• Title, Summary, Keyword: PL

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Genetic Polvmorphism of Protease Inhibitor (Pl) in Korean Population (한국인 집단에서 Protease inhibitor(PI)의 유전적 다형)

  • 김현섭;강신성
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.294-298
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    • 1995
  • The genetic polymorphism of Protease inhibitor (Pl) in Korean population was investigated by using isoelectric focusing (IEF) in an ultra-narrow pH range,4.2-4.9, and immunoblottins. Three common alleles (Pl * Ml, Pl*2, Pl * M3) were observed and the frequencies for the alleles were Pl * M1=0.7843, Pl * M2=0.1613, Pl * M3=0.0323. In addition to the three common alleles, rare alleles (Pl *5, Pl * Z, Pl* H were detected at low-level frequency. Two unknovlm variants, which were not reported on previous studies in Korean population, were also found.

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A study on the current status and ways of activating 3PL (제3자물류의 실태분석 및 활성화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • 이충규;김준석
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.65-90
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    • 2002
  • Despite the importance and necessity, the 3PL has not been activated to date. Among many views, customers claim that logistics service provider(LSP) are not prepared or capable of offering satisfactory 3PL services, while LSP emphasize the lack of mutual trust, closed corporate culture of the customer and excessive demand for reducing the costs. With this keeping in mind, it surveyed difference of perception between users and providers of 3PL services in terms of the actual status of using 3PL services, the degree of satisfaction and key factors for selecting 3PL provider through the questionnaire. As shown in this study, 43.3% of the respondents outsourced logistics services. However, Most company outsourced only inland transportation (49.5%) which is a simple and limited scope of 3PL services, but it also indicated that the percentage of users have ranged was less then 10% in outsourcing their whole logistics sector to 3PL provider and employing other logistics functions. Among respondents, a majority of the service provider stated that they offered satisfactory cost-saving to the customers, while users felt that the degree of satisfaction for using 3PL services was evaluated as at an average level and they more highly regarded the strong partnership of their 3PL provider rather than the saving of cost and improvement of customer's services. Moreover, in contrast to the 3PL providers which regard the most important factor for selecting 3PL service provider is the logistics cost quoted, users of 3PL services felt that the quality of services was more significant than the reduction of cost, and this tendency for selecting 3PL providers was shown in more advanced countries. While users of 3PL services indicated that the main reason for not using 3PL services was to avoid disclosing information of their business and it costs much for employing 3PL providers than doing themselves, 3PL providers thought it was due to reluctancy of opening information and resistance from the logistics division engaged in logistics activities concerned. Accordingly, providers and users of 3PL services should trust each other and prepare plan to activate 3PL services under the collaborative relationships as soon as possible.

