• Title, Summary, Keyword: PKC

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Subcellular Localization of Diacylglycerol-responsive Protein Kinase C Isoforms in HeLa Cells

  • Kazi, Julhash U.;Kim, Cho-Rong;Soh, Jae-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1981-1984
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    • 2009
  • Subcellular localization of protein kinase often plays an important role in determining its activity and specificity. Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of multi-gene protein kinases has long been known to be translocated to the particular cellular compartments in response to DAG or its analog phorbol esters. We used C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins of PKC isoforms to visualize the subcellular distribution of individual PKC isoforms. Intracellular localization of PKC-GFP proteins was monitored by fluorescence microscopy after transient transfection of PKC-GFP expression vectors in the HeLa cells. In unstimulated HeLa cells, all PKC isoforms were found to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm with a few exceptions. PKC$\theta$ was mostly localized to the Golgi, and PKC$\gamma$, PKC$\delta$ and PKC$\eta$ showed cytoplasmic distribution with Golgi localization. DAG analog TPA induced translocation of PKC-GFP to the plasma membrane. PKC$\alpha$, PKC$\eta$ and PKC$\theta$ were also localized to the Golgi in response to TPA. Only PKC$\delta$ was found to be associated with the nuclear membrane after transient TPA treatment. These results suggest that specific PKC isoforms are translocated to different intracellular sites and exhibit distinct biological effects.

Effect of Thymeleatoxin on Mouse Oocyte Maturation (마우스 난 성숙과정에서의 Thymeleatoxin의 영향)

  • Lim E. A.;Shin J. H.;Choi T. S.
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 2004
  • Protein kinase C exists as a family of serine/threonine kinases which are broadly classified into three groups as cPKC nPKC and aPKC depending on their cofactor requirements. Previous studies have shown that the role of PKC in the process of mouse oocyte maturation. For example, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate which is known as an activator of cPKC and nPKC inhibits germinal vesicle break down and 1st polar body extrusion in maturing oocytes. In this study, the effect of thymeleatoxin, a specific activator of cPKC not nPKC, was tested comparing with PMA to address the roles of cPKC and nPKC during mouse oocyte maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complex were cultured in M16 medium for 6 or 12 hr with each of these PKC activators to investigate the effect of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) or the extrusion of 1st polar body. IC/sup 50/ of GVBD were at concentrations of 50nM in PMA and 400nM in thymeleatoxin and of 1st polar body extrusion were 20nM in PMA and 200nM in thy- meleatoxin. The results suggest that activation of nPKC is more closely related to the inhibition of GVBD and 1st polar body extrusion than activation of cPKC. Additionally, we found that the oocytes inhibited 1st polar body extrusion with PMA or thymeleatoxin were arrested in metaphase I of first meiosis.

PKC Downstream of PI3-Kinase Regulates Peroxynitrite Formation for Nrf2-Mediated GSTA2 Induction

  • Kim, Sang-Geon;Kim, Sun-Ok
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.757-762
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    • 2004
  • The protective adaptive response to electrophiles and reactive oxygen species is mediated by the induction of phase II detoxifying genes including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) is a critical event for its nuclear translocation in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we have shown that peroxynitrite plays a role in activation of Nrf2 and Nrf2 binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and that nitric oxide synthase in hepatocytes is required for GSTA2 induction. In view of the importance of PKC and Pl3-kinase in Nrf2-mediated GST induction, we investigated the role of these kinases in peroxynitrite formation for GSTA2 induction by oxidative stress and determined the relationship between PKC and PI3-kinase. Although PKC activation by phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) did not increase the extents of constitutive and inducible GSTA2 expression, either PKC depletion by PMA or PKC inhibition by staurosporine significantly inhibited GSTA2 induction by tert-butylhydroquinone (t-SHa) a prooxidant chemical. Therefore, the basal PKC activity is req- uisite for GSTA2 induction. 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), which decomposes and yields peroxynitrite, induced GSTA2, which was not inhibited by PKC depletion, but slightly enhanced by PKC activation, suggesting that PKC promotes peroxynitrite formation for Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 induction. Treatment of cells with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), an exogenous NO donor, in combination with t-BHQ may produce peroxynitrite. GSTA2 induction by SNAP + t-BHQ was not decreased by PKC depletion, but rather enhanced by PKC activation, showing that the activity of PKC might be required for peroxynitrite formation. LY294002 a P13-kinase inhibitor blocked GSTA2 induction by t-BHQ, which was reversed by PMA-induced PKC activation. These results provide evidence that PKC may playa role in formation of peroxynitrite that activates Nrf2 for GSTA2 induction and that PKC may serve an activator for GSTA2 induction downstream of PI3-kinase.

