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Study on the Effect of Deep Fertilization on Paddy Field - Efficiency of Ball Complex Fertilizer Mixed with Zeolite - (수도(水稻)에 대(對)한 심층추비효과(深層追肥効果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - Zeolite 첨가(添加) Ball complex 비료(肥料)의 비효(肥効) -)

  • Kim, Tai-Soon;U., Zang-Kual
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1977
  • A study was conducted in order to compare the topdressing method of the conventional fertilizers as control and the deep application method of the ball complex fertilizer newly developed. The ball complex fertilizer consisted of 5% of nitrogen, 5% of phosphorus, and 7% of potassium. Basal application of nitrogen for the rice plant was the same for both control plots and ball complex plots. One ball complex fertilizer per four hills was applied at depth of 12~13cm 35days before heading stage while control plot received three times topdressing at different growth stages as usual practice. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The ball complex fertilizer applied in the soil was continuously utilized by the rice plants until harvest time while nitrogen and potassium uptake of control plots was reduced rapidly after heading stage. Daily uptake of nitrogen and potassium per hill at maturing stage were 0.45mg and 0.68mg in control plots, but 4.80mg and 7.0mg respectively in ball complex plots. 2. Dry matter productivity of the rice plant in control plots, well coinciding with nutrients uptake pattern, was maximum just after heading stage decreased at maturing stage. But dry matter productivity in ball complex plots was much higher at maturing stage than at heading stage. 3. Ball complex application increased effective tillering rate, causing higher panicle number per hill. 4. Ball complex application brought about 528kg/10a of hulled grain yield while the conventional practice 423kg/10a. 5. Deep application of ball complex was superior to usual practice in terms of yield components such as panicle number per hill, filled grain number per panicle, maturing rate, and 1,000 grain weight. 6. From the morphological characteristics point of view, the deep application of ball complex made the flag leaf and the 2nd leaf heavier, larger and broader as compared to control treatment. 7. It is considered that by applying the ball complex fertilizer at depth of 12~13cm sufficient amount of nitrogen and potassium could be utilized by rice plants during the maturing stage and assimilated in the leaf blade, consequently making the flag leaf and the 2nd leaf bigger and healthier. The fact can easily explain that the ball complex plots had higher capacity of photosynthesis, less discoloration of lower leaves, bigger leaf area index, and better grain yield as compared to the conventional practice. In conclusion the deep application method of the ball complex fertilizer was superior to the routine topdressing method of the usual fertilizers.

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Studies on The Effects of Several Methods Irrigation Control Affecting The Growth and Yields of Rice Plants and Saving the Irrigation Water (관개조절의 몇가지 방식이 수함의 생육 및 수량과 관개수절약에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 이창구
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.2322-2341
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    • 1971
  • The studies were conducted to determine the methods of irrigation control which is not only able to save the irrigation water as a adaptable measures for the insufficient irrigation water and the drought but also increase the yields of rice, in the paddy field which shows over percolating tendency through the couple years of 1968 and 1969 at Suwon. These experiments were carried with late maturing rice variety, Norim No. 6 and the major treatments in this experiments were filling the clay under surface soil, periodic irrigation and lining the Vinyl under the surface soil and three replicated completely randomized design was employed. Results obtained will be summarzed as follows. 1. Through the couple years, the plots tilled the clay under 15cm of the surface soil saved the irrigation water by 364% to 45% and 78% to 88% respectively. Particulary, the plot of filling the clay with 9cm thick under 15cm of the surface soil, saved the amount of irrigation water by 45% to 88% and also increased yields by 12% to 20% through the couple years. 2. The plots in which amount of 40mm of irrigation water is irrigated periodically from 5 to 8 days at the stages of tillering and ripening, saved theamount of irrigation water by 41% to 55% and also increased yields by 10% to 16% respectively through the couple years. 3. The plot lined the Vinyl under 15cm of the surface soil, saved the amount of irrigation water by 75% to 88% in accordance with the size of hole. The plot of lining the Vinyl with $3cm/m^2$ hole yielded almost same as the check plot, but in the case of lesser hole than above yielded less. 4. The plots inserted the Vinyl paper in 57cm depth and with 6cm height from the soil surface around the plot to prevent the ridge percolation reduced the amount of percolation by 25% to 33%. 5. The plot filled the wheat straw with 6cm thick under 15cm of the surface soil increased yields by 30% in former year but opposite results were gained in later year. 6. Generally, yields and yield components such as number of spikes of spikes per hill and number of grains per spike were decreased in 1969. These faots are considered to depend upon the rainy and cold weather in the stages of vigorous tillering and less sunshine in the stages of ripening. 7. The variation of characters among the plots will be summarized as follows. (1) Tallerplant height was found in the plots of clay filling and irrigation control. (2) longer culm length and higher yields were founds in the plots filled the clay with 9cm thick and controled the irrigation periodically froir 7 to 8 days. (3) Length of spike increased generally with yields but opposite tendency was found also. (4) Number of spikes per hill increased with yields in the plots of irrigation control. (5) Number of grains per spike increased with yields in the plots filled the clay with 9cm thick and controled irrigation periodically from 5 to 8 days. (6) Tendency of variation of 1000 grain weight is similar to Number of grains per spike. (7) Percentage of complete grains increased in the plot of clay filling and irrigation control.

