• Title, Summary, Keyword: PPAR-${\gamma}$

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Repression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ Activity on Adipogenesis by $17{\beta}$-estradiol in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cell

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2009
  • In our previous report, we showed that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not influence adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries, indicating that $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity on adipogenesis is associated with sex-related factors. Among the sex-related factors, estrogen has been recognized as a major factor in inhibiting adiposgenesis in females. Thus, we hypothensized that $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E) inhibits 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis by preventing $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity. E decreased triglyceirde accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with control group. E also decreased the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ mRNA as well as $PPAR{\gamma}$ dependent adipocyte-specific genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and tumor necrosis factor $\alpha$. In addition, E not only decreased luciferase reporter activity by $PPAR{\gamma}$, but also transfection of estrogen receptor $\alpha$ ($ER{\alpha}$) or $ER{\beta}$ led to decreases in $PPAR{\gamma}$ reporter gene activation. Moreover, E-activated ERs significantly decreased the luciferase reporter gene activation induced by $PPAR{\gamma}$ transfection, suggesting that estrogen-activated ERs inhibit $PPAR{\gamma}$-dependent transactivation. Accordingly, our results demonstrate that E inhibits the action of $PPAR{\gamma}$ on adipogenesis through E activated ER, providing evidence that lack of estrogen may potentiate $PPAR{\gamma}$ action on adipogenesis.

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Ginsenoside Rf inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 induction via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in A549 cells

  • Song, Heewon;Park, Joonwoo;Choi, KeunOh;Lee, Jeonggeun;Chen, Jie;Park, Hyun-Ju;Yu, Byeung-Il;Iida, Mitsuru;Rhyu, Mee-Ra;Lee, YoungJoo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2019
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rf is a ginseng saponin found only in Panax ginseng that affects lipid metabolism. It also has neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties. We previously showed that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by hypoxia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possibility of ginsenoside Rf as an active ingredient of KRG in the inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 via $PPAR{\gamma}$. Methods: The effects of ginsenoside Rf on the upregulation of COX-2 by hypoxia and its antimigration effects were evaluated in A549 cells. Docking of ginsenoside Rf was performed with the $PPAR{\gamma}$ structure using Surflex-Dock in Sybyl-X 2.1.1. Results: $PPAR{\gamma}$ protein levels and peroxisome proliferator response element promoter activities were promoted by ginsenoside Rf. Inhibition of COX-2 expression by ginsenoside Rf was blocked by the $PPAR{\gamma}-specific$ inhibitor, T0070907. The $PPAR{\gamma}$ inhibitor also blocked the ability of ginsenoside Rf to suppress cell migration under hypoxia. The docking simulation results indicate that ginsenoside Rf binds to the active site of $PPAR{\gamma}$. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that ginsenoside Rf inhibits hypoxia induced-COX-2 expression and cellular migration, which are dependent on $PPAR{\gamma}$ activation. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rf has an antiinflammatory effect under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, docking analysis of ginsenoside Rf into the active site of $PPAR{\gamma}$ suggests that the compound binds to $PPAR{\gamma}$ in a position similar to that of known agonists.

Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) Regulates Adipogenesis of 3T3L-1 Cells (단백질 아르기닌 메틸전이효소 5(PRMT5)에 의한 3T3L-1 세포의 지방세포 분화 조절)

