• Title, Summary, Keyword: PSE

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Analysis of Agricultural Water PSE Calculation of OECD Nations (우리나라 등 OECD 주요국 농업용수 PSE 산정내용 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Do;La, Min-Chul;Jo, Jin-Hoon;Lim, Jong-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1649-1655
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    • 2010
  • OECD 농업위원회에서는 농업정책과 관련된 지지액(support)을 계측하는데 핵심지표로서 PSE(producer support estimate)를 사용하며, 이를 통해 국가별 생산왜곡(production distorting), 생산비(非)연계(decoupled), 시장목표(targeting) 등의 평가에 이용하고 있다. 농업분야 전체에 대한 PSE의 경우, 우리나라와 사정이 비슷한 일본은 1988년 이전 64(%PSE)에서 2007년도는 45로 많이 낮아지고 있고, 우리나라는 70에서 60으로 낮아지긴 했으나 OECD 평균(23)보다는 아직은 높게 평가되고 있기 때문에 지속적으로 개선하기 위한 노력을 진행 중에 있다. 현재 농업용수의 경우, 기반시설과 관련된 정부보조는 일반지지추정치(GSSE)에 포함되어 있으나 호주, 뉴질랜드 같은 농산물 수출국은 정부가 농산물 생산의 왜곡을 줄여야 한다고 강력하게 주장하면서 이 부분을 PSE에 포함하는 방안을 제기하면서 용수 사용에 따른 완전비용회수(Full Cost Recovery)를 정책대안으로 제시하고 있다. 이와 같이 OECD가 농업용수 PSE산정방식을 변경하게 되면 기존의 GSSE에 해당되는 건설비용, 유지관리비용 등을 PSE에 포함되어 우리나라와 일본의 경우 농업용수에 대한 PSE가 크게 증가 하게 된다. 따라서 이에 대해 적극적인 대응이 필요한 시점으로 본 연구에서는 우리나라 및 OECD 주요국의 농업용수 PSE 산정결과에 대해 사용된 정책과 수준을 비교하여 향후 우리나라 농업용수 PSE 산정에 대한 개선방안을 연구하였다. 각 국별 농업용수 PSE수준을 비교한 결과(2008년도 까지) 한국과 호주가 가장 낮은 수준인 것으로 나타났으며, 미국과 EU가 비슷한 수준으로 분석된 반면, 일본과 멕시코가 가장 높은 군에 속하였다. 또한 전체 PSE 중 농업 용수PSE비중의 변화추이를 보면, 한국과 EU가 가장 낮고, 다음이 일본과 미국이며, 호주와 멕시코의 순서로 높게 파악되었다.

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Comparison of Incidence of PSE Pork by Lairage Time, Use of Electrical Probe, Stunning Voltage and Chilling Condition (돼지의 계류시간, 전살전압 및 도체냉각조건에 따른 PSE 발생율 비교)

  • 박범영;조인철;김일석;김진형;조수현;유영모;이종문;윤상기
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.28-31
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    • 2003
  • The incidence of PSE pork by lairage time, use of electric probe, stunning voltage condition and carcass chilling rate was compared. The incidence of PSE pork was 22.2% when pigs were held in lairage overnight without electric probe, whereas it was 59.3% when held in lairage for < 1.5 hr with electric probe before slaughter. The incidence of PSE pork was 42.37% when pigs were treated with 230 V of stunning condition, and was 66.67% when treated with 500V of stunning condition. The incidence of PSE pork was 52.2% when the ultimate carcass internal temperature was controlled higher than 38$^{\circ}C$ with the slow chilling(-5$^{\circ}C$ for 70 min), and was 39.6% when controlled lower than 30$^{\circ}C$ with the fast chilling(-15$^{\circ}C$ for 70 min). Results indicated that the incidence of PSE pork was decreased by 37.1% with lairage overnight and without use of electric probe, 24.3% with low voltage stunning treatment and 12.6% with fast chilling. However, the incidence of PSE pork was not significantly correlated with carcass weight.

Comparison of Incidence of PSE Pork by Fattening Period, Transport Time and Lairage Time and Lairage Time (돼지의 출하일령, 수송시간 및 계류시간에 따른 PSE 발생율 비교)

  • Park, B.Y.;Lee, C.E.;Kim, I.S.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, Y.G.;Lee, J.M.;Yoon, S.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2003
  • The incidence of PSE(Pale, Soft, Exudative) pork by slaughter weight and handling conditions at preslaughtering stage such as fattening period, transport and lairage time were compared. The incidence of PSE pork were 24.9% when pigs were fed under 180 days and 18.9% when pigs were fed over 180 days for fattening. In the transport time from farm to slaughter house, the incidence of PSE pork were 46.6% for shorter than 30min and 45.65% for 30 min${\sim}$60 min and 35.44% for longer than 60min. The incidence of PSE pork were 55.6% for pigs had no lairage before slaughter, 33.9% for pigs held in lairage overnight. Therefore, the incidence of PSE pork were decreased by 6% with the extension of the fattening period and 9% with the transport time of longer than 1hr and 22.1% with lairage treatment before slaughter. The incidence of PSE pork were different in different location of farms and there were no significantly different in live weight, carcass weight and carcass yield between groups of lairage treatment. In conclusion, handling condition at preslaughtering stage such as extension of fattening period and lairage time were important to control pork quality and lairage treatment was not decreased the carcass yield.

