• Title, Summary, Keyword: PR

Search Result 2,967, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Korean Public Relations Trend and Social Acceptance in 1960s (1960년대 한국의 PR 상황 및 사회적 수용에 대한 연구)

  • Chae, Myung-Jin;Seon, Hye-Jin
    • Korean journal of communication and information
    • /
    • v.35
    • /
    • pp.292-328
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study examined Korean Public Relations trend and social acceptance in 1960s. It centers on the acceptance conditions of PR concept, corporate PR and governmental PR. It analyzed PR recognition and practical activities of the general corporations, financial institutions and public corporations in dealing with corporate PR. It also analyzed Korean governmental PR through examining the structure of governmental PR system, PR activities in rural communities and the police. In those days, PR concept had been misused to no small degree and not been accepted correctly that the necessity to let people know PR in its proper meaning was raised. Laying emphasis upon the technical side, corporate PR activities had centered on publicity. Especially, at that time, the banks, the insurance companies and the public corporations had perceived the importance of PR and implemented a set of PR activities. It can be said that a special feature in government PR in 1960s lies in the expansion of the public information system and reinforcement of PR policies. Also, PR in rural communities had been doing to give information relating to agriculture technique and to improve the living conditions of the farm area. The importance of PR in police had been on the side of promoting relations with people and improving treatment of the people by policeman.

  • PDF

Studies on the Bacteriophages of Brevibacterium lactofermentum (L-글루타민산 생산균 Brevibacterium lactofermentum의 Bacteriophag에 관한 연구)

  • 이태우
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.97-130
    • /
    • 1979
  • Many industrial processes those employ bacteria are subjected to phage infestations. In L-glutamic acid fermentions using acetic acid, the phage infestations of the organisms have been recently recognized. In efforts to elucidate the sources of phage contamination involved in the abnormal fermentation, a series of study was conducted to isolate the phages both from the contents of abnormally fermented tanks and the soil or sewage samples from the surroundings of a fermentation factory, to define major charateristics of the phage isolates, and finally to determine the correlation between the phage isolates and temperate phages originating from the miscellaneous bacterial species isolated from the soil or sewage samples. The results are summarized as follows; 1) All phages were isolated from the irregular fermentation tanks and soil or sewage samples, and they were designated as phage PR-1, PR-2, PR-3, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, and PR-7, in the order of isolation. These PR-series phages were proved to be highly specific for the variant strains of Br. lactofermentum only, namely, phage PR-1 and PR-2 for Br. lactofermentum No. 468-5 and phage PR-3~PR-7 for Br. lactofemrentum No. 2256. By cross-neutralization test, the 7 phagescould be subdivided into 3 groups, i. e., phage PR-I and PR-2 the first, phage PR-3, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6 the second, and the phage PR-7 the third. 2) The 7 phages were virulent under the experimental conditions. They produced plaques with clear and relatively sharp margins without distinct halo. The mean sizes of plaques were 1.5mm in diameter for phage PR-1 and PR-2, and 1. Omm for phages PR-3~PR-7. Double layer technique modified by Hongo and described by Adams, was applied to assay of the PR-series phages. The factors influencing the plaques were as follows;young age cells of host bacteria cultured for 3-6 hours represented the largest number and size, optimum was pH 7.0, incubation temperature was $30^{\circ}C$, and agar concentration and amount of overlayer medium were 0.6% and 0.2ml, respectively. 3) PR-series phages were stable in 0.05M tris buffer and 0.1M ammonium acetate buffer solution. The addition of $5{\times}10^{-3}M$ magnesium ion effectively increased the stability. Thermostability experiments indicated that PR-series phages were stable at the teinperture between $50^{\circ}{\sim}55^{\circ}C$ in nutrient medium, $45^{\circ}{\sim}50^{\circ}C$ in buffer solution. However, the phages mere completely inactivated at 603C and 65$^{\circ}$C within 10 minutes. The phages were stable at the range of pH6~9 in nutrient medium and of pH 8-9 in buffer solution, respectively. Exposure of the phages to UV for 25, 60 and 100 seconds resulted in the complete loss of infectivily, respectively. 4) Electron microscopy showed that PR-series phage particles exhibited rather similar morphology, differing in the size All of PR-series phages had a multilateral head and had a simple long tiil about three to five times long as compared with head. By the size, phage PR-1 and PR-2, PR-3, PR-4, PR-5, and PR-6 and PR-7 were classified into same groups, respectively. The head and tail size of phage PR-1, PR-5, PR-5(T) and PR-7 were 85nm, 74nm and 235nm and 350mm, and 72nm and 210nm, respectively. 5) Nucleic acids of PR-series phages were double stranded DNA. The G+C contents of phage PR-1, PR-5 and PR-7 were 56.1, 52.9 and 53.7, respectively. The values of G+C contents derived from the $T_m$ were in agreement with the chemically determined values. 6) PR-series phages effectively adsorbed on their host bacteria at the rate of more than 90% during 5 min. K value for phage PR-1, PR-5 and PR-7 were calculated to be $6{\times}10^9 ml$ per minute, respectiveky. The pH of the medium did effect adsorption rate, but both temperature and age of host cells did not. Generally, optimum adsorption condition of phages seemed to be almost same as optimum growth conditions of host bacteria. 7) In one-step growth experiments, the latent periods at $30^{\circ}C$ for PR-1, and PR-7 were about 70, 50 and 55 min, respectively. The corresponding average burst size was 200, 70 and 90, respectively. Lpsis period according to the multiplicity of infection and a phage series. In case of m. o. i. 100, strain No. 2256 (PR-5) and No. 468-5(PR-1) failed to grow and turbidity decreased after 50 and 70min, respectively. 8) In the lysate of a plaque purified phage PR-5 infected bacteria, there observed 2 types ofphage particles, i. e., phage PR-5 and PR-5 (T) of similar morphology but differing at the length of phage tail, and phage tail like particles. The phage taillike particles could be divided into 4 types by the length. Induction experiments of Br. lactofermentum with UV irradiation, mitomycin C or bacitracin treatment produced neither phage PR-5 (T) or phage tail-like particles. 9) No lysis occured when the growth of 7 strains of miscellaneous bacteria, isolated from soil and sewage samples, were inoculated with either phage PR-5 (T) or phage tail-like particles the inoculation of phage PR-5 pellet resulted in the growth inhibition of the orgainsms in the spot test. The lysates obtained from 3 miscellaneous soil derived bacteria following mitomycin C treatment the growth of Br. lactofermentum, but did not lyze the bacterium.