  • Jang, Min Jung;Yang, Ji Hye;Kim, Eun-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.765-771
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    • 2018
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) is a key transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis, and epigenetic control of $PPAR{\gamma}$ is of great interest in obesity-inhibition research. Our previous study showed that CACUL1 (CDK2-associated cullin domain 1) acts as a corepressor that inhibits $PPAR{\gamma}$ transcriptional activity and adipocyte differentiation. Here, we investigated the roles of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a novel binding partner of CACUL1, in regulating $PPAR{\gamma}$. The interaction between PRMT5 and CACUL1 was shown by immunoprecipitation assay in vivo and GST pulldown assay in vitro. As shown by luciferase reporter assay, PRMT5 and CACUL1 cooperated to inhibit the transcriptional activity of $PPAR{\gamma}$. The suppressive role of PRMT5 in adipogenesis was examined by Oil Red O staining using 3T3-L1 cells, which stably overexpress or deplete PRMT5. Overexpression of PRMT5 suppresses $PPAR{\gamma}$-mediated adipogenesis, whereas PRMT5 knockdown increases lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Consistently, PRMT5 attenuates the expression of Lpl and aP2, the target genes of $PPAR{\gamma}$, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR analysis. Overall, these results suggest that PRMT5 interacts with CACUL1 to impair the transcriptional activity of $PPAR{\gamma}$, leading to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the regulation of PRMT5 enzymatic activity may provide a clue to develop an anti-obesity drug.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF PPARγ ON HUMAN DENTAL PULP CELLS (치수세포에서 PPARγ의 항 염증작용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hee
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.203-214
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    • 2006
  • Dental pulp is a loose, mesenchymal tissue almost entirely enclosed in the dentin. It consists of cells, ground substance, and neural and vascular supplies. Damage to the dental pulp by mechanical, chemical, thermal, and microbial irritants can provoke various types of inflammatory response. Pulpal inflammation leads to the tissue degradation, which is mediated in part by Matrix metalloproteinase leads to accelerate extracellular matrix degradation with pathological pathway We have now investigated the induction of MMPs and inflammatory cytokines by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) control of inflammatory mediators by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Human dental pulp cells exposed to various concentrations of LPS ($1-10{\mu}g/ml$) revealed elevated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 24 hrs of culture. LPS also stimulated the production of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, $IL-1{\beta},\;and\;TNF-{\alpha}$. Adenovirus $PPAR{\gamma}\;(Ad/PPAR{\gamma})\;and\;PPAR{\gamma}$ agonist rosiglitazone reduced the synthesis of MMPs, adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of $Ad/PPAR{\gamma}$ was higher than that of $PPAR{\gamma}$ agonist. These result offer new insights in regard to the anti-inflammatory potential of $PPAR{\gamma}$ in human dental pulp cell.

Inhibition of hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 by Korean Red Ginseng is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  • Song, Heewon;Lee, Young Joo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2017
  • Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herbal medicine made by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. It strengthens the endocrine and immune systems to ameliorate various inflammatory responses. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway has important implications for inflammation responses and tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) is a transcription factor that regulates not only adipogenesis and lipid homeostasis, but also angiogenesis and inflammatory responses. Methods: The effects of the KRG on inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 via $PPAR{\gamma}$ in A549 cells were determined by luciferase assay, Western blot, and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The antimigration and invasive effects of KRG were evaluated on A549 cells using migration and matrigel invasion assays. Results and conclusion: We previously reported that hypoxia-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels were suppressed by KRG. This study examines the possibility of $PPAR{\gamma}$ as a cellular target of KRG for the suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2. $PPAR{\gamma}$ protein levels and $PPAR{\gamma}$-responsive element (PPRE)-driven reporter activities were increased by KRG. Reduction of hypoxia-induced COX-2 by KRG was abolished by the $PPAR{\gamma}$ inhibitor GW9662. In addition, the inhibition of $PPAR{\gamma}$ abolished the effect of KRG on hypoxia-induced cell migration and invasion. Discussion: Our results show that KRG inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression and cell invasion is dependent on $PPAR{\gamma}$ activation, supporting the therapeutic potential for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. Further studies are required to demonstrate whether KRG activates directly $PPAR{\gamma}$ and to identify the constituents responsible for this activity.

Two Synthetic Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor $\gamma$

  • Kim, Min-A;Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Song, Yang-Heon;Kim, Dae-Il;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2004
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$ (PPAR${\gamma}$) is the molecular target for a class of drugs, the antidiabetic thiazolidnediones (TZDs). The heterodimer of PPAR${\gamma}$ with retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and insulin sensitization. We synthesized two chemicals, DANA87 and DANA88, sharing structural characteristics with TZDs. Given this structural similarity, it was hypothesized that DANA87 and DANA88 may act as PPAR$\gamma$ ligands. In transient transfection assays, DANA87 and DANA88 caused slight increases in the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing the PPAR responsive element in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, DANA87 and DANA88 significantly inhibited troglitazone-induced reporter gene activation when cells were treated with a combination of DANA87 or DANA 88 and troglitazone, one of the TZDs that activate PPAR$\gamma$. These results suggest that DANA87 and DANA88 are not only weak agonists of PPAR${\gamma}$ transactivation, but also competitively antagonize troglitazone-induced PPAR$\gamma$ reporter activity.