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Seedling Emergence of Dry -seeded Rice under Different Sowing Depths and Irrigation Regimes (건답직파에서 파종심도와 관개조건에 따른 벼 품종들의 출아특성)

  • 이변우;명을재
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 1995
  • Investigated were the relationships between plumule elongation characteristics and seedling emergence of 46 varieties including native, improved and red rice varieties of Korea, and varieties from U.S.A., Italy, India, Japan under 1, 3, and 5cm deep sowing with irrigated and non-irrigated condition. Experiments were carried out in paddy field of sandy loam. There was heavy shower of 19.2mm on the next day of seeding and thereafter, clear and dry weather continued during the experiment period. Soil temperature averaged over 30 days after seeding was $16.4^{\circ}C$ at 3cm depth. Soil hardness increased linearly up to 2.5kg /$cm^2$ on the 14th day after seeding, on which date irrigated plot was irrigated through furrow, and up to 4kg / $cm^2$ on the 28th day in non-irrigated plot. Soil hardness dropped near to 0kg /$cm^2$ after irrigation and developed up to 2.5kg /$cm^2$ again by 28 days after seeding. Seedling emergence was higher in irrigated plots than non-irrigated plots at all seeding depths. Korean improved varieties were substantially lower in seedling emergence under non-irrigated condition of 1 cm deep sowing than those under irrigated condition. This poor seedling emergence resulted mainly from delayed emergence by exposing them to greater soil strength. Percent seedling emergence under irrigated and non-irrigated condition showed signifi-cant correlations at 3 and 5 cm deep sowing. Korean improved varieties belonged to the group of poor seedling emergence, and I taliconaverneco, Chinsura Boro and Weld Pally to best group under both irrigation conditions at 3 and 5cm deep sowing. Seedling emergence showed highly signifi-cant positive correlation with the plumule length of mesocotyl + 1st internode + incomplete leaf and of mesocotyl+coleoptile. Among the characters constituting plumule length, incomplete leaf length showed greatest positive correlation followed by coleoptile and mesocotyl under irrigated condition at 3 and 5 cm deep sowing, and highest correlation with mesocotyllength followed by first internode and incomplete leaf under non-irrigated condition. Days to 50% seedling emergence at 1 cm deep sowing with irrigation showed great varietal variation of 10 to 30 days, and showed high significant negative correlations with percent seedling emergence under both irrigation conditions except for 1 cm deep sowing with irrigation, Days to seedling emergence revealed sig-nificant negative correlations with plumule characters except 2nd internode, showing highest cor-relation with incomplete leaf length.