  • PDF

Do Clinical Features and Survival of Single Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancers Differ from Double Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancers?

  • Ng, Char-Hong;Pathy, Nirmala Bhoo;Taib, Nur Aishah;Ho, Gwo-Fuang;Mun, Kein-Seong;Rhodes, Anthony;Looi, Lai-Meng;Yip, Cheng-Har
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.18
    • /
    • pp.7959-7964
    • /
    • 2014
  • The significance of the single hormone receptor positive phenotype of breast cancer is still poorly understood. The use of hormone therapy has been found to be less effective for this type, which has a survival outcome midway between double positive and double negative phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in patient and tumor characteristics and survival between double-receptor positive (ER+PR+), double receptor negative (ER-PR-) and single receptor positive (ER+PR- and ER-PR+) breast cancer in an Asian setting. A total of 1,992 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to IV breast cancer between 2003 and 2008, and where information on ER and PR were available, were included in this study. The majority of patients had ER+PR+ tumors (n=903: 45.3%), followed by 741 (37.2%) ER-PR-, 247 (12.4%) ER+PR-, and 101 (5.1%) ER-PR+ tumors. Using multivariate analysis, ER+PR- tumors were 2.4 times more likely to be grade 3 compared to ER+PR+ tumors. ER+PR- and ER-PR+ tumors were 82% and 86% respectively less likely to be grade 3 compared with ER-PR- tumors. ER-PR+ tumours were associated with younger age. There were no survival differences between patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. However, ER+PR- tumors have poorer survival compared with ER+PR+ tumours. ER-PR- tumours had the worst survival. Adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen was found to have identical survival advantage in patients with ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors whereas impact was slightly lower in patients with ER+PR- tumors. In conclusion, we found ER+PR- tumors to be more aggressive and have poorer survival when compared to ER+PR+ tumors, while patients with ER-PR+ tumours were younger, but had a similar survival to their counterparts with ER+PR+ tumours.