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Ubiquitination of p53 is Involved in Troglitazone Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Chen, Hui-Min;Zhang, Ding-Guo;Wu, Jin-Xiz;Pei, Dong-Sheng;Zheng, Jun-Nian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2313-2318
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    • 2014
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-${\gamma}$), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor, has been found to widely exist in tumor tissues and plays an important role in affecting tumor cell growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR-${\gamma}$ on aspects of the cervical cancer malignant phenotype, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cell growth assay, Western blotting, Annexin V and flow cytometry analysis consistently showed that treatment with troglitazone (TGZ, a PPAR-${\gamma}$ agonist) led to dose-dependent inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth through apoptosis, whereas T0070907 (another PPAR-${\gamma}$ antagonist) had no effect on Hela cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also detected the protein expression of p53, p21 and Mdm2 to explain the underlying mechanism of PPAR-${\gamma}$ on cellular apoptosis. Our work, finally, demonstrated the existence of the TGZ-PPAR-${\gamma}$-p53 signaling pathway to be a critical regulator of cell apoptosis. These results suggested that PPAR-${\gamma}$ may be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

Anti-cancer Effects of Luteolin and Its Novel Mechanism in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell (루테올린의 간암세포 성장 억제효능 및 새로운 작용기전)

  • Hwang, Jin-Taek;Yang, Hye-Jung
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we investigated the ability of luteolin, a plant derived flavonoid on hepatocarcinoma cell growth using HepG2 cell culture system. We found that luteolin increased the Smac/DIABLO releases, a mitochondrial protein that potentiates apoptosis. Luteolin also induced either transcriptional activity or expression of PPAR-gamma, a target of cancer growth that PPAR-gamma agonist sensitizes to apoptosis in certain cancer types. To find the possible upstream target molecules of PPAR-gamma activated by luteolin treatment, we used compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment of Compound C significantly restored the activation or expression of PPAR-gamma stimulated by luteolin. This result indicated that AMPK signaling might be involved in the activation or expression of PPAR-gamma signaling pathway stimulated by luteolin. Moreover, we also found that luteolin inhibited the insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation as well as AICAR, a specific AMPK activator. These results propose that luteolin significantly induces cancer cell death through modulating survival signal pathways such as PPAR-gamma and Akt. AMPK signaling pathway may be an upstream regulator for survival signal pathways such as PPAR-gamma and Akt stimulated by luteolin.

Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ${\gamma}$ Is Not Associated with Adipogenesis in Female Mice

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2008
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ $(PPAR{\gamma})$ plays a central role in adipogenesis and lipid storage. The $(PPAR{\gamma})$ ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), enhance in vitro adipogenesis in several cell types, but the role of the TZDs on in vivo adipogenesis is still poorly understood. To investigate how $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates adipogenesis in female mice, we examined the effects of the troglitazone on adipose tissue mass, morphological changes of adipocytes, and the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ target and adipocyte-specific genes in low fat diet-fed female C57BL/6 mice. Administration of troglitazone for 13 weeks did not change body and total white adipose tissue weights compared with control mice. Troglitazone treatment also did not cause a significant decrease in the average size of adipocytes in parametrial adipose tissue although it is reported to increase the number of small adipocytes in male animals. Troglitazone did not affect the mRNA expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and its target genes as well as adipocyte-specific genes in parametrial adipose tissue. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not seem to be associated with adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries and that its inability to induce adipogenesis may be due to sex-related factors.

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$PPAR_{\gamma}$ Ligand-binding Activity of Fragrin A Isolated from Mace (the Aril of Myristica fragrans Houtt.)

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Kim, Ba-Reum;Oh, Hyun-In;Shen, Lingai;Kim, Naeung-Bae;Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1146-1150
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    • 2008
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ($PPAR_{\gamma}$), a member of the nuclear receptor of ligand-activated transcription factors, plays a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism or adipocytes differentiation. A lignan compound was isolated from mace (the aril of Myristica fragrans Houtt.) as a $PPAR_{\gamma}$ ligand, which was identified as fragrin A or 2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane. To ascertain whether fragrin A has $PPAR_{\gamma}$ ligand-binding activity, it was performed that GAL-4/$PPAR_{\gamma}$ transactivation assay. $PPAR_{\gamma}$ ligand-binding activity of fragrin A increased 4.7, 6.6, and 7.3-fold at 3, 5, and $10{\mu}M$, respectively, when compared with a vehicle control. Fragrin A also enhanced adipocytes differentiation and increased the expression of $PPAR_{\gamma}$ target genes such as adipocytes fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Furthermore, it significantly increased the expression level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). These results indicate that fragrin A can be developed as a $PPAR_{\gamma}$ agonist for the improvement of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes.