• Title, Summary, Keyword: PUFA

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Effect of Different Amount of Dietary n-3 PUFA on Colon Carcinogenesis in DMH-treated Rats (쥐에서 식이에 첨가한 n-3 PUFA함량에 따라 대장 암화과정에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyun-Suh;Kwak, Hye-Kyoung;Kim, Min-Seok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.807-816
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    • 2005
  • The objective of the study was to observe the effect of n-3 PUFA on cell proliferation and apoptosis by determining mRNA and protein of COX-2 and eicosanoid product and the mRNA and protein of Bu and Bcl-2 related to apoptosis in colon carcinogenesis of 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Ninety male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 170g were divided into 3 groups, control and n-3 PUFA supplemented groups (FO group: 6.2 mmoles n-3 PUFA; 2FO group: 12.4 mmoles n-3 PUFA) and fed experimental diet for 14 weeks. All rats were intramuscularly injected with DMH 15 mg/kg twice a week for 6 weeks to deliver total dose of 180 mg/kg body weight. Compared with the control group, 6.2 mmoles n-3 PUFA significantly reduced the levels of mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and 2-series eicosanoids ($TXB_{2}$ and $PGE_{2}$) and decreased cell proliferation in colonic mucosa. However, high levels of n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly increased the levels of mRNA and protein expression of COX-2, TXB2 and PGE2. and increased cell proliferation which was similar level to that of control group. Compared with the control group, n-3 PUFA, regardless of the amount, significantly increased apoptotic index in colonic mucosa. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the levels of mRNA and protein expression of Bax were significantly increased by 6.2 mmoles n-3 PUFA, but decreased by 12.4 mmoles n-3 PUFA. The analyses also showed the levels of mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 were significantly reduced by 6.2 mmoles n-3 PUFA, but increased by 12.4 mmoles n-3 PUFA. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in mRNA and protein was significantly reduced by 6.2 mmoles n-3 PUFA but increased by 12.4 mmoles n-3 PUFA. Overall, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA could be effective in preventing colon carcinogenesis by reducing cell proliferation with lower level of COX-2 and 2-series eicosanoid, and increasing apoptosis by inducing pro-apoptotic gene, Bax and inhibiting anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-2 in the colonic mucosa of DMH-treated rats. However, high level of n-3 PUFA supplementation could stimulate colon carcinogenesis by increasing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. (Korean J Nutrition 38(10): 807$\sim$816,2005)

Effect of Dietary Fat and Marginal Tocopherol Supplement on Plasma Lipid, Tocopherol Contet and Fatty acid Composition of Rat Tissues (식이지방과 Tocopherol 첨가가 혈액의 지질 및 조직의 Tocopherol 함량과 지방산조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 남정혜
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.304-314
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    • 1986
  • To observe the effect of the different level of PUFA and marginal tocopherol supplement on HDL-chol, tissue tocopherol content and fatty acid composition, the rats were supplied either safflower oil or conconut oil with or without tocopherol supplement to the experimental diet. Plasma tocopherol level was not greatly influenced by the different dietary fat and similar effect was observed in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. HDL-chol level was reduced in the high PUFA diet regardless of tocopherol content. No effect by tocopherol supplement was observed in the fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue lipid in both dietary PUFA levels . There was also no increase in the content of tissue polyenoid acid by tocopherol in the high PUFA diet . Fatty acid composition of tissue lipid was rather more influenced by dietary fat. Lauric and myristic acid contents were higher in the low PUFA diet and linoleic acd and total polynoic acid content were higher in the high PUFA diet. With tocopherol supplement tocopherol /PUFA ratio of tissue was increased but the ratio of high PUFA diet was significantly lower than that of low PUFA diet. Marginal tocopherol supplement could not reduce the peroxidizability index of high PUFA diet.

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Association of Fatty Acid Intake and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey, 1998-2007 (한국 성인의 지방산 섭취와 이상 지혈증과의 관련성 -1998~2007 국민건강영양조사 자료에 근거하여-)

  • Park, Yong-Soon;Park, Hyo-Jin;Won, Sun-Im
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.789-807
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fatty acid intake and dyslipidemia in Korean adults, using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)I, II, III, and IV. After excluding subjects who had missing data for the dietary intakes, anthropometric measurments and laboratory tests, a total of 15,804 subjects aged 20~64 y (6,838 men and 8,966 women) from KNHANES 1998~2007 were included. All data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics software (version 18.0). Associations between fatty acid intakes and dyslipidemia were analyzed by logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, BMI, energy intake, marital status, job, education level, alcohol intake, and smoking status. Fatty acid intakes were significantly higher in men than in women. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly and negatively associated with intakes of TFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, EPA, DHA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA in both men and women. The risk of hypercholesterolemia was not significantly associated with any fatty acid intakes in either sex. The risk of high LDL cholesterolaemia was significantly and positively associated with intakes of TFA, MUFA, PUFA, LNA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA in men however, there was no significant association with any fatty acids in women. The risk of low HDL cholesterolaemia was significantly and positively associated with intakes of TFA, MUFA, PUFA, LNA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA in men, and was significantly and negatively associated with intakes of MUFA, PUFA, LNA, and n-3 PUFA in women. These results show that dyslipidemia is significantly associated with individual intake of fatty acids, suggesting that fatty acid type may be related to the risk of dyslipidemia.

