• Title, Summary, Keyword: PIWIL2

Search Result 4, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

Oxidative stress causes Alu RNA accumulation via PIWIL4 sequestration into stress granules

  • Hwang, Yeo Eun;Baek, Yu Mi;Baek, Ahruem;Kim, Dong-Eun
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.52 no.3
    • /
    • pp.196-201
    • /
    • 2019
  • The Alu element, the most abundant transposable element, is transcribed to Alu RNA. We hypothesized that the PIWI protein regulates the expression of Alu RNA in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, where accumulated Alu RNA leads to macular degeneration. Alu transcription was induced in RPE cells treated with $H_2O_2$. At an early stage of oxidative stress, PIWIL4 was translocated into the nucleus; however, subsequently it was sequestered into cytoplasmic stress granules, resulting in the accumulation of Alu RNA. An elevated amount of Alu RNA was positively correlated with the disruption of the epithelial features of RPE via induction of mesenchymal transition. Therefore, we suggest that oxidative stress causes Alu RNA accumulation via PIWIL4 sequestration into the cytoplasmic stress granules.

Functions of PIWI proteins in spermatogenesis

  • Bak, Chong-Won;Yoon, Tae-Ki;Choi, Young-Sok
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
    • /
    • v.38 no.2
    • /
    • pp.61-67
    • /
    • 2011
  • Recently, a significant understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating spermatogenesis has been achieved utilizing small RNA molecules (small RNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) which emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional or translation level. piRNAs are only present in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, whereas miRNAs are expressed abundantly in male germ cells throughout spermatogenesis. This review is aimed at providing a glimpse of piRNAs and their interacting family proteins such as PIWIL1, PIWIL2, and PIWIL4 in spermatogenesis.

Are So-Called Cancer-Testis Genes Expressed Only in Testis?

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh;Rezazadeh, Fatemeh;Zare-Abdollahi, Davood;Omrani, Mir Davood;Movafagh, Abolfazl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.18
    • /
    • pp.7703-7705
    • /
    • 2014
  • Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are a group of tumor-associated antigens with restricted expression in normal tissues except for testis and expression in a wide variety of tumor tissues. This pattern of expression makes them suitable targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for early detection of cancer. However, some genes attributed to this family are now known to be expressed in other normal tissues which put their potential applications in immunotherapy and cancer detection under question. Here we analyzed expression of two previously known CT antigens, RHOXF2 and PIWIL2, in AML patients versus normal donors and found no significant difference in the expression of these genes between the two groups. As these two genes showed expression in normal leukocytes, their expression pattern seems to be wider than to be attributed to the CT gene family. Future research should focus on the expression profiles of so called CT antigens to find those with more testis specific expression.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus Culture Supernatants Downregulate Expression of Cancer-testis Genes in the MDA-MB-231 Cell Line

  • Azam, Rosa;Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh;Tabrizi, Mina;Modarressi, Mohammad-Hossein;Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza;Daneshvar, Maryam;Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom;Motevaseli, Elahe
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.10
    • /
    • pp.4255-4259
    • /
    • 2014
  • Lactobacilli are probiotics shown to have antitumor activities. In addition, they can regulate gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to assess anti tumor activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The effects of culture supernatants were determined by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Changes in expression of 5 cancer-testis antigens (CTAs), namely AKAP4, ODF4, PIWIL2, RHOXF2 and TSGA10, were analyzed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The culture supernatants of the 2 lactobacilli inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. In addition, transcriptional activity of all mentioned CTAs except AKAP4 was significantly decreased after 24 hour treatment with culture supernatants. This study shows that Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus have antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, these lactobacilli could decrease transcriptional activity of 4 CTAs. Previous studies have shown that expression of CTAs is epigenetically regulated, so it is possible that lactobacilli cause this expression downregulation through epigenetic mechanisms. As expression of CTAs in cancers is usually associated with higher grades and poor prognosis, downregulation of their expression by lactobacilli may have clinical implications.