• Title, Summary, Keyword: PMMA phantom

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A Study on Calibration Procedures for Ir-192 High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Sources (고선량률(HDR) 근접치료의 동위원소 Ir-192에 대한 측정방법에 관한 고찰)

  • Baek, Tae-Seong;Lee, Seung-Wook;Na, Soo-Kyong
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: To compare of the accuracy among various measurement procedures of HDR Brachytherapy, and to evaluate the clinical suitability and usefulness of alternative PMMA (polymethylmethacrylateplastics: $C_5H_8O_2$) plate phantom without any additional cost due to the purchase of measuring apparatus. Materials and Methods: We made a comparative study on three types of measuring systems: well type chamber, source calibration jig, and PMMA plate phantom. Farmer type chamber was used for source calibration jig method and PMMA plate phantom method. Measurement was done 5 times each in comparison with the measurement values from manufacturer. Measurement results from experiment were compared with that from the manufacturer which is offered with the source whenever a source is substituted by a new one and evaluate the accuracy of source activity. Results: As a consequence of Ir-192 source measurement using well type chamber, source calibration jig and PMMA plate phantom, RMS (Root Mean Square) values for the relative error are 0.6%, 1.57%, 2.1%, respectively, compared with the data from manufacturer. And the mean errors with standard deviation are given $-0.2{\pm}0.5%$, $0.97{\pm}1.23%$, $-0.89{\pm}1.87%$ respectively. Conclusion: From the results shown by the three types of measurement system (well type chamber, source calibration jig, and PMMA plate phantom), the measurement with well type chamber produced the best accuracy. It turns out that we can also use the alternative system of PMMA plate phantom clinically without purchasing any additional particular apparatus since the system does not exceed the recommendation of AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine), which requires the error range of within ${\pm}5%$.

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Conversion Factors for Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters (개인선량계 교정을 위한 환산인자 계산)

  • Lee, Won-Koo;Lee, Tae-Young;Ha, Chung-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1991
  • MCNP code was used to calculate conversion factor H(d)ma at the depths of 0.07 and 10mm within a water phantom recommended by IAEA and within a PMMA phantom required by the US dosimeter proficiency testing programmes. The calculations were performed for an expanded parrallel beam of monoenergetic photons of perpendicular incidence on one faces of the phantom. The results can be used as conversion factor in calibrating individual dosemeters in terms of the dose equivalent quantities defined directly in the phantom.

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Estimation of Computed Tomography Dose in Various Phantom Shapes and Compositions (다양한 팬텀 모양 및 재질에 따른 전산화단층촬영장치 선량 평가)

  • Lee, Chang-Lae
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate CTDI (computed tomography dose index at center) for various phantom shapes, sizes, and compositions by using GATE (geant4 application for tomographic emission) simulations. GATE simulations were performed for various phantom shapes (cylinder, elliptical, and hexagonal prism PMMA phantoms) and phantom compositions (water, PMMA, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene) with various diameters (1-50 cm) at various kVp and mAs levels. The $CTDI_{100center}$ values of cylinder, elliptical, and hexagonal prism phantom at 120 kVp, 200 mAs resulted in 11.1, 13.4, and 12.2 mGy, respectively. The volume is the same, but $CTDI_{100center}$ values are different depending on the type of phantom. The water, PMMA, and polyoxymethylene phantom $CTDI_{100center}$ values were relatively low as the material density increased. However, in the case of Polyethylene, the $CTDI_{100center}$ value was higher than that of PMMA at diameters exceeding 15 cm ($CTDI_{100center}$ : 35.0 mGy). And a diameter greater than 30 cm ($CTDI_{100center}$ : 17.7 mGy) showed more $CTDI_{100center}$ than Water. We have used limited phantoms to evaluate CT doses. In this study, $CTDI_{100center}$ values were estimated and simulated by GATE simulation according to the material and shape of the phantom. CT dosimetry can be estimated more accurately by using various materials and phantom shapes close to human body.

Evaluation of Nuclear Medicine Applications of 3D Printing Phantom - Gamma Camera Centrically (3D 프린팅 팬텀의 핵의학분야 적용 평가 - 감마카메라 중심으로)