Antioxidant and Anti-physical fatigue Effects of Polygonati Rhizoma and steamed Polygonati Rhizoma (황정(黃精)과 증숙 황정(蒸熟 黃精)의 항산화, 항피로 효능 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Lee, AhReum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kwon, OJun;Seo, Young-Bae
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.49-57
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives: Polygonati Rhizoma (PR) has containing the bioactive compounds such as poly sccharide A,B,C, oligosaccharide, amino acid, it has reported to anti-diabetes and hypertension, atherosclerosis. In this study, we were evaluates antioxidant and anti-physical fatigue effects of PR and steamed PR.Methods : The sample was divided into 5 groups-PR0 (PR without steaming process), PR1 (PR with once steaming process), PR3 (PR with third steaming process), PR6 (PR with sixth steaming process), PR9 (PR with ninth steaming process). We measured anti-oxidant activity through contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity. And, anti-physical fatigue effect was evaluated using the swimming test, and the AMPK protein expressions in soleus muscle.Results : As a result, polyphenol, flavonoid, DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity of PR were increased as steaming times. Anti-physical fatigue effects by swimming test, PR0 have significantly increased, but steamed PR groups were decreased. The AMPK protein expressions of PR0 and PR1 groups were increased comparing with PR3, PR6 and PR9. All groups had effects on decreasing TG, creatine in blood serum, but had no effects on TC in blood serum.Conclusions : In conclusion, PR with 9 steaming process was more excellent than not-processed PR in anti-oxidant effect such as DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity and contents of polyphenol, flavonoid, but, not-processed PR increased swimming times than processed PR. These results suggest that processed PR has anti-oxidant effect as steaming times, and not-processed PR may be a novel potential anti-physical fatigue agents than processed PR.

Improvement of PR Stripper Efficient and Change of Surface Hardness for HDI-PR Used by PLVA Method (PLVA 방법을 활용한 PR Stripper의 성능 향상과 HDI-PR 표면의 내력 변화 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-In;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
    • /
    • v.17 no.6
    • /
    • pp.544-548
    • /
    • 2008
  • At the semiconductor industry, Photoresist(PR) strip progress has high cost and time consuming process. Accordingly, many research group have been focused on the shortening of the PR strip progress. But the replacements of newly developed materials rather than normally used strip have accompanied by cost consumption. Therefore, we suggested the Plasma Liquid-Vapor Activation (PLVA) method of general PR strip solution for saving the PR strip time and the high strip rate of PR residue. The PLVA method was very effective for PR strip progress. Also, the ion damaged PR(high dose implanted photoresist: HDI-PR) was almost impossible to strip. However, it was very difficult to characterize the change of chemical composition of HDI-PR between with and without PLVA method. Thus, physical properties of HDI-PR surface with and without PLVA method were measured by using the nano-indenter system.

An Analysis of International PR Campaign Cases for Revitalization of Reading Culture (읽기문화 활성화를 위한 해외 PR 캠페인 사례 분석)

  • Choi, Jinbong
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.16 no.8
    • /
    • pp.147-159
    • /
    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to provide PR campaign strategies for revitalization of reading culture that are pertinent to Korean situation through analyzing successful international PR campaign cases of advanced countries in reading. For analyzing successful international PR campaign cases for revitalizing reading culture, this study selected four international PR campaign cases from Europe, North America, South America, and Oceania. In addition, this study analyzed the goals and objectives, strategies and tactics, and strengths and weaknesses of the selected PR campaigns in order to draw a way for establishing effective PR campaign strategies for expanding social support about reading culture and diffusing reading culture. According to the findings of this study, the selected PR campaigns are maximizing PR effect by getting attentions of news media and public through using unique and ingenious ideas, and utilizing convenience for public to participate PR campaign easily as a main PR strategy. Furthermore, the selected PR campaigns are improving public's participation in the PR campaign by targeting readers who usually like reading as a main target audience, and maximizing public's participation in the PR campaign by using interesting elements that are attracting attentions from the public.

A Study on PR Vocational Ethics of PR Practitioners (PR실무자의 PR직업윤리에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, seok-hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1216-1221
    • /
    • 2009
  • Media relations is one of the most important areas of PR in Korea. And PR business ethics is the cause of misunderstandings and complications in PR media relationship. Therefore, PR practitioners' perception about PR business ethics is important part. Along with the rapidly developing PR industry, the ethical aspects of PR are gradually being taken seriously in executing PR projects and activities. PR practitioners have the social responsibility to preserve media clean in media relations because they primarily keep various information of organizations. In order to guarantee peoples right to know and the free flow and the free flow of information, the PR ethics must be closely examined.

  • PDF

Thermal behavior of $PrCl_3$ in an oxidizing condition (산화조건에서 $PrCl_3$의 열적거동)

  • Eun, Hee-Chul;Yang, Hee-Chul;Cho, Yong-Zun;Lee, Han-Soo;Kim, In-Tae
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
    • /
    • v.7 no.4
    • /
    • pp.207-212
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this study, a thermal behavior of $PrCl_3$ as one of the lanthanide chlorides in LiCl-KCl molten salts was investigated in an oxidizing condition. First, a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of $PrCl_3$ was carried out by an injection of $O_2$ gas. Based on the results, an oxidation of $PrCl_3$ in the molten salts was performed by sparging $O_2$ gas with changing temperatures. According to the TGA data of $PrCl_3$, a dissociation of $PrCl_3$ occurred rapidly by about $380^{\circ}C$ and a conversion of $PrCl_3$ to $PrCl_3$ was completed at about $600^{\circ}C$. The thermal behavior of $PrCl_3$ in LiCl-KCl molten salts by sparging $O_2$ gas was similar to that of $PrCl_3$ in the TGA test, and PrOCl as a insoluble compound in the molten salts was precipitated into the bottom of the molten salts. A conversion of $PrCl_3$ to PrOCl in the molten salts occurred actively at a higher temperature than $650^{\circ}C$. And it would be possible to estimate a conversion status of $PrCl_3$ to PrOCl by measuring a $Cl_2$ concentration in a flue gas generated from an oxidation test of $PrCl_3$ in LiCl-KCl molten salts.

