friendly agriculture through the survey of growth of Tubificidae spp. in flooded paddy fields during winter. We estimated the number of Tubificidae spp. in rice paddy where had been flooded during the previous winter in Ganghwa-gun, Suwon-si, and Hwaseong-si (Bongdam-eup and Paltan-myeon) between March and April from 2010 to 2012. During growing period of rice, the number of Tubificidae spp. was compared between flooded and non-flooded paddy field in Ganghwa-gun. As results, mean density of Tubificidae spp. in winter flooded paddy field was 7,235.5 $ind./m^2$ in Ganghwa-gun, 14,347.5 $ind./m^2$ in Suwon-si, 59,989.9 $ind./m^2$ in Bongdam-eup, and 2,610.6 $ind./m^2$ in Paltan-myeon. Mean density of Tubificidae spp. was the highest in flooded paddy fields of Bongdam-eup that was kept wet until rice harvest time and had shallow water. While mean density was the lowest in Paltan-myeon where had deep water and later flooded paddy field than others. In Ganghwa-gun, during growing period of rice, mean density of Tubificidae spp. in flooded paddy fields (171,109.0 $ind./m^2$) and flooded fallow paddy fields (321,084.2 $ind./m^2$) was much higher than non-flooded paddy fields (1,006.6 $ind./m^2$). Flooded paddy field during winter can help increase the number of Tubificidae spp. which can control weeds and enhance biodiversity in paddy fields for environment-friendly agriculture. Early flooding and shallow water of paddy fields could be a good agriculture practice to encourage the growth of Tubificidae spp..

Effects of different soil moisture conditions on growth, yield and stress index of adzuki bean from paddy field cultivation

  • Chun, Hyen Chung;Jung, Ki Yuol;Choi, Young Dae;Lee, Sang Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.337-337
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    • 2017
  • Accurate and optimal water supply to cereal crop is critical in growing stalks and producing maximum yields. Excessive soil moisture may cause nutrient deficiencies and oxygen deficiency. Excessive soil water during crop growth stages results in decrease of yields. In Korea, the largest agricultural lands are paddy fields. Recently, upland crops are cultivated in paddy field soils to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. In order to success this policy, it is necessary to fully understand crop response to excessive soil moisture condition from paddy field soils. Adzuki bean is one of major legumes which provide protein in daily diet. Adzuki bean has been well know its weakness to excessive soil moisture condition, In order to obtain optimal yields of adzuki bean from paddy field cultivation, it is necessary to understand response of adzuki bean under different soil moisture conditions. This study investigated characteristics of growths, yields and response degree of water stress from adzuki bean. Three cultivars were selected for this study; Chungju, Hongeon, and Arari. All adzuki beans were cultivated in a paddy field which was divided into three sections with different soil moistures. The paddy field was located in Milyang, Gyeongsangnam during 2016. One section of the paddy field had the greatest average soil moisture content as 35.1% during adzuki bean cultivation (very poor). The second greatest soil moisture section had 32.6% (somewhat poor) and the smallest soil moisture section had 28.9% of soil moisture (somewhat well). During cultivation of three cultivar adzuki beans, soil moisture contents and groundwater levels were monitored. All the characteristics of growth and yield components were measured; height, thickness, 100 seed weights etc. Stress index values were calculated by Stress Day Index (SDI). All cultivars had the greatest yields from somewhat well section. Chungju had the greatest yields throughout all three sections compared to other cultivars. Chungju had 81% greater yield than Hongeon which had the smallest yield from somewhat well section. Arari set in middle from all sections. However there was no significant differences yields from very poor and somewhat poor sections. Leaf SPAD values tended to decrease and stable carbon isotope values increased as soil moisture increased. However, Chungju had no difference across different soil moistures in SPAD and stable carbon isotope values, while Hongeon had the greatest differences across sections. These trends followed by SDI values. Chungju had the smallest SDI values compared to other cultivars, which meant that Chungju was the strongest tolerance against excessive soil moisture than other cultivars. All three cultivars showed severe decrease of yields from very poor and somewhat poor sections. Arari and Hongeon showed great decrease from somewhat well section compared to yields from upland soil. These two cultivars may not be proper cultivating in paddy fields. In conclusion, adzuki bean is very sensitive to soil moisture condition and detailed soil managements are required to obtain optimal yields of adzuki bean from paddy field cultivation.