Translocation of Protein Kinase C Isozymes in the Breast Cancer Cell Line (유방 암세포에서 Protein Kinase C 동위효소의 전위)

  • Won Chul Choi;Joo Young Son;Seok Jin Seo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.638-647
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    • 1998
  • Protein Kinase C (PKC) activators, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bryostatin, and dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8), induce translocation of PKC isozymes from cytoplasm to plasma membrane or into nucleus. The activated PKC negatively modulates growth of human breast cancer cells. Antiproliferative effect and translocation of PKC were investigated in MCF-7 cells. The translocation of activated PKC isozymes by PMA, bryostatin and DiC8 was occurred at the various different regions in MCF-7 cell. PKC $\alpha$ and $\beta$ could be translocated to the nucleus or the nuclear mem-brane, and PKC $\delta$and $\varepsilon$ to cell membrane by PMA while DiC8 and bryostatin induced the translocation of PKC $\alpha$ and $\beta$ to the nucleus or plasma membrane, respectively. In the antiproliferative effect of PKC activators, PMA ($IC_{50}$/ values of 1.2$\pm$0.3nM) and DiC8 ($IC_{50}$/ values of 5.0$\pm$1.1$\mu$M) inhibited the cell growth. Bryostatin also inhibited the cell growth but to a much less degree than one obser-ved with PMA : 16% growth reduction by 100nM bryostatin. However, PMA treated with bryostatin induced gro-wth inhibition, but PMA with DiC8 at 10$\mu$M was not effective. These results suggest that each PKC isozyme is tran-slocated to various specific sites, and that especially, PKC $\alpha$ isozyme plays an important role in control of antiprolife-raive function of cell growth.

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Expression of protein kinase C in the testes of horse (말 정소내 protein kinase C의 발현)

  • Jin, Jae-kwang;Shin, Tae-kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1998
  • To investigate the involvement of protein kinase C(PKC) isoenzyme in the testes which control spermatogenesis and hormone secretion, we examined cellular distribution of four types of PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ in the horse testes using PKC antisera by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. By the western blot analysis, PKC $\alpha$ and ${\beta}I$ were detected at 82KD, while PKC ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ were detected at 80KD in the testes of both juvenile and adult horses. In juvenile horse, PKC $\alpha$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ except ${\beta}I$ were not detected in the cells of the testes, whereas PKC ${\beta}I$ was immunoreacted with only in spermatocytes. In adult, PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$isoenzymes were localized in interstitial cells of the testes. In the seminiferous tubules, PKC ${\beta}I$ is localized in spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoa, while PKC ${\delta}$ is localized only in spermatids. We suggest that this is a first report to localize PKC in the testes of horse and PKC isoenzymes are upregulated in the cells of horse testes depending on ages. These findings also suggest that certain PKC isoenzyme plays an important role in the signal transduction of spermatogenic cells and interstitial cells in horse testes.

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Overexpression of Protein Kinase $C{\beta}_1$ Restores Mitogenic Responses of Enterocytic Differentiated Colon Carcinoma Cells to Diacylglycerol and Basic FGF

  • Lee, Han-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 1997
  • Previous studies have shown that the HD3 human enterocytic differentiated colon carcinoma cell lines having low $PKC{\beta}$ activity did not respond to diacylglycerol and basic FGF by growth and by activation of pp57 MAP kinase, but undifferentiated cell lines exhibiting high $PKC{\beta}$ activity did. To confirm a role of $PKC{\beta}$ in colonocyte mitogenesis, derivatives of HD3 cell line that stably overexpress a full-length of cDNA encoding the ${\beta}_1$ isoform of human PKC were generated. The abundance and activity of $PKC{\beta}$ in two of the these cell lines, PKC3 and PKC8 were much higher than those in the C1 control cell line that carries the vector lacking the $PKC{\beta}_1\;cDNA$ insert. Following exposure to diacylglycerol or basic FGF, proliferation of PKC3 and PKC8 cells increased about 50%; but this effect was not seen with the control C1 cells. Also, in contrast to the control cells, the $PKC{\beta}_1-overproducing$ cells displayed activation of pp57 MAP kinase when treated with diacylglycerol and basic FGF as undifferentiated cell lines did. These results provide direct evidence that $PKC{\beta}_1$ which plays a key role in mitogenic responses of colon carcinoma cells to diacylglycerol and basic FGF is down-regulated in enterocytic differentiation of colon cells.

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The Activity of Hypertension-related Protein Kinase C and the Relationship of Physical Therapy (고혈압-연관 단백질 부활효소 C의 활성과 물리치료의 상관성)