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An Optimum Control Time of Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi in No - tillage Dry Seeded Rice (벼 무경운(無耕耘) 건답직파재배시(乾畓直播栽培時) 둑새풀 방제적기(防除適期) 구명(究明))

  • Hwang, C.D.;Park, S.T.;Kim, S.Y.;Lee, K.Y.;Kim, S.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 1997
  • A field experiment was conducted to determine an optimum control time of water foxtail(Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis Ohwi), a most troublesome weed, in no-tillage dry seeded rice. Paraquat, a non-selective herbicide, was applied at 1.5 days interval from March 15 to May 15 at a concentration of 3,000ml per hectar and its control efficacy to A. aequalis was recorded before and after seed sowing. In addition. other characters such as decayed injury of A. aequalis to rice seedling, and its influence of seedling stand were also investigated in relation to rice grain yield. Dry weight of A. aequalis was rapidly increased with delay in control time from 42g/$m^2$at March 15 to 237g/$m^2$ at May 15. The amount of its regrowth at seeding time was highest with 68.3g, when paraquat was applied at March 15, then decreased thereafter and it was less than 6.2g when paraquat was applied after April 15 which indicates above 98% control rate. The control rate of A. aequalis, at 30 days after paraquat application way likewise similar to that the seeding time. Rice seedling stands in the plot treated with paraquat before April 15 were not affected by decayed injury of A. aequalis while decayed injury of 3 to 4 degree for those after April 30 application was noted. Dwarf virus disease on rice seedling due to occurrence of A. aequalis was not observed when A. aequalis was controled from March 30 to May 15 while it was occurred in the plot of March 15 application and the untreated control. The control plot of A. aequalis at April 15 had the highest grain yield with 4.79ton/10a. Based on control rate of A. aequalis, seedling stands of rice, virus disease, and rice grain yield, the most suitable control time of A. aequalis in no-tillage dry seeded rice is considered to be about April 15.