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Ruminant Reproduction - A Review

  • Tran, Len Van;Malla, Bilal Ahmad;Kumar, Sachin;Tyagi, Amrish Kumar
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.622-637
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    • 2017
  • Fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are critical nutrients, used to improve male reproductive performance through modification of fatty acid profile and maintenance of sperm membrane integrity, especially under cold shock or cryopreservation condition. Also, PUFA provide the precursors for prostaglandin synthesis and can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism. Many studies carried out on diets supplemented with PUFA have demonstrated their capability to sustain sperm motility, viability and fertility during chilling and freezing as well as improving testis development and spermatogenesis in a variety of livestock species. In addition to the type and quantity of dietary fatty acids, ways of addition of PUFA to diet or semen extender is very crucial as it has different effects on semen quality in male ruminants. Limitation of PUFA added to ruminant ration is due to biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms, which causes conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, leading to loss of PUFA quantity. Thus, many strategies for protecting PUFA from biohydrogenation in rumen have been developed over the years. This paper reviews four aspects of PUFA in light of previous research including rumen metabolism, biological roles, influence on reproduction, and strategies to use in male ruminants.

Fatty Acid Composition of 72 Species of Korean Fish

  • Jeong Bo-Young;Choi Byeong-Dae;Moon Soo-Kyung;Lee Jong-Soo
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.129-146
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    • 1998
  • Fatty acid compositions of seventy-two species of Korean fish muscle, 59 species of sea water fish and 13 species of fresh water fish, were studied. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the richest fatty acid group in all fish samples, accounting for $38.0\pm10.3\%$ of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids $(MUFA,\;31.4\pm9.67\%)$ and saturated fatty acids $(SFA, 30.5\pm3.81\%)$ showed a similar level. There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and MUFA (r=0.7788, p<0.001) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r= -0.7786, p<0.001) while there was no correlation between the total lipid content and SFA. The proportion of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA was $29.7\pm8.73\%$ and $6,48\pm3.70\%$, respectively, in all fish samples. The n-3 PUFA was rich in sea water fish while n-6 PUFA was rich in fresh water fish. The migratory fish contained the highest level of the n-3 PUFA $(1.82\pm1.01g/100g\;muscle)$, followed by the fresh water fish $(1.09\pm1.04g/100g\;muscle)$, the reef fish $(0.90\pm0.60g/100g\;muscle)$ and the demersal fish $(0.77\pm0.38g/100g\;muscle)$. There was a positive correlation between the total lipid and n-3 PUFA content, $y=0.2083\times+0.05 (r=0.9352,\;p<0.0010)$.

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Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Glucose Uptake of Soleus Muscle in NIDDM Diabetic Rats (NIDDM 당뇨병 흰쥐에서 n-3 다가불포화지방산이 가자미근의 Glucose Uptake에 미치는 영향)

  • 최원경;윤옥현;강병태
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.550-555
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) on glucose and lipids metabolism in high-fat diet rate. Rats were randomly assigned to normal, high-fat with n-3 PUFA and high-fat dietary groups. Experiments were carried out after 5 weeks feeding with prescriptive diets following 7 hrs fasting. Body weight gains tended to be higher in high-fat fed rats than normal. Blood glucose was increased (p<0.05) by high-fat diet compared with normal diet, and decreaseed (p<0.05) to normal level by n-3 PUFA. Plasma insulin level was significcantly higher (p<0.01) in high-fat diet rats than that of normal-diet rats, and also decreased (p<0.01) by n-3 PUFA. Glucose up take of soleus muscle in vitro was decreased markedly in high-fat fed rats than normal diet rats at 0, 1, 10, and 100nM insulin concentration. Therefore insulin sensitivity and responsiveness were decreased by high-fat diet. Omega-3 PUFA made a recover(p<0.01) insulin sensitivity to almost normal level, and improved (p<0.05) insulin responsiveness in some extent. In conclusion, the results suggest that metabolic disorder of glucose and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle are caused by high-fat diet and n-3 PUFA can ameliorate metabolic disorder and insulin resistance.

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Effects of α-Linolenic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on the Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Brain Phospholipid in Rats

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Cho, Young-Su
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1999
  • The effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids, ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), on brain phospholipid content and fatty acid composition were compared in rats fed with a diet containing constant ratios of saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-3/n-6. The dietary fat in each diet was added at the level of 10%. In each diet, n-3 PUFA comprised two-thirds of the PUFA and the remaining one-third was linoleic acid (18:2). Dietary fat containing linoleic acid as the sole source of PUFA was also given to the control group. The content of brain phospholipid in the three n-3 PUFA groups was significantly lower than that of the linoleic acid group. This reduction was greater in the EPA and DHA groups than in the ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid group. The decrease in phospholipid content in rats fed n-3 fatty acid-rich diets was largely due to the decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction. Each dietary n-3 PUFA was found to affect the fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids; the most pronounced alteration was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine fraction. Furthermore, the proportion of DHA in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction tended to be higher in the DHA group than in other PUFA groups. In conclusion, dietary ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA can influence the phospholipid content, phospholipid subclass, and fatty acid composition in rat brain.

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Effects of Fish Oil and Some Seed Oils on Fatty Acid Compositions of Liver and Brain Tissue in Rats (어유 및 식물 종자유의 급이가 흰쥐가 간장, 뇌조직의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 정승용;김성희;김한수;최운정;김희숙;정효숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.418-425
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    • 1991
  • This study was designed to observe the effects of the fish oil and some seed oils on the improvement of the fatty acid compositions of liver and brain tissue in rats. In order to induce the hypertriglyceridemia in the rats of the Sprague-Dawley, 12% coconut oil and 3% each of olive oil, lard, fish oil, perilla oil, corn oil, red pepper seed oil and evening primrose oil were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. In the fatty acid composition of liver lipid, n-3 PUFA contents were most in the fish oil and perilla oil groups of phospholipid fraction, and n-6 PUFA contents were most in the corn oil, red pepper seed oil and evening primrose oil groups of triglyceride fractions. Fatty acid composition of liver lipid fractions were influenced from the fatty acid composition of the test lipids. In the fatty acid composition of brain phospholipid, n-3 PUFA contents (8.8~17.2%) were most in the fish oil group, and n-6 PUFA (34.6~38.2%), though it contains high percentage, showed little difference between groups.

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Fatty acid composition of goose meat depending on genotype and sex

  • Uhlirova, Linda;Tumova, Eva;Chodova, Darina;Volek, Zdenek;Machander, Vlastislav
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to compare male and female geese of two contrasting genotypes in terms of fatty acid composition, indexes related to human health, lipid metabolism and oxidative stability of the meat. Methods: The experiment was carried out on total of 120 geese of two different genotypes; the native breed Czech goose (CG) and commercial hybrid Novohradska goose (NG). One-d-old goslings were divided into 4 groups according to genotype and sex, and 8 birds from each group were slaughtered at 8 weeks of age. Results: The effects of the interactions between genotype and sex were observed on growth performance and carcass traits. Final body weight (p<0.001), daily weight gain (p<0.001), daily feed intake (p<0.001), slaughter weight (p<0.001), and cold carcass weight (p<0.001) were highest in NG males and lowest in CG females. The meat fatty acid composition results showed effects of both genotype and sex on the total n-6 and the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio. Regarding genotype, the total n-6, the total PUFA content and the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio were higher in CG, and higher values were found in females. In terms of the lipid metabolism, ${\Delta}^5-{\Delta}^6$ desaturase (p = 0.006) was higher in males. The meat oxidative stability results revealed an interaction between genotype, sex and storage time (p<0.001). The highest (13.85 mg/kg) malondialdehyde content was measured in the meat of CG females after 5 days of storage and was presumably related to a higher PUFA content. Conclusion: NG had a relatively higher growth rate and meat oxidative stability, whereas the advantage of CG meat is its favourable fatty acid profile characterized by a higher PUFA content.

Preliminary Studies on Establishment of Criteria to Evaluate the Quality of Fish Oil Used in Aquatic Feed (양어사료용 어유의 품질평가 기준설정을 위한 기초연구)

  • 최세민;김재원;한경민;이승형;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2004
  • In the fish oil forced oxidized at 6$0^{\circ}C$ for 10 days, changes in the levels of peroxide (POV), anisidine (AnV), total oxidation (Totox), iodine (IV), acid (AV) and fatty acids composition were measured. The levels of POV, AnV and Totox remained unchanged or decreased after reaching the maximum. The concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as Docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA) or Eicosa pentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with extended oxidation of fish oil. In saturated fatty acids (SFA) like C16:0, their concentration increased with decreasing PUFA. The ratios of PUFA/SFA and DHA/C16:0 decreased with extended oxidation of fish oil. Using a single parameter of POV, AnV, Totox, AV, IV, or fatty acids for evaluation of the quality of fish oil may prove difficult. Besides other parameters, the ratios of PUFA/SFA and/or DHA/C16:0 could be a good index to evaluate the quality of fish oil.