  • Kim, Jung-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Protein kinase C (PKC) is a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and PKC stimulants. PKC play a key role in signal transduction, including muscle contraction, cell migration, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the mechanism relating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and PKC, especially in the volume-dependent hypertensive state, remains unclear. Methods: In the present study, I investigated the relationship between PKC and MAPKs for isometric contraction, PKC translocation, and enzymatic activity from normotensive sham-operated rats (NSR) and aldosterone-analogue deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) hypertensive rats (ADHR). Results: Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in ADHR than in NSR. Physiological salt solution (PSS)-induced resting tension and the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([$Ca^{2+}{_i}$]) were different in the ADHR and NSR. The expression of PKC$\alpha$, PKC$\beta$II, PKC$\delta$, PKC$\varepsilon$ and PKC$\xi$ were different between the cytoplasmic and membranous fractions. However, expression of the PKC isoforms did not differ for the ADHR and NSR. The use of 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate (DPB, a PKC stimulant) induced isometric contraction in $Ca^{2+}$-free medium, which was diminished in muscle strips from ADHR as compared to NSR. Increased vasoconstriction and phosphorylation induced by the use of 1 ${\mu}$M DPB were inhibited by treatment with 10 ${\mu}$M PD098059 and 10 ${\mu}$M SB203580, inhibitors of extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK from ADHR, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the development of aldosterone analogue-induced hypertension is associated with an altered blood pressure, resting tension, [$Ca^{2+}{_i}$], and that the $Ca^{2+}$-independent contraction evoked by PKC stimulants is due to the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in volume-dependent hypertension. Therefore, it is suggested that PKC activity affects volume-dependent hypertension and the need to develop cardiovascular disease-specialized physical therapy.

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Studies on the Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells in uitro : The Phosphorylation and Down Regulation of Protein Kinase C in Myoblasts of Chick Embryos (근세포 분화에 관한 연구 계배의 Myoblasts에 있어서 Protein Kinase C (PKC)의 인 산화작용과 Down Regulation)

  • 문현근;최원철
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1992
  • In the short-term treahent of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), the'Wh and PDGF induced the Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation and migration from the cytoplasm to the peripheral nulcear membrane. And the activated PKC which was directly or indirectly stimulated by TPA or PDGF Phosphorylated many kinds of PKC's targeting proteins and induces various biological responses. Especially, the cytoplasmic PKC was phosphorylated within 1 hr and 10 min by TPA-and PDGF-treahent respectivelv. In the long-term treatment of TPA or PDGF, both of them induced the down-regulation and translocation of PKC in the mvoblasts. The down-regulation of PKC isozyrnes, the pattern of PKC I and ll was similar to the PKC 111 isozpnes in the cytoplasm. But in the nucleolus, the TPA did not induce and down-regulation or the inhibition of the immunoreactivity of PKC III antibody. This investigation indicates that each isozvmes of PKC mal be performed the different effects to the down-regulation of the cytoplasm or nucleolus. And douvn-regulated myoblasts contained low immunoreactivity of PKC antibodies.

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EXPRESSION OF PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS IN CHEMICAL CARCINOGEN-INDUCED NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN EPITHELIAL CELLS (화학적 발암화에 따른 Protein Kinase C의 발현 변화)

  • Byeon, Ki-Jeong;Hong, Lak-Won;Kim, Chin-Soo
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.295-305
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    • 2001
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is known to play a pivotal role in neoplastic transformation cells and its high expression is often found in a variety of types of tumors including oral cancer. While PKC is associated with the altered signal transduction pathway of the tumor cells, it is still unclear which isoform is involved in the carcinogenesis process. Since the cellular distributions and the roles of PKC are isoform-specific, it is very important to identify the specific target molecules to improve our understanding of the carcinogenesis processes. Thus, the present study attempted to perform chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells and analyze the specific isoform of PKCs involved in the cellular transformation. The study analyzed overall PKC responses upon MNNG(N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine) exposure with [$^3H$] PDBu binding assay. PKC translocation was observed at high doses of MNNG treatment in the presence of extracellular calcium. Such effects were not observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Translocational effects with exposure of MNNG was further enhanced in the presence of hydrocortisone. The result suggests that the type of PKC involved may be $Ca^{2+}$-dependent classical isoform and steroid hormone enhances PKC activation. Among cPKC isoforms examined, only $PKC-{\alpha}$ and r showed significant translocation of protein levels from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction, as analyzed by immunoblot. $PKC-{\varepsilon}$ in nPKC class showed an inch·eased translocation, but other forms in this class did not show the effect. None of isoforms in aPKC class was affected by MNNG treatment. The study demonstrated that there was a certain specificity in the patterns of isoform induction follwong chemical carcinogen exposure and helped identify all the types of PKC isoforms expressed in human epithelial cells. It was revealed that PKC isoforms were activated in an early resonse to chemical carcinogen, suggesting that PKC be associated with carcinogenesis process from an early stage in this particular cell system. The study will contribute to improving our understanding of chemical-induced carcinogenesis in human cells and may provide a scientific basis to introduce the specific PKC inhibitors as an anticancer drug of epithelial cell-origin cancers including oral cancer.

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Direct effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on cardiovascular ion channels

  • Son, Youn-Kyoung;Hong, Da-Hye;Kim, Dae-Joong;Firth, Amy L.;Park, Won-Sun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.559-565
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    • 2011
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a central enzyme that modulates numerous biological functions. For this reason, specific PKC inhibitors/activators are required to study PKC-related signaling mechanisms. To date, although many PKC inhibitors have been developed, they are limited by poor selectivity and nonspecificity. In this review, we focus on the nonspecific actions of PKC inhibitors on cardiovascular ion channels in addition to their PKC-inhibiting functions. The aim of this paper is to urge caution when using PKC inhibitors to block PKC function. This information may help to better understand PKC-related physiological/biochemical studies.