• Title, Summary, Keyword: PET-CT

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Combined PET/CT in Oncology (종양핵의학에서 PET/CT의 역할)

  • Kang, Keon-Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2002
  • Presently, PET is widely used in oncology, but suffers from limitations of poor anatomical information. To compensate for this weakness, a combined PET/CT has been developed by Professor Townsend at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The prototype was designed as PET and CT components combined serially in a gantry. The CT images provide not only accurate anatomical location of the lesions but also transmission map for attenuation correction. More than 300 cancer patients have been studied with the prototype of PET/CT since July, 1998. The PET/CT studies affected the managements in about $20{\sim}30%$ of cancer patients. These changes are a consequence of the more accurate localization of functional abnormalities, and the distinction of pathological from normal physiological uptake. Now a variety of combined PET/CT scanners with high-end PET and high-end CT components are commercially available. With the high speed of multi-slice helical CT, throughput of patient's increases compared to conventional PET. Although some problems (such as a discrepancy in breathing state between the two modalities) still remain, the role of PET/CT in oncology is very promising.

Effective Dose Evaluation using Clinical PET/CT Acquisition Protocols (전신 PET/CT 영상 획득 프로토콜을 이용한 유효선량 평가)

  • Nam, So-Ra;Son, Hye-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Chang-Lae;Cho, Hyo-Min;Kim, Hee-Joung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose for clinical PET/CT protocols in clinical environments using Alderson phantom and TLDs. Radiation doses were evaluated for both Philips GEMINI 16 slice PET/CT system and GE DSTe 16 slice PET/CT system. Specific organ doses with $^{137}Cs$ transmission scan, high quality CT scan and topogram in philips GEMINI PET/CT system were measured. Specific organ doses with CT scan for attenuation map, CT scan for diagnosis and topogram in GE DSTe PET/CT system were also measured. The organs were selected based on ICRP60 recommendation. The TLDs used for measurements were selected for within an accuracy of ${\pm}5%$ and calibrated in 10 MV X-ray radiation field. The effective doses for $^{137}Cs$ transmission scan, high qualify scan, and topogram in Philips GEMINI PET/CT system were $0.14{\pm}0.950,\;29.49{\pm}1.508\;and\;0.72{\pm}0.032mSv$ respectively. The effective doses for CT scan to make attenuation map, CT scan to diagnose and topogram in GE DSTe PET/CT system were $20.06{\pm}1.003,\;24.83{\pm}0.805\;and\;0.27{\pm}0.008mSv$ respectively. We evaluated the total effective dose by adding effective dose for PET Image. The total PET/CT doses for Philips GEMINI PET/CT (Topogram+$^{137}Cs$ transmission scan+PET, Topogram+high qualify CT+PET) and GE DSTe PET/CT (Topogram +CT for attenuation map+ PET, Topogram+diagnostic CT+ PET) are $7.65{\pm}0.951,\;37.00{\pm}1.508,\;27.12{\pm}1.003\;and\;31.89{\pm}0.805mSv$ respectively. Further study may be needed to be peformed to find optimal PET/CT acquisition protocols for reducing the patient exposure with good image qualify.

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Quantitative Comparisons in $^{18}F$-FDG PET Images: PET/MR VS PET/CT ($^{18}F$-FDG PET 영상의 정량적 비교: PET/MR VS PET/CT)