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The Effect of Brand Extension of Private Label on Consumer Attitude - a focus on the moderating effect of the perceived fit difference between parent brands and an extended brand - (PL의 브랜드확장이 소비자태도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 : 모브랜드 적합도 인식 차이의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jong-Keun;Kim, Hyang-Mi;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2011
  • Introduction: Sales of private labels(PU have been growing m recent years. Globally, PLs have already achieved 20% share, although between 25 and 50% share in most of the European markets(AC. Nielson, 2005). These products are aimed to have comparable quality and prices as national brand(NB) products and have been continuously eroding manufacturer's national brand market share. Stores have also started introducing premium PLs that are of higher-quality and more reasonably priced compared to NBs. Worldwide, many retailers already have a multiple-tier private label architecture. Consumers as a consequence are now able to have a more diverse brand choice in store than ever before. Since premium PLs are priced higher than regular PLs and even, in some cases, above NBs, stores can expect to generate higher profits. Brand extensions and private label have been extensively studied in the marketing field. However, less attention has been paid to the private label extension. Therefore, this research focuses on private label extension using the Multi-Attribute Attitude Model(Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Especially there are few studies that consider the hierarchical effect of the PL's two parent brands: store brand and the original PL. We assume that the attitude toward each of the two parent brands affects the attitude towards the extended PL. The influence from each parent brand toward extended PL will vary according to the perceived fit between each parent brand and the extended PL. This research focuses on how these two parent brands act as reference points to one another in the consumers' choice consideration. Specifically we seek to understand how store image and attitude towards original PL affect consumer perceptions of extended premium PL. How consumers perceive extended premium PLs could provide strategic suggestions for retailer managers with specific suggestions on whether it is more effective: to position extended premium PL similarly or dissimilarly to original PL especially on the quality dimension and congruency with store image. There is an extensive body of research on branding and brand extensions (e.g. Aaker and Keller, 1990) and more recently on PLs(e.g. Kumar and Steenkamp, 2007). However there are no studies to date that look at the upgrading and influence of original PLs and attitude towards store on the premium PL extension. This research wishes to make a contribution to this gap using the perceived fit difference between parent brands and extended premium PL as the context. In order to meet the above objectives, we investigate which factors heighten consumers' positive attitude toward premium PL extension. Research Model and Hypotheses: When considering the attitude towards the premium PL extension, we expect four factors to have an influence: attitude towards store; attitude towards original PL; perceived congruity between the store image and the premium PL; perceived similarity between the original PL and the premium PL. We expect that all these factors have an influence on consumer attitude towards premium PL extension. Figure 1 gives the research model and hypotheses. Method: Data were collected by an intercept survey conducted on consumers at discount stores. 403 survey responses were attained (total 59.8% female, across all age ranges). Respondents were asked to respond to a series of Questions measured on 7 point likert-type scales. The survey consisted of Questions that measured: the trust towards store and the original PL; the satisfaction towards store and the original PL; the attitudes towards store, the original PL, and the extended premium PL; the perceived similarity of the original PL and the extended premium PL; the perceived congruity between the store image and the extended premium PL. Product images with specific explanations of the features of premium PL, regular PL and NB we reused as the stimuli for the Question response. We developed scales to measure the research constructs. Cronbach's alphaw as measured each construct with the reliability for all constructs exceeding the .70 standard(Nunnally, 1978). Results: To test the hypotheses, path analysis was conducted using LISREL 8.30. The path analysis for verification of the model produced satisfactory results. The validity index shows acceptable results(${\chi}^2=427.00$(P=0.00), GFI= .90, AGFI= .87, NFI= .91, RMSEA= .062, RMR= .047). With the increasing retailer use of premium PLBs, the intention of this research was to examine how consumers use original PL and store image as reference points as to the attitude towards premium PL extension. Results(see table 1 & 2) show that the attitude of each parent brand (attitudes toward store and original pL) influences the attitude towards extended PL and their perceived fit moderates these influences. Attitude toward the extended PL was influenced by the relative level of perceived fit. Discussion of results and future direction: These results suggest that the future strategy for the PL extension needs to consider that positive parent brand attitude is more strongly associated with the attitude toward PL extensions. Specifically, to improve attitude towards PL extension, building and maintaining positive attitude towards original PL is necessary. Positioning premium PL congruently to store image is also important for positive attitude. In order to improve this research, the following alternatives should also be considered. To improve the research model's predictive power, more diverse products should be included in study. Other attributes of product should also be included such as design, brand name since we only considered trust and satisfaction as factors to build consumer attitudes.

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Effect of Pyroligneous Liquor on Lipid Metabolism in Serum of CD Rats (혈청의 지질대사에 미치는 목초액 (Pyroligneous Liquor)의 영향)

  • Cho, Weon-Ki;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of pyroligneous liquor on lipid metaboilsm in serum of SPF/VAF Cri/Bgi CD rats. Male CD rats were fed basic diet prepared in our Lab., and PL-0 (control), PL-1, PL-25, PL-50, PL-75 groups were prepared with pyroligneous liquor (35% of Choa Co. Ltd.) of 0%, 1%, 25%, 50% and 75% in purified water per day for 8 weeks. Body weights and food intakes almost did not change in these five groups, and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly decreased (20.5% and 19.5%, respectively) in these PL-25 and PL-50 groups compared with control group. Total and LDL-cholesterol levels were markedly decreased (20.7%, 16.3% and 20.3%, 116.9%, respectively) in these PL-25 and PL-50% groups, but HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased about 36.4% and 25.5% in serum of PL-25 and PL-50 groups compared with control group. Atherogenic indices were also remarkedly decreased (63.0%, and 50%, respectively) in these PL-25 and PL-50 groups compared with control group. These results suggest that long term administration orally of pyroligneous liquor in 25 to 50% may inhibit chronic degenerative disease through improving of lipid metabolism of lower TG & LDL-cholesterol and higher HDL-cholesterol, and lower AJ.

Studies on the Biological Activities and Physicochemical Characteristics of Pigments Extracted from Korean Purple-Fleshed Potato (한국산 유색감자 색소의 이화학적 특성 및 생리 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Tae-Woog;Cho, Yong-Sik;Lee, Sung-Hyeon;Cho, Soo-Muk;Cho, Hyeon-Mook;Chang, Kyu-Seob;Park, Hong-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 2005
  • General composition, total anthocyan content, and antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Korean purple. fleshed potatoes (varieties A-D based on coloring degree of cross sections) were investigated. Slight differences in composition content were observed among varieties. Color intensity analyzed by sensory evaluation test decreased in order of PL-14, 31, 28, 3, 17, and 6, Total anthocyanin contents differed significantly among varieties from 3 to 29 mg Per 100 g, and decreased in order of PL-28, 31, 14, 12, 5, and 3. PL-28, 31, and Jasim potatoes showed slightly higher antioxidant activities than ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. PL-28, 31, 6, and Jasim showed antimicrobial activities against three species each of Gram-positive and-negative bacteria, with highest activities observed against Bacillus subtilis and relatively high activities against E. coli.

알칼리 내성 Bacillus sp. YA-14 유래의 중복 Promotor를 이용한 재조합 Plasmid로부터의 Pectate Iyase의 발현

  • Park, Hee-Kyoung;Hahm, Byoung-Kwon;Yu, Ju-Hyun;Bai, Dong-Hoon
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.571-579
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    • 1997
  • For the overproduction of pectate lyase (PL), the recombinant plasmid pl2BS fl which has strong promoter from alkali-tolerent Bacillus sp. YA-14 was used. In order to overexpress the pectate lyase by the action of overlapping strong promoter in pl2BS$\Delta$fl, 1.6 kb of PL gene was inserted into pl2BS$\Delta$fl to form pl2BS$\delta$f1-PL and the enzyme was expressed. But decreased expression efficiency of the PL gene was observed and it was due to the presence of the transcription terminator region on the upstream of the PL gene. The transcription terminator of the PL gene in pl2BS$\delta$f1-PL was removed and the resulting plasmid p12BS$\Delta$fl$\Delta$PL was formed. Bacillus subtilis 207-25 harboring the recombinant plasmid, p12BS$\Delta$fl$\Delta$PL, revealed increased expression efficiency with chloramphenicol induction when cat-86 was used as a reporter gene.

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Production Liability Law and Method of Protection and Defence (제조물책임법 (PL법)의 변화와 대처방안)

  • 이상복
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, we explain Production Liability(PL) law and research method of protection and defence of PL law. In introduction, we give some examples of PL law In main issue, we explain more detail PL law. We survey several country PL law, specially U.S.A., EU, Japan whose are deeply related with us as important export country We discuss our country PL status, our country don't legislate PL law until now We have consumer protection law(소비자보호법) which is weaker than PL law but stronger than civil law(민법), We believe that PL law will be legislated within not long time. At last we discuss protection and defence of PL law inside of company and outside of company as PL insurance.

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Effect of Estrogen on the Gestational Profiles in Gene Expression of Placental Lactogen I, II and Pit-i in the Rat Placenta (흰쥐 태반에서 Placental Lactogen I과 II 그리고 Pit-1의 유전자 발현에 미치는 에스트로겐의 영향)

  • 정진권;강성구;강해묵;이병주
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 1996
  • To investigate gestational profiles in gene expression of placental lactogen I fpL4), PL-lI and Pit-1, RNA samples were extracted from the placentas of pregnant day 12 to 20 at 2 day intervals. Northern blots showed changes in gene expression of PL4, - 11 and Pit-i. Sizes of PL-l and -II mRNA were changed and amounts of PL-I, -H and Pit-1 mRNA increased during progress of gestation. To examine the effect of estrogen on the gene expression of PL-I, -Il and Pit-1, pregnant female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and daily injected with estradiol (OVX + E). OVX markedly lowered the amount of PL4 and 41 mRNA, and shifted niRNA size from 1 kb to i 3 kb in PL-l mRNA and 0.6 kb to i kb in PL-ll mRNA, respectively. OVX had no effect on the mRNA size of Pit-1, but markedly attenuated Pit-1 mRNA level. Estrogen injection reversed the effect of OVX on the size-shift but not on the amount of PL4 and -Il mRNA. Replacement of E partially recovered OVX-induced inhibition of Pit-i mRNA level. Present results suggest that estrogen may play a pivotal role on the gene expression of PL-l and -Il such as alternative RNA splicing and/or polyadenylation, and Pit-1 may be involved in the gene expression of PL-l and 41 by estrogen.

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Zur Valenz deutscher verbaler Somatismen mit der Komponente ${\lceil}hand{\rfloor}$ (독일어의 신체부위 "손" 관련 관용구의 결합가 연구)

  • Kim Soo-Nam
    • Koreanishche Zeitschrift fur Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft
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    • v.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2001
  • 이 글의 목적은 독일어 신체어휘 관련 관용구들 가운데 ${\lceil}$Duden Band 11${\rfloor}$에 수록된 108개의 $\lceil$$\rfloor$ 관련 관용구를 대상으로 이들의 형태$\cdot$통사구조를 파악하고, 그들을 모형화하는 것이다. 우리는 연구 대상을 문장에서 결합가 보유어로서 술어의 기능을 하는 관용구에 한정했다. 우리는 $\lceil$$\rfloor$ 관련 관용구를 보충어의 수와 형태에 따라 크게 세 가지 부류, 즉 1가, 2가, 3가의 관용구로 구분하였다 보충어의 형태는 명사구(Sn, Sd, Sa)와 전치사구(pS)에 한정했으며 문장형태의 보충어, 예를 들어 부문장(NS)과 부정사문(Inf) 형태는 고려하지 않았다. 이들이 보충어로 간주될 수 있는지의 여부는 아직 더 많은 연구를 필요로 하기 때문에 다음 과제로 남겨두었다. 일차적으로 외적 결합가($\"{a}u{\beta}ere\;Valenz)$에 따라, 이차적으로는 내적 결합가(innere Valenz)에 따라 108개의 $\lceil$$\rfloor$ 관련 관용구를 분석한 결과 우리는 다음과 같은 형태$\cdot$통사적 문형을 얻을 수 있었다. $\cdot$ 1가 동사 관용구: 1) PL-Sn : (1) PL[VPL - Sa] - Sn (2) PL(VPL - pS) - Sn (3) PL[VPL - Sa - pS] - Sn (4) PL[VPL - pS - pS] - Sn Sondergruppen: PL[VPL - Sa - Inf] - Sn PL[VPL - pS - Inf] - Sn 2) PL - Sd: (1) PL[VPL - Sn] - Sd (2) PL[VPL - Sn(es) - pS] - Sd $\cdot$ 2가 동사 관용구1) PL - Sn - Sd: (1) PL[VPL - Sa] - Sn - Sd (2) PL[VPL - pS] - Sn - Sd (3) PL[VPL - Sa - pS) - Sn - Sd 2) PL - Sn - pS: (1) PL[VPL - Sa] - Sn - pS (2) PL[VPL - pS] - Sn - pS (3) PL(VPL - Sa - pS) - Sn - pS 3) PL[VPL - pS) - Sn -Sa $\cdot$ 3가 동사 관용구: (1) PL[VPL - pS] - Sn - Sd - Sa (2) PL[VPL - pS] - Sn - Sa - pS (3) PL[VPL - Sa] - Sn - Sd - pS 이러한 분류가 보여주듯이, 독일어에는 1가, 2가, 3가의 관용구가 있으며, 구조 외적으로 동일한 통사적 결합가를 갖는다 하더라도 구조 내적 성분구조가 다르다는 것을 알 수 있다. 우리는 이 글이 외국어로서의 독일어를 배우는 이들에게 독일어의 관용구를 보다 올바르게 이해할 수 있는 방법론적인 토대를 제공함은 물론, (관용어) 사전에서 외국인 학습자를 고려하여 관용구를 알기 쉽게 기술하는 데 도움을 줄 수 있기를 바란다.

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The Study on Facility Accident Case and PL Recognition of the Safety Manager in Electric Installation for Private Use (자가용 전기설비 안전관리자의 PL인식 조사 및 사고사례 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Seok;Shong, Kil-Mok;Kim, Sun-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we investigated electric safety manager's PL recognition and accident occurrence of electric power facilities in electric installation for private use. The target of questionnaire survey is 450 electric installations for private use, 154 responded the questionnaire among these and it occupied 35.8[%]. The questionnaire survey says that 58[%] of electric safety manager knew well about PL contents and 42[%] of them did not recognize its. 82.4[%] of them must applied PL law in electric installation, 5.8[%] of them did not need the PL law. Reason of PL application occupied 64[%] for stability of electrical facility and product, 19[%] for prevention of same accident. The accident of transformer occupied most and the power cable accident were much next. The questionnaire survey results, electric safety managers are interested in PL contents, they expected necessity of PL application about electrical accident strongly.