  • Park, Hoon-Hee;Lee, Juyoung;Kim, Ji-Hyeon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2017
  • Purpose 3D 프린팅 기술은 3D 스캔이나 모델링을 통하여 적측가공 방식으로 제작하는 기공기술로서 금형 없이 직접 생산이 가능하고 빠른 시간 내에 제작이 가능하여 최근 다양한 산업분야에서 본격적으로 적용되고 있다. 3D 프린팅 기술은 의료분야에 있어, 영상의학 및 방사선 치료분야에서 다양하게 활용되고 있지만 핵의학 분야에서는 관련 연구가 미비한 실정이다. 그러므로 본 연구는 기존에 적용되고 있는 핵의학분야 팬텀과 3D 프린팅 기술로 제작된 텀의 특성을 비교하고 적용 가능성을 평가하는데 목적을 두었다. Materials and Methods 방사선 투과도 변화측정 국제기준 팬텀인 알루미늄(Aluminum) 계단 쐐기(step wedge)를 기준($140mm{\times}62mm{\times}35mm$)으로 PMMA(Poly Methyl Meta Acrylate)와 ABS(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)재질로 각각 동일한 크기의 팬텀을 제작하였다. PMMA 팬텀은 핵의학 분야에서 주로 적용되는 팬텀의 성분과 동일한 소재로 제작하였고, ABS 팬텀 제작은 3D 프린팅 기술의 액체 기반형의 SLA(Stereo Lithography Apparatus)기법을 사용하여 제작하였다. 본 연구는 SPECT/CT장비 BrightView XCT(Philips Health Care, Cleveland, USA)를 이용하였다. 영상 획득은 Rectangular Flood phantom(Biodex, New York, USA) $^{99m}TcO_4$ 3, 6 mCi와 $^{57}Co$ lood phantom(adqual, New Hampshire, USA) $^{57}Co$ 20 mCi를 이용하여 Aluminum, PMMA, ABS 팬텀에 대해 60 min 리스트모드(List mode)로 획득하였다. 획득한 영상의 분석을 위해 관심영역(ROI)을 설정하여 각 팬텀의 단계별로 평가하였다. Results 방사선원의 종류 및 방사선량에 따라 ABS 팬텀의 계수치는 PMMA 팬텀의 계수치와 유사한 값을 나타내며, 두께의 증가에 따라 선형적으로 감소하였다. Aluminum, PMMA, ABS 팬텀의 선감약계수를 비교했을 때, Aluminum 팬텀의 선감약계수는 나머지 두 팬텀보다 수치가 높았고, PMMA, ABS 팬텀에서는 근사치의 선감약계수가 나타났다. Conclusion 3D 프린팅 기술로 제작된 ABS 팬텀을 기준으로 PMMA 팬텀은 두께가 증가함에 따른 계수치의 변화가 유사하게 선형적으로 감소하였고, 선감약계수도 근사치로 나타내었다. ABS 팬텀의 핵의학적 적용 가능성을 확인할 수 있었으며, 추후 연구를 통해 세부적인 교정치(correction value)를 적용한다면 활발한 적용이 가능하리라 사료된다.

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Monte Carlo Simulation for absorbed dose in PMMA phantom during the low-energy X-ray irradiation (저 에너지 X선 조사 시 PMMA 팬텀 내의 흡수선량 평가를 위한 몬테카를로 시뮬레이션)

  • Kim, Sang-Tae;Kang, Sang-Koo;Kim, Chong-Yeal
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 2011
  • This study offered a new method to calculate absorbed dose of actual patients through Monte Carlo Simulation by using the linkage of Geant4 and DICOM, and, the experimental value of absorbed dose at the center and Geant 4 simulation result according to the depth of PMMA mock phantom were compared by using MOSEF in order to verify Geant4 calculation code. In the area where there was no air space between the irregular gap due to incomplete compression of PMMA slab, the differences were $0.46{\pm}4.69$ percent and $-0.75{\pm}5.19$percent in $15{\times}15cm^2$ and $20{\times}20cm^2$ respectively. Excluding the error due to incomplete compression of PMMA mock phantom, the calculation values of the Monte Carlo simulation by linkage of Geant4 and DICOM was the same.

A New Approach for the Calculation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients for PMMA Slab Phantom (PMMA 평판형 팬텀에서의 중성자 선량당량 환산계수의 새로운 계산법)

  • Kim, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Oh
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-311
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    • 1996
  • ANSI decided PMMA slab phantom as a calibration phantom and introduced a conversion coefficient calculation method for it. For photon, the conversion coefficient can be obtained by using backscatter factor and conversion coefficient of the ICRU tissue cube and backscatter factor of the PMMA slab. For neutron, however, the ANSI has not introduced any conversion coefficient calculation method for the PMMA slab. In this work, the ANSI method for the photon conversion coefficient calculation was applied to the neutron conversion coefficient calculation of the PMMA slab. Quality weighted tissue kerma of neutron was applied to calculate the backscatter factors on the ICRU cube and the PMMA slab. The dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube was also calculated by using MCNP code. Then, the dose conversion coefficient of the PMMA slab was calculated from two backscatter factors and the dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube. The discrepancies of the dose conversion coefficients of the PMMA slab and the ICRU cube were less than 10% except 1eV(20%), 1keV(17%), and 4 MeV(16%).