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Mineral Nutrition of the Field-Grown Rice Plant -[I] Recovery of Fertilizer Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Relation to Nutrient Uptake, Grain and Dry Matter Yield- (포장재배(圃場栽培) 수도(水稻)의 무기영양(無機營養) -[I] 삼요소이용률(三要素利用率)과 양분흡수량(養分吸收量), 수량(收量) 및 건물생산량(乾物生産量)과(乾物生産量)의 관계(關係)-)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 1973
  • Percentage recovery or fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by rice plant(Oriza sativa L.) were investigated at 8, 10, 12, 14 kg/10a of N, 6 kg of $P_2O_5$ and 8 kg of $K_2O$ application level in 1967 (51 places) and 1968 (32 places). Two types of nutrient contribution for the yield, that is, P type in which phosphorus firstly increases silicate uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake, and K type in which potassium firstly increases P uptake and secondly P increases nitrogen uptake were postulated according to the following results from the correlation analyses (linear) between percentage recovery of fertilizer nutrient and grain or dry matter yields and nutrient uptake. 1. Percentage frequency of minus or zero recovery occurrence was 4% in nitrogen, 48% in phosphorus and 38% in potassium. The frequency distribution of percentage recovery appeared as a normal distribution curve with maximum at 30 to 40 recovery class in nitrogen, but appeared as a show distribution with maximum at below zero class in phosphorus and potassium. 2. Percentage recovery (including only above zero) was 33 in N (above 10kg/10a), 27 in P, 40 in K in 1967 and 40 in N, 20 in P, 46 in Kin 1968. Mean percentage recovery of two years including zero for zero or below zero was 33 in N, 13 in P and 27 in K. 3. Standard deviation of percentage recovery was greater than percentage recovery in P and K and annual variation of CV (coefficient of variation) was greatest in P. 4. The frequency of significant correlation between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield was highest in N and lowest in P. Percentage recovery of nitrogen at 10 kg level has significant correlation only with percentage recovery of P in 1967 and only with that of potassium in 1968. 5. The correlation between percentage recovery and dry matter yield of all treatments showed only significant in P in 1967, and only significant in K in 1968, Negative correlation coefficients between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield of no or minus fertilizer plots were shown only in K in 1967 and only in P in 1968 indicating that phosphorus fertilizer gave a distinct positive role in 1967 but somewhat' negative role in 1968 while potassium fertilizer worked positively in 1968 but somewhat negatively in 1967. 6. The correlation between percentage recovery of nutrient and grain yield showed similar tendency as with dry matter yield but lower coefficients. Thus the role of nutrients was more precisely expressed through dry matter yield. 7. Percentage recovery of N very frequently had significant correlation with nitrogen uptake of nitrogen applied plot, and significant negative correlation with nitrogen uptake of minus nitrogen plot, and less frequently had significant correlation with P, K and Si uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 8. Percentage recovery of P had significant correlation with Si uptake of all treatments and with N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot in 1967 indicating that phosphorus application firstly increases Si uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake. Percentage recovery of P also frequently had significant correlation with P or K uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 9. Percentage recovery of K had significant correlation with P uptake of all treatments, N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot, and significant negative correlation with K uptake of minus K plot and with Si uptake of no fertilizer plot or the highest N applied plot in 1968, and negative correlation coefficient with P uptake of no fertilizer or minus nutrient plot in 1967. Percentage recovery of K had higher correlation coefficients with dry matter yield or grain yield than with K uptake. The above facts suggest that K application firstly increases P uptake and secondly phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake for dry matter yied. 10. Percentage recovery of N had significant higher correlation coefficient with grain yield or dry matter yield of minus K plot than with those of minus phosphorus plot, and had higher with those of fertilizer plot than with those of minus K plot. Similar tendency was observed between N uptake and percentage recovery of N among the above treatments. Percentage recovery of K had negative correlation coefficient with grain or-dry matter yield of no fertilizer plot or minus nutrient plot. These facts reveal that phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake and when phosphorus or nitrogen is insufficient potassium competatively inhibits nitrogen uptake. 11. Percentage recovery of N, Pand K had significant negative correlation with relative dry matter yield of minus phosphorus plot (yield of minus plot x 100/yield of complete plot; in 1967 and with relative grain yield of minus K plot in 1968. These results suggest that phosphorus affects tillering or vegetative phase more while potassium affects grain formation or Reproductive phase more, and that clearly show the annual difference of P and K fertilizer effect according to the weather. 12. The correlation between percentage recovery of fertilizer and the relative yield of minus nutrient plat or that of no fertilizer plot to that of minus nutrient plot indicated that nitrogen is the most effective factor for the production even in the minus P or K plot. 13. From the above facts it could be concluded that about 40 to 50 percen of paddy fields do rot require P or K fertilizer and even in the case of need the application amount should be greatly different according to field and weather of the year, especially in phosphorus.

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Studies on the Productivity of Individual Leaf Blade of Paddy Rice (수도의엽신별 생육효과에 관한 연구)

