• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pacific cod

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Comparison of Stomach Contents of Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Korean Coastal Waters (우리나라 연안에 서식하는 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 위 내용물 비교)

  • Park, Chung Youl;Gwak, Woo Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2009
  • The diet of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the East Sea, Yellow Sea and Jinhae Bay was studied by analysis of stomach contents. In total, 518 individuals ranging from 15.5 to 77.0 cm standard length SL were analyzed. Prey organisms of the Pacific cod in the East Sea consistedof Caridea, Cephalopoda and Pisces, whereas In the Yellow Sea, the main food items of Pacific cod were similar to those of East Sea Pacific cod except for Cephalopoda. Interestingly, the stomach contents of Pacific cod in Jinhae Bay is mainly Pisces, which is in contrast to those of the two different coastal areas, the East Sea and the Yellow Sea. Although various species of food were eaten by smaller Pacific cod, both Caridea and Pisces were mainly taken by larger Pacific cod. Consequently, the diet of Pacific cod within acertain size is mainly influenced by prey abundance and prey-size spectrum in its habitat. Higher stomach emptiness of Pacific cod in Jinhae Bay might indicate that fully matured Pacific cod temporally stop feeding during their spawning period.

AN IMPULSIVE STAGE-STRUCTURED OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM AND OPTIMAL HARVEST STRATEGY OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MICROCEPHALUS, IN THE SOUTH KOREA

  • Cho, Giphil;Jeong, Yong Dam;Kim, Sangil;Jung, Il Hyo
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.683-691
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    • 2018
  • We consider an optimal control problem for an impulsive stage-structured model involving ordinary differential equations with impulsive values of initial conditions in the next year. The main goal is to maximize a profit of the catch of Pacific cod in the South Korea through optimal harvest strategy as a control of adult cod. We established necessary conditions for the optimal harvest control using idea of Pontryagin's maximum principle. The optimal harvest strategy is to numerically solve the equation by using an iterative method with the Runge-Kutta method. Finally, we compare a monthly average of fishing mortality of Pacific cod from 2013 to 2017 with monthly fishing mortality for result obtained optimal harvest strategy.

Comparison of Biological Characteristics of Pacific Cod Gadus microcephalus between the East and Yellow Seas, Korea (동해와 황해 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 생물학적 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Kyunghwan;Cha, Hyung Kee;Kim, Yeonghye;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Jung, Sukgeun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.499-508
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    • 2016
  • We investigated regional differences in the growth and maturation rate of Pacific cod in the East and Yellow Seas. Significant regional differences were detected in the von Bertalanffy growth equation and mean length at maturity (L50). Cod in the East Sea grew at a faster rate than those in the Yellow Sea, with females growing faster than males in both populations. Cod of both sexes matured earlier in the Yellow Sea (age of maturity: 2.3 years for males, 2.6 years for females) than in the East Sea (age of maturity: 3.9 years for males, 4 years for females). These regional differences suggest that Pacific cod in the Yellow Sea, which is at the southwestern extremity of global cod distribution and thus likely to be an inhospitable habitat for this species, have adapted to their environment by developing earlier maturation and slower growth than cod in the East Sea or the Korea Strait. These regional differences must be taken into account when setting biological reference points for management of the Pacific cod fishery in Korean waters.

Simulation-based Yield-per-recruit Analysis of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Southeastern Korean Coastal Waters (모의실험을 통한 동남해안 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 가입당 생산 분석)

  • Cha, Hyung Kee;Jung, Sukgeun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.493-498
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    • 2012
  • We derived biological reference points for Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in southeastern Korean waters by applying a yield-per-recruit analysis based on a daily simulation that adopted size-dependent fecundity, growth, and natural mortality functions. This showed that the yield per recruit of Pacific cod can be maximized at an instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F)=0.37 $yr^{-1}$ under the current regulations, where the minimum catch size ($L_c$)=30 cm in total length (TL). The maximum economic yield was estimated to be attained at $L_c$=35-45 cm TL, if F>1 $yr^{-1}$ but at $L_c$=35-40 cm TL, if F<1 $yr^{-1}$. Despite great uncertainty in the stock assessment, to develop fisheries management plans for the sustainable exploitation of Pacific cod in southeastern Korean waters, it is necessary to estimate F using capture-recapture or other expedient methods.

Movement of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in the Korean Southeast Sea, ascertained through pop-up archival tags and conventional tags (Pop-up식 전자태그와 재래식 태그로 알게된 한국 남해동부해역 대구 Gadus macrocephalus의 이동)

  • LEE, Jeong-Hoon;KIM, Jung Nyun;LEE, Jae-Bong;CHOI, Jung Hwa;MOON, Seong Yong;PARK, Junsu;KIM, Doo Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.624-629
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    • 2015
  • To estimate the movement of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in the Korean Southeast Sea, three type tags were used. A total of 97 Pacific cod were tagged and released with either archival tags or conventional tags. Of these releases, commercial fishermen recovered thirteen conventional tags, and five of seven pop-up tags transmitted data to Argos satellites. Pacific cod began to move towards East Sea after release, and they spent most of their time at depths of 100 to 300m, water temperatures of 0.8 to $14.0^{\circ}C$. However, geographical ranges of their movement limited to area around the southern East Sea. Pacific cod attached conventional tag were recaptured near the release site(Jinhae Bay: main spawning ground) about one or two year after release. Data obtained from tagging investigations suggest that they migrated annually from spawning ground to habtat of the Korean Southeast Sea.

Changes in the Specific Gravity of Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus, During the Early Life Stages (대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 초기 발생시기의 비중변화)

  • Lee, Hwa Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.332-337
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    • 2018
  • The Pacific cod Gadus macrocepahlus, lays demersal eggs and the hatching larvae rise toward the surface layer of the ocean to feed. The change in the specific gravity of eggs and larvae was investigated to examine their vertical distribution and movement in the water column. The specific gravities of fertilized eggs and various size classes of larvae were measured using a density gradient apparatus. In total, the instantaneous specific gravity of 146 eggs and 225 larvae were measured. To prevent any disturbance in the gradient water column due to larval movement, 0.004% MS222 was used for anesthesia. Due to their high specific gravity, eggs spawned were deposited over the sea-bed of the spawning ground. The specific gravity of hatching larvae decreased abruptly. However, Pacific cod larvae still had a comparatively high specific gravity at hatching ($1.03655{\pm}0.00146g/cm3$, n=4, mean SL=3.62 mm) and their specific gravities tended to decrease as they grew. The specific gravity stabilized 6 days after hatching ($1.02590{\pm}0.00212g/cm3$, n=15, mean SL=4.67 mm) and the cod larvae were eventually able to float in the water column.

Effects of Stocking Density and Feeding Frequency on the Growth of the Pacific Cod, Gadus macrocephalus (사육밀도와 먹이 공급 횟수가 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Young-Ung;Park, Heung-Sik;Oh, Sung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated the effects of stocking density and feeding frequency (three and five times per week) on the growth of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus. In the first experiment, experimental groups of fish (mean weight $167.8{\pm}41.4\;g$) were reared at three stocking densities (4, 8 and 12 kg/$m^3$) for 16 weeks. The total weight gain was 17.8, 17.1 and 35.4% at 4, 8 and 12 kg/$m^3$, respectively. The specific growth rates, survival rates and feeding efficiency increased with the density, but there were no significant differences (P>0.05). The daily feed intake decreased as the stocking density increased, whereas the condition factors increased with the stocking density (P<0.05). In the second experiment, groups of fish ($194.1{\pm}68.3\;g$) were fed either three or five times a week. The total wight gain was 14.4 and 18.5% for the fish fed three and five times per week, respectively. The specific growth rates of Pacific cod fed to satiation increased with the feeding frequency, although the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The survival rates, daily feed intake, feed efficiency, and condition factors of the Pacific cod were not significantly different (P>0.05). Based on these results, the optimum stocking density for juvenile cod is above 12 kg/$m^3$, and the best feeding frequency is three times a week, under the conditions used in this experiment.