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Calibration of $^{192}Ir$ HDR Brachytherapy Source in Air and in a Cylindrical Phantom

  • Djarwani S. Soejoko;I, Arief-Riva'
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2002
  • Two $^{192}$ Ir HDR brachytherapy sources were calibrated with a Farmer ionization chamber in air method and in a PMMA cylindrical phantom. The calibration air method used ionization chamber with buildup cap, and 8 variation distances for center-to-center of the source to chamber. In the optimum distance the measured activity, especially for the high activity source, deviation was 0.3% from the activity provided by manufacturer. Calibration with a PMMA cylindrical phantom was less sensitive, and suitable for quick check method with accuracy less than 10%.

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Effect of Patient Size on Image Quality and Dose Reduction after Added Filtration in Digital Chest Tomosynthesis (부가필터를 적용한 디지털 흉부단층합성검사에서 환자 체형에 따른 화질 평가와 선량감소 효과)

  • Bok, Geun-Seong;Kim, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2018
  • To evaluate the effect of patient size on effective dose and image quality for Digital Chest Tomosynthesis(DTS) using additional 0.3 mm copper filtration. Eighty artificial nodules were placed in the thorax phantom("Lungman," Kyoto Kagaku, Japan), and Digital Chest Tomosynthesis(DTS) images of the phantom were acquired both with and without added 0.3 mm Cu filtration. To simulate patients of three sizes: small, average size and oversize, one or two 20-mm-thick layer of PMMA(polymethyl methacrylatek) blocks were placed on the phantom. The Effective dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Two evaluations of image quality methods have been employed. Three readers counted the number of nodules detected in the lung, and the measured contrast-to-noise ratios(CNRs) were used. Data were analyzed statistically. The ED reduced $26{\mu}Sv$ in a phantom, $33{\mu}Sv$ in one 20-mm-thick layer of PMMA block placed on the phantom, and $48{\mu}Sv$ in two 20-mm-thick layer of PMMA blocks placed on the phantom. The Effective dose(ED) differences between DTS with and without filtration were significant(p<0.05). In particular, when we used two 20-mm-thick layer of PMMA blocks placed on the phantom, the ED was significantly reduced by 36% compared with those without additional filtration. Nodule detection sensitivities were not different between with and without added filtration. Differences of CNRs were statistically insignificant(p>0.05). Use of additional filtration allows a considerable dose reduction during Digital Chest Tomosynthesis(DTS) without loss of image quality. In particular, additional filtration showed outstanding result for effective dose reduction on two 20-mm-thick layer of PMMA blocks placed on the phantom. It applies to overweight patients.

Evaluation of Image Uniformity and Radiolucency for Computed Tomography Phantom Made of 3-Dimensional Printing of Fused Deposition Modeling Technology by Using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin (아크릴로나이트릴·뷰타다이엔·스타이렌 수지와 용융적층조형 방식의 3차원 프린팅 기술로 제작된 전산화단층영상장치 팬톰에서 영상 균일성 및 X선 투과성 평가)

  • Seoung, Youl-Hun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.337-344
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiolucency for the phantom output to the 3D printing technology. The 3D printing technology was applied for FDM (fused deposition modeling) method and was used the material of ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) resin. The phantom was designed in cylindrical uniformity. An image uniformity was measured by a cross-sectional images of the 3D printed phantom obtained from the CT equipment. The evaluation of radiolucency was measured exposure dose by the inserted ion-chamber from the 3D printed phantom. As a results, the average of uniformity in the cross-sectional CT image was 2.70 HU and the correlation of radiolucency between PMMA CT phantom and 3D printed ABS phantom is found to have a high correlation to 0.976. In the future, this results will be expected to be used as the basis for the phantom production of the radiation quality control by used 3D printing technology.

Therapeutic Proton Beam Range Measurement with EBT3 Film and Comparison with Tool for Particle Simulation

  • Lee, Nuri;Kim, Chankyu;Song, Mi Hee;Lee, Se Byeong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The advantages of ocular proton therapy are that it spares the optic nerve and delivers the minimal dose to normal surrounding tissues. In this study, it developed a solid eye phantom that enabled us to perform quality assurance (QA) to verify the dose and beam range for passive single scattering proton therapy using a single phantom. For this purpose, a new solid eye phantom with a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) wedge was developed using film dosimetry and an ionization chamber. Methods: The typical beam shape used for eye treatment is approximately 3 cm in diameter and the beam range is below 5 cm. Since proton therapy has a problem with beam range uncertainty due to differences in the stopping power of normal tissue, bone, air, etc, the beam range should be confirmed before treatment. A film can be placed on the slope of the phantom to evaluate the Spread-out Bragg Peak based on the water equivalent thickness value of PMMA on the film. In addition, an ionization chamber (Pin-point, PTW 31014) can be inserted into a hole in the phantom to measure the absolute dose. Results: The eye phantom was used for independent patient-specific QA. The differences in the output and beam range between the measurement and the planned treatment were less than 1.5% and 0.1 cm, respectively. Conclusions: An eye phantom was developed and the performance was successfully validated. The phantom can be employed to verify the output and beam range for ocular proton therapy.