  • PDF

Biochemical Analysis of Interaction between Kringle Domains of Plasminogen and Prion Proteins with Q167R Mutation

  • Lee, Jeongmin;Lee, Byoung Woo;Kang, Hae-Eun;Choe, Kevine K.;Kwon, Moosik;Ryou, Chongsuk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1023-1031
    • /
    • 2017
  • The conformational change of cellular prion protein ($PrP^C$) to its misfolded counterpart, termed $PrP^{Sc}$, is mediated by a hypothesized cellular cofactor. This cofactor is believed to interact directly with certain amino acid residues of $PrP^C$. When these are mutated into cationic amino acid residues, $PrP^{Sc}$ formation and prion replication halt in a dominant negative (DN) manner, presumably due to strong binding of the cofactor to mutated $PrP^C$, designated as DN PrP mutants. Previous studies demonstrated that plasminogen and its kringle domains bind to PrP and accelerate $PrP^{Sc}$ generation. In this study, in vitro binding analysis of kringle domains of plasminogen to Q167R DN mutant PrP (PrPQ167R) was performed in parallel with the wild type (WT) and Q218K DN mutant PrP (PrPQ218K). The binding affinity of PrPQ167R was higher than that of WT PrP, but lower than that of PrPQ218K. Scatchard analysis further indicated that, like PrPQ218K and WT PrP, PrPQ167R interaction with plasminogen occurred at multiple sites, suggesting cooperativity in this interaction. Competitive binding analysis using $\small{L}$-lysine or $\small{L}$-arginine confirmed the increase of the specificity and binding affinity of the interaction as PrP acquired DN mutations. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that the recombinant PrPs used in this study retained the ${\alpha}$-helix-rich structure. The ${\alpha}$-helix unfolding study revealed similar conformational stability for WT and DN-mutated PrPs. This study provides an additional piece of biochemical evidence concerning the interaction of plasminogen with DN mutant PrPs.

A Study of the Synthesis and the Properties on Microwave Dielectric Material of BaO-Pr$_2$O$_3$-TiO$_2$ and BaO-(Nd,Pr)$_2$O$_3$-TiO$_2$ System (BaO-Pr$_2$O$_3$-TiO$_2$계 및 BaO-(Nd,Pr)$_2$O$_3$-TiO$_2$계 마이크로파 유전체의 합성 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이용석;이재원;성학제;김준수;이병하
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
    • /
    • v.35 no.8
    • /
    • pp.775-782
    • /
    • 1998
  • This experiment is third study concerning BaO-{{{{ { { Pr}_{ 2} O}_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} (Ln=Sm, Nd, Pr, La..) system which is known to show a high dielectric constant and Q value in microwave dielectric materials. The process of cry-stallization and the microwave dielectric properties of the specimens sintered at 1220-140$0^{\circ}C$ for 2 hr was investigated in the BaO-(Na,{{{{ { { Pr})_{2 }O }_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} as well as BaO-{{{{ { { Pr}_{ 2} O}_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} system. The single phase BaPr2Ti5O14 and Ba(Nd,{{{{ { { Pr})_{2 }O }_{3 } }}Ti5O14 was finally formed from the Pr2Ti2O7 (Nd, Pr)2Ti2O7 as a secondary phase in the BaO-{{{{ { { Pr}_{ 2} O}_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} and BaO-(Nd, {{{{ { { Pr})_{2 }O }_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} system respectively The dielectric constant of the specimens sint-ered at 1280~131$0^{\circ}C$ showed the maximum value as 105(BaO-{{{{ { { Pr}_{ 2} O}_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} system) and 88 (BaO-(Nd,{{{{ { { Pr})_{2 }O }_{3 } }}-{{{{ { TiO}_{2 } }} system) and the Q values of them showed higher value than 1800 which are due to the maximum den-sity. However the dielectric properties of the specimens sintered at higher temperature than 131$0^{\circ}C$ were reduced due to the increases of pore which were resulted from the sudden grain growth.

  • PDF