  • Dong-Sam Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.18
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1975
  • Experiment I: A field experiment was conducted in an attempt to find the effect of top-dressing at heading time in different levels of nitrogen application and of different positioned leaf blades formed by the treatment of leaf defoliation at heading time on the ripening and the yield of rice. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Average number of ears per hill and average number of grains per ear in different levels of nitrogen application were increased as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. while the rate of ripened grains the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice were decreased respectively as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. 2. The rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1.000 kernels of brown rice in different levels of nitrogen, top-dressing at heading time were larger than those in control and increased. The yield of rough rice although statistically significant differences were not recognized, were numerically increased. 3. The rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different treatments of leaf defoliation were remarkably decreased as the degree of leaf-defoliation became larger. 4. The rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different combinations of number of remained leaves positioned differently, formed the order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ when only one leaf blade was remained, and were increased as the positions of leaves were higher when two leaf blades. were, remained. 5. In case of decrease in the number of leaf blades positioned differently, by the treatment of leaf. defoliation, rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling were increased as the area of remained leaves became larger and the nitrogen content of a leaf blade was increased. 6. There was a tendency that the increase in the amount of fertilizer application made the rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice reduced in any number of remained leaf blades, but the application of top-dressing at heading. time resulted in the reverse tendency. The yield of rough rice showed a tendency to be increased as the amount of basal dressing and top-dressing increased and for the application of top-dressing at heading time, the yield of rough rice was less at the smaller number of those. 7. The productivity effect of the rate of ripened grains and the yield of brown rice covered by leaf blades was more than 50 per cent and that of the. weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was not more than 1.0 percent. As the amount of nitrogen application increased the. effect of leaf blades on the rate of ripened. grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was increased. The effect of leaf blades on the weight of brown rice was increased as the amount of basal dressing-application, but the effect was decreased as the amount of top-dressing at heading time increased, 8. The productivity effects of different positioned leaf blades on the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice were in order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ the productivity effects of $L_1$ and $L_2$ had a tendency to be increased as the amount of nitrogen applied was increased. Experiment II: A field experiment was done in order to disclose the effect of the time of nitrogen application on yield component and the effect of different positioned leaves formed by leaf defoliation at heading time on the rate of ripened grains and the yield of rice. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Average number of ears per hill was increased in the treatment of nitrogen application from basal dressing to 22 days before heading and in the treatment of application distributed weekly. Number of grains was increased in the treatment of nitrogen application from 36 days to 15 days before heading. The rate of ripened grains was, lower in the treatment of nitrogen application from top-dressing to 15 days before heading than in that of non-application, was higher in the treatment of nitrogen application within 8 days before heading, and was the lowest in that of application 29 days before heading. The yield of rough rice was the highest in the treatment of nitrogen application from 29 days to 22 days before heading. The weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was a little high in the treatment of application from 29 days to 8 days before heading. 2. The rate of ripened grains the yield of rough rice, the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different treatments of leaf defoliation were remarkably decreased as the degree of leaf defoliation got larger and there were highly significant differences among treatments. There was also a recognized interaction between the time of nitrogen application and leaf defoliation. 3. In relation to the rate of ripened grains, the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice and the rate of hulling in different numbers of remained leaves positioned differently and their combinations, the yield components were in order of $L_1(flag leaf)>L_2>L_3>L_4$ when only one leaf was remained, which indicated that the components were increased as the leaf position got higher. When two laves were remained, the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and rate of hulling were high in case of the combinations of upper positioned leaves, and the increase in the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice appeared to be affected most]y by flag leaf. When three leaf blades were remained similarly the components were increased with the combination of upper positioned leaf blades. 4. In case of decreased different positioned leaf blades by treatment of leaf defoliation, there was a significant positive regression between the leaf area, the dry matter weight of leaf blades and the nitrogen contents of leaf blades, and rate of ripened grains and the yield of rough rice, but there was no constant tendency between the former components and the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice. 5. The closer the time of fertilizer application to heading time, the more the rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1, 000 kernels was decreased by defoliation, and the less were the remained leaf blades, the more remarkable was the tendency. The rate of ripened grains and the weight of 1. 000 kernels was increased by the top-dressing after heading time as the number of remained leaf blades. When the number of remained leaf blades was small the yield of rough rice was increased as the time of fertilizer application was closer to heading time. 6. Discussing the productivity effects of different organs in different times of nitrogen application, the productivity effect of a leaf blade on the rate of ripened grains was higher as the time of nitrogen application got later, and in the treatment of non-fertilization the productivity effect of a leaf blade and that of culm were the same. In the productivity effect on the yield of brown rice, the effect of culm covered more than 50 percent independently on the time of nitrogen application, and the tendency was larger in the treatment of non-fertilizer. The productivity effect of culm on the weight of 1. 000 kernels of brown rice was more than 90 percent, and the productivity effect of a leaf blade was increased as the time of application got later. 7. The productivity effect of a leaf blade in different positions on the rate of ripened grains, the yield of rough rice and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice had a tendency to be increased as the time of application got later and as the position of leaf blades got higher. In the treatment of weekly application through the entire growing period, the rate of ripened grains and the yield of rough rice were affected by flag leaf and the second leaf at the same level, the but the weight of 1, 000 kernels of brown rice was affected by flag leaf with more than 60 percent of the yield of total leaves.

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