Estimating the Abundance and Fishing Mortality of Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus during the Spawning Season in Jinhae Bay, Korea, Using a Mark-Recapture Method (표지방류 조사를 통한 거제 외포 주변해역 대구(Gadus macrocephalus) 자원량과 어획사망률 추정)

  • Hwang, Kang Seok;Choi, Ilsu;Jung, Sukgeun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.499-506
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    • 2012
  • We estimated the population size and fishing mortality of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus during the spawning season in waters off Woipo, Geoje Island, Korea, using a mark-recapture method. We marked and released 51 cod>50 cm in total length; six were recaptured by local fishermen during the period from December 15 to 31, 2009. The estimated population size was ca. 180,000 and the fishing mortality of the exploitable cod was 26%. Although we could assume a closed population due to the short survey period, we evaluated the uncertainty in the estimates by applying bootstrap resampling because the sample size was small. The estimated 95% confidence interval was 94,000-568,000 for the population size and 8-49% for fishing mortality. Our study demonstrated that the application of mark-recapture methods and bootstrap resampling can be useful in stock assessment for fisheries management in Korea, but requires a larger sample size, spatially extensive coverage, and sophisticated mark-recapture models based on a refined sampling design for reliable stock assessment and biological reference points in sustainable cod management.

Feeding Habits of Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the Coastal Waters off Gadeok-do, Korea (가덕도 주변해역에 출현하는 대구(Gadus macrocephalus)의 식성)

  • Baeck, Gun Wook;Huh, Sung-Hoi;Park, Joo Myun;Pack, Se Chang
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.318-323
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    • 2007
  • The feeding habits of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) were studied based on the examination of stomach contents of 192 specimens collected from November, 2005 to January, 2006 in the coastal waters off Gadeok-do, Korea. The size of Pacific cod ranged from 35 to 82 cm in standard length (SL). Pacific cod mainly consumed shrimps such as Eualus spathulirostris, Crogon hakodatei and C. affinis and fishes. Its diet also included small quantities of cephalopods, amphipods, hermit crabs and crabs. Individuals between 35 cm and 45 cm SL mainly consumed shrimps. The portion of shrimps decreased with increasing fish size, and this decrease was paralleled with increased consumption of fishes and cephalopods. In this study we found Syngnathus schlegeli in the stomach contents of many Pacific cod specimens. S. schlegeli is a typical seagrass fish species which inhabits in seagrass beds, This fact means that Pacific cods stay in the seagrass beds during spawning period. Therefore migration of Pacific cod to coastal waters off Gadeok-do during spawning period seems to be a survival strategy for its larvae and small juveniles to stay in seagrass beds which provide with abundant foods and shelters to many commercial fish species.

Effects of Adhesive Substrates and Bottom Materials on Release of Fertilized Eggs by Pacific Cod, Gadus macrocephalus (대구 (Gadus macrocephalus) 수정란 방류 시 부착기질과 저질의 영향)

  • Lee, So-Gwang;Park, Kyung-Dae;Gwak, Woo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2009
  • The effects of adhesive substrates and bottom materials on the release of fertilized eggs by the Pacific cod, (Gadus macrocephalus) were examined to find an effective release method. Palm twin as an adhesive substrate displayed a significantly elevated adhesive rate compared to gulf weed. However, the survival rate of the fertilized eggs attached to palm twin was as low as 17.5% 8 days after fertilization (DAF). In contrast, fertilized eggs in the absence of adhesive substrate displayed the highest survival rate (47.0%). Concerning bottom materials, the survival rate of fertilized eggs on sand was significantly high (approximately 51.1%) on 8 and 9 DAF. The observations indicates that adhesive substrates are not needed and spawning ground bottom materials such as sand or mud should be considered when releasing fertilized eggs of Pacific cod.