Studies on the Denaturation of PSE Porcine Muscle Proteins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC를 이용한 PSE돈(豚) 육단백질(肉蛋白質)의 변성(變性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Cheon-Jei;Honikel, K.O.;Choe, Byung-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 1989
  • The influence of the storage temperature and time after slaughter on the thermal denaturation of PSE porcine muscle protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and by measuring the solubility of the sarcoplasmic proteins. In the DSC therodiagram a decrease of the endotherm enthalpy of the myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle could be observed with an increase in the storage temperature and time of post mortem. Storage temperature at $20^{\circ}C$ during the first four hours of post mortem resulted in relatively slight denaturation of myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle. Storage temperature above $25^{\circ}C$ caused to increase the denaturation of muscle proteins. The minimal drip loss in PSE muscle could be observed, when the muscle was cooled to $2^{\circ}C$ as quickly as possible post mortem. However, when stored for several hours of post morte at a temperature between $32^{\circ}C-38^{\circ}C$, the drip loss reached the level established for PSE muscle. The paleness of PSE muscle could be prevented to some extent by rapid chill to $20^{\circ}C$ post mortem. The more the muscle proteins in the PSE muscle become denatured during the early storage period of post mortem, the more the drip loss increases. With the increase in the denaturation of myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle with regard to temperature of post mortem, there was a corresponding decrease in the solubility of the sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle.

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Effect of PSE Pork on Physiochemical and Microbiological Properties of European Style Fermented Sausages during Ripening (원료육질이 발효소세지의 이화학적인 성상과 미생물 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chin, Ku-Bok;Ji, Seung-Taek;Seo, Seon-Woo;Shin, Heuyn-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.661-666
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    • 1991
  • European style fermented sausages were made with normal pork, PSE and a 50 : 50 mixture, inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 1-74 and Staphylococcus simulans MIII and ripened for 21 days following commercial manufacturing procedures. In all treatments, pH droped sharply between 0 and 3 days during ripening. PSE sausages showed the lowest pH and Aw at the end of ripening than other treatment groups. Protein solubility, hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness were significantly (P<0.05) low for PSE sausages. Springiness was the highest for normal sausages but the other two treatment were not different. PSE sausages had poor texture low redness value during the ripening. The added sugars apparently dropped the pH fast in PSE sausages. Total bacterial count and lactobacilli increased from 0 day to the third day of ripening. The number of Staphylococcus sp. decreased in normal sausages by the end of the ripening period. Fermented sausages with PSE meat could be produced if the mixture had lower (<50%) amounts of PSE meat. In addition, added sugar must be reduced to prevent lowering the pH to a level that will affect processing and quality attributes of fermented sausages.

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Effects of Prunellae Spica Water Extract on Immune Response in Macrophage Cells (하고초 열수추출물이 대식세포 면역만응에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Ji-Hea;Kim, Yoon-Sang;Lee, Eun-Mee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunellae Spica Water Extract(PSE) on immune response in macrophage cells. Methods: We had devided two group the one is normal group; not treated with PSE, and the other is experimental group; treated with PSE. We measured the cell viability of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells and investigated production of nitric oxide(NO) and cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$ with sample PSE. Results: 1. Cell viability of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly decreased in both 24 hr and 48 hr incubation. 2. NO production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased in both 24 hr and 48 hr incubation. 3. IL-$1{\beta}$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. 4. IL-6 production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. 5. TNF-$\alpha$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased under concentration over $50\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in 24 hr incubation. Conclusion: NO, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ production of PSE on RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased. This study suggest that PSE stimulates the macrophage and enhances the immune response.

Effect of Electrical and CO2 Stunning Methods on Incidence of PSE Pork (전기 및 CO2 실신에 따른 돈육의 PSE 발생률 비교)

  • Park, Beom-Yeong;Kim, J.H.;Lee, S.H.;Cho, S.H.;Hwang, I.H.;Kim, K.T.;Kim, D.H.;Kim, Y.K.;Lee, J.M.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of PSE pork depending on different stunning conditions at slaughterhouse. The carcass weights were significantly lower in the normal pork(74.6 kg) than those in the severe PSE pork(76.9 kg) and light PSE pork(77.0 kg). The groups of PSE pork showing the light or the severe PSE sign had significantly lower backfat thickness and intramuscular fat contents when compared to the normal pork(p < 0.05). The incidences of PSE pork significantly increased with the increase of the electrical stunning voltages such that they were 12.3% with 220V of stunning voltage, 17.41% with 240 V of stunning voltage, 24.91 % with 250 V of stunning voltage and 43.12 % with 430 V of stunning voltage. On the other hand, the incidence of PSE pork was significantly lower in $CO_2$ stunning(33 %) than high-voltage stunning(500 V, 72.96 %) when they were slaughtered with the same slaughtering condition except the stunning method. The $CO_2$ stunning method was very effective to reduce the incidence of PSE pork. Therefore, the result from this study suggested that the stunning methods had a significant effect on the incidence of PSE pork. Also, the low-voltage stunning and $CO_2$ stunning methods were highly recommended to control and maintain the pork quality.

Characterization of Restructured Meat Products Manufactured with PSE Pork Hams as Compared to Those with Normal Pork Counterparts (정상육과 PSE 돈육으로 제조된 재구성 육제품의 품질 특성)

  • Mueller, Wolf-Detrich;Koo B. Chin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2003
  • The objectives of this study were to develop restructured meat products(RMPs) using a transgluta-minase(TGase) and to improve the textural characteristics of RMPs manufactured with pale, soft, exudative(PSE) pork hams. The pH values of RMPs with PSE and normal pork were 5.94 and 6.07, respectively, and their water activity value was approximately 0.981. The RMPs had 70∼72% moisture, 4∼5% fat, 19∼20% protein, and approximately 3% ash contents. No differences in pH, water activity, chemical composition, and hunter color values were observed between RMPs manufactured with normal and PSE pork(p>0.05). However, RMPs containing PSE pork hams had higher drip loss(%)(p>0.05) than those with normal pork hams after 10 days of refrigerated storage. Although no differences were observed in the texture profile analysis(TPA) hardness and sensory evaluation, RMPs with PSE pork hams tended to have more pores and lower binding capacity those with normal pork. This result indicated that additional substrates or longer tumbling time(>4 hr) for the manufacture of RMPs containing PSE pork were required for the products to have similar palatability to those with normal pork.

돼지 실신방법에 따른 PSE 발생율 비교

  • Park, Beom-Yeong;Kim, Jin-Hyeong;Lee, Seon-Ho;Jo, Su-Hyeon;Hwang, In-Ho;Kim, Dong-Hun;Kim, Yong-Gon;Lee, Jong-Mun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.297-300
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    • 2004
  • 본 연구는 국내 돼지 도축 작업장에서 이용되고 있는 돼지의 실신방법에 따른 PSE 발생율을 구명하여 돼지고기 품질개선에 기초자료로 활용하고자 수행하였다. 공시축의 도체 특성과 품질특성을 비교한 결과로서 도체중은 정상육이 74.6kg으로 중증 및 경증 PSE육의 각각 76.9 및 77.0kg에 비하여 유의적으로 낮은 결과를 보였다. 등지방층 두께에 있어서도 정상육이 16.2mm로 PSE육 17.1, 17.3에 비하여 얇았다(p<0.05). 근내지방도는 정상육이 2.1로서 경증 PSE 1.6, 중증 PSE 1.4에 비하여 유의적으로 높았다. 전살 전압별 PSE발생율을 조사한 결과 전살전압이 220V인 경우 PSE 발생율이 12.3%, 240V 17.41%, 250V 24.91%, 430V 43.12%을 보여 전살전압이 높아질수록 PSE돈육의 발생율이 증가하는 경향을 보였음으로 실신조건에 따른 PSE 발생율을 구명하기 위하여, 동일한 작업조건에서 실신방법만 달리하여 비교한 결과 고전압 전살(500V)의 경우 PSE돈육 발생율이 72.86%이였으나, $CO_2$ 실신의 경우는 39.28%로 $CO_2$실신에 의하여 33%의 PSE 감소 효과를 가져 왔다.

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Skeletal Ryanodine Receptor 1-Heterozygous PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative) Meat Contains a Higher Concentration of Myoglobin than Genetically Normal PSE Meat in Pigs

  • Obi, T.;Matsumoto, M.;Miyazaki, K.;Kitsutaka, K.;Tamaki, M.;Takase, K.;Miyamoto, A.;Oka, T.;Kawamoto, Y.;Nakada, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1244-1249
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    • 2010
  • Comparisons of properties between skeletal ryanodine receptor 1 (sRyR1)-heterozygous-mutated and normal types of meat were carried out in pigs using PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat found during the butchering process. All samples considered to be PSE meat showed irregular running and disorder of the muscle fibers and a wider inter-fiber space upon light microscopic observation. Electron microscopy revealed disintegration, twisting, and disorder of the myofibril arrangement and elimination of the Z line in PSE meat, compared with normal meat. Meat property tests demonstrated greater decreases in water holding capacity, moisture and sarcoplasmic protein, and higher $L^*$ values for the meat color index in PSE meat than in normal meat, but there were no differences in these factors between genetically normal and sRyR1-heterozygous PSE meat. On the other hand, higher $a^*$ and $b^*$ values were observed in sRyR1-heterozygous than in normal PSE meat, and similar alterations to the a* value were observed in terms of the amount of myoglobin and density of the 17-kDa protein band, corresponding to the molecular mass of myoglobin, on SDS-PAGE gels. These results suggest that sRyR1-heterozygous PSE pork contains much more myoglobin than genetically normal PSE meat.