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Agronomic Characteristics and Yield Performance of Different Corn Hybrids Harvested in Drained-Paddy and Upland Fields

  • Souvandouane, Souliya;Son, Tae-Kwon;Esguerra, Mannuel;Heo, Kyu-Hong;Rico, Cyren M.;Lee, Sang-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.178-183
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    • 2008
  • The growth and yield performance of 19 new com hybrids were evaluated. Results showed that all hybrids had a superior growth performance in the drained-paddy than in the upland field except for daeyul ${\times}$ cheongdo and hyoryeong ${\times}$ cheongdo in plant height, cheongdoyeop ${\times}$ wx-3 in tassel1ength, and cheongdo (black) ${\times}$ wx-3 in number of tassel branch. The same hybrids, except cheongdoyeop ${\times}$ wx-3, obtained lower ear quality in drained-paddy field compared to upland in terms of ear weight, and ear and grain setting length. The highest yield in the drained-paddy and upland fields was obtained in the hybrids ks5wx ${\times}$ ks6wx ${\times}$ cheongdo (1,633.3kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$) and daeyul ${\times}$ wx-3 (1,516.7kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$), respectively. Highest yield among the wx-3 crosses was obtained in daeyul which was 1,583.3kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$ and 1,516.7kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$ in drained-paddy and upland field, respectively. For the crosses of wx-8, highest yields were recorded in the cultivar bugye50 (1,466.7kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$) and seokgu12 (1,384.6kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$) for drained-paddy and upland field, respectively. In the case of cheongdo, highest yields were obtained in ks5wx ${\times}$ ks6wx (1,633.3kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$) and seokgu14 (1,111.1kg ${\cdot}$ $10a^{-1}$) for drained-paddy and upland field, respectively. Result also showed that the drained-paddy soil had better physicochemical properties than the upland. The relatively high performance in terms of growth parameters and yield of com hybrids planted in the drained-paddy field is in agreement with the higher organic matter and micro-element content of drained-paddy field.

Development of CREAMS-PADDY Model for Simulating Pollutants from Irrigated Paddies (관개 논에서의 영양물질 추정 모형의 개발)

  • 서춘석;박승우;김상민;강문성;임상준;윤광식
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.146-156
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to develop a modified CREAMS model for paddy field conditions. The model simulates daily balance of water and nutrient from irrigated paddies using meteorological, irrigation, and agricultural management data. The model simulates daily evapotranspiration of paddy using Penman equation and determines daily flooding depth changes. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations within flooding water, surface runoff, and leaching water from a paddy field also can be simulated. Parameters of the model were calibrated using observed data of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the Seoul National University in Suwon Korea. The model was applied for the irrigation period of paddy field in Gicheon area when 1,234 mm annual rainfall was occurred. The simulated losses of the total nitrogen and total phosphorous were 11.27 kg/ha and 0.98 kg/ha, respectively. There was a good agreement between observed and simulated data. It was found that CREAMS-PADDY model was capable of predicting runoff and nutrient losses from irrigated paddy fields.

Revised Soil Survey of Yangju City in Gyunggido

  • Hyun, Byung-Keun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Kim, Keun-Tae;Cho, Hyun-Jun;Jung, Sug-Jae;Choi, Jung-Won
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2017
  • Recently, agricultural lands have decreased sharply, which was caused by huge housing site, urbanization, land consolidation, and road construction etc. In particular, Yangju city near Seoul city has the most severe land use change in Korea. Therefore, we analyzed changes of land use, soil properties, and soil information in order to provide the basic soil information and soil management practices in this city. The area of crop cultivated land in Korea (2015) reduced by 12,090 ha compared to ones from the previous year (2014). The paddy field decreased by 25,421 ha but, upland field increased by 13,331 ha. One of the reasons for the reduction of the paddy field was converting paddy field to upland (20,916 ha) > others (3,056) > building (2,571) > public facilities (847) > idle land (217). But, reasons for increase of upland field were switching paddy to upland (20,916 ha) > land developed (634). The main reason of converting paddy field to upland was changing from rice to more profitable speciality crops or pulses. The cropland area (paddy fields, upland, orchard) of Yangju city reduced by 1,412 ha (2015/2014). The ratio of cropland area in each city reduced by 22.9% dramatically compared 2015 to 1999. The paddy fields located in alluvial plains in Yangju city were changed into upland or green house. The drainage classes of soil have been deteriorated because the flows of water were intercepted by road construction and other disturbance to water flows. In particular, paddy fields have been changed to not only upland, orchard, greenhouse cultivation but also to fallow and soil dressing on paddy in Yangju city. To analyze result of soil survey of Yangju city, 858 soil codes (soil phases) were used and the area was 105.17ha. The number of soil series increased from 60 to 65, and that of soil phase increased from 105 to 124. The largest increased area was Noegog soil series. 125.7ha of Neogog soil series was incorporated from the existing Sachon, Yecheon and Eungog soil series. The soil suitability class of paddy field in Ogjung huge housing site of Yangju city was the 4th grade for 32.6% of the area. The soil suitability classes of upland were 2nd and 3rd grade for 72.4% of the area. Farm land with high quality should be conserved by related law.

A Study on Cold-water damage on paddy field at the Downstream of the Unmoon Dam (운문댐 하류 논지역에서의 냉수피해 조사연구)

  • Chung, Sang-Ok;Oh, Chang-Jun
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.15
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1997
  • In 1996, a cold-water damage occured in the paddy field at the downstream of the Umoon dam. To study the cause and the preventive measures of the cold-water damage a field study was performed during the growing season of 1997. Field measurements such as water temperatures at reservoir, irrigation canal and in the paddy field were made. As a result, there was no cold-water damage due to the right irrigation water management practice in 1997. The cold-water damage is possible to happen, however, and the preventive measures were provided.

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Water Quality Model Development for Loading Estimates from Paddy Field (논에서의 오염부하 예측을 위한 범용모형 개발)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Hwang, Ha-Sun;Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.344-355
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    • 2003
  • Water quality model applicable paddy field was developed using field experiment during 1999 ${\sim}$ 2002. This model involves inputs from fertilization and sediment release as dirac delta function and continuous source function, respectively, and can simulate various processes such as ponded depth, surface drainage, total nitrogen concentration and total phosphorus concentration in a daily basis. The model was calibrated using data collected from field experiments which was irrigated with ground water and validated from field experiments which was irrigated with surface water. The nutrient concentration of surface water depended on the fertilization and dirac delta function can efficiently explain the valiance of nutrient concentration of surface water by fertilizer. As a result of calibration and validation, this model demonstrates good agreement. The model fit efficiencies ($R^2$) of ponded depth, surface concentration of TN and TP were 0.93,0.98 and 0.95, respectively for calibration, and those of TN and TP were 0.99 and 0.70, respectively for validation. We can apply lake and reservoir model to analysis paddy field considered with shallow ponded system, but it will need so many parameters and have much uncertainty. Fortunately, paddy field have a series of cultural practices yearly basis, such as irrigation-fertilization-forced drain-harvest with a similar time , so simple model may explain the mechanism for paddy field. Water quality model for paddy field developed in this study is simply, needs little parameters, but appeared high applicability to evaluate paddy filed drainage. We recommend this model to estimate nutrient loading from paddy field and establish best management practice.