  • Lee, Moo Seok;Im, Young Hyun;Kim, Jae Hwan;Choe, Gyu O
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.68-80
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : More recently, combined PET/MR scanners have been developed in which the MR data can be used for both anatometabolic image formation and attenuation correction of the PET data. For quantitative PET information, correction of tissue photon attenuation is mandatory. The attenuation map is obtained from the CT scan in the PET/CT. In the case of PET/MR, the attenuation map can be calculated from the MR image. The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative differences between MR-based and CT-based attenuation corrected PET images. Materials and Methods : Using the uniform cylinder phantom of distilled water which has 199.8 MBq of $^{18}F$-FDG put into the phantom, we studied the effect of MR-based and CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, of the PET-CT using time of flight (TOF) and non-TOF iterative reconstruction. The images were acquired from 60 minutes at 15-minute intervals. Region of interests were drawn over 70% from the center of the image, and the Scanners' analysis software tools calculated both maximum and mean SUV. These data were analyzed by one way-anova test and Bland-Altman analysis. MR images are segmented into three classes(not including bone), and each class is assigned to each region based on the expected average attenuation of each region. For clinical diagnostic purpose, PET/MR and PET/CT images were acquired in 23 patients (Ingenuity TF PET/MR, Gemini TF64). PET/CT scans were performed approximately 33.8 minutes after the beginnig of the PET/MR scans. Region of interests were drawn over 9 regions of interest(lung, liver, spleen, bone), and the Scanners' analysis software tools calculated both maximum and mean SUV. The SUVs from 9 regions of interest in MR-based PET images and in CT-based PET images were compared. These data were analyzed by paired t test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results : In phantom study, MR-based attenuation corrected PET images generally showed slightly lower -0.36~-0.15 SUVs than CT-based attenuation corrected PET images (p<0.05). In clinical study, MR-based attenuation corrected PET images generally showed slightly lower SUVs than CT-based attenuation corrected PET images (excepting left middle lung and transverse Lumbar) (p<0.05). And percent differences were -8.01.79% lower for the PET/MR images than for the PET/CT images. (excepting lung) Based on the Bland-Altman method, the agreement between the two methods was considered good. Conclusion : PET/MR confirms generally lower SUVs than PET/CT. But, there were no difference in the clinical interpretations made by the quantitative comparisons with both type of attenuation map.

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The Usefulness of Integrated PET/CT Simulator for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using the F-18 Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) (포도당 유도체 불소화합물(FDG)을 이용한 비소세포폐암의 Integrated PET/CT 전산화 모의치료기에 대한 유용성 평가)

  • Na, Jong Eok;Suh, Jeong Nam;Kim, Jin Soo;Kim, Dae Seob;Hong, Dong Ki;Baek, Geum Mun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of Integrated PET/CT and compare the gloss tumor volume (GTV) identified on CT, PET, PET/CT to that obtained from fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Materials and Methods: This experimental study was obtained using GE Discovery 690 (General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, MI, USA) PET/CT simulator with Gammex Laser System for five non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In order to increase the reproducibility of the patient setup, We have to fixed to patients using the Extended Wing Board. GTV delineation was painted using the EclipseTM ver.10 contouring program for CT, PET, PET/CT images. And then, We were to compare the changes in the GTV. Results: These results are drawn from 5 patients who have atelectasis or pneumonitis. Compared to CT defined GTV, PET was decreased by 10.5%, 11.8% and increased by 67.9%, 220%, 19.4%. PET/CT was decreased by 7.7%, 6.7%, 28% and increased by 232%, 24%. Conclusion: We were able to determine the usefulness of PET/CT simulator for NSCLC. PET/CT simulator in radiation therapy is useful to define the target volume and It is possible to delineate Objective and accurate target volume. It seems to be applicable to other areas in the near future.

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Comparison of SUV for PET/MRI and PET/CT (인체 각 부위의 PET/MRI와 PET/CT의 SUV 변화)

  • Kim, Jae Il;Jeon, Jae Hwan;Kim, In Soo;Lee, Hong Jae;Kim, Jin Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.10-14
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Due to developed simultaneous PET/MRI, it has become possible to obtain more anatomical image information better than conventional PET/CT. By the way, in the PET/CT, the linear absorption coefficient is measured by X-ray directly. However in case of PET/MRI, the value is not measured from MRI images directly, but is calculated by dividing as 4 segmentation ${\mu}-map$. Therefore, in this paper, we will evaluate the SUV's difference of attenuation correction PET images from PET/MRI and PET/CT. Materials and Methods: Biograph mCT40 (Siemens, Germany), Biograph mMR were used as a PET/CT, PET/MRI scanner. For a phantom study, we used a solid type $^{68}Ge$ source, and a liquid type $^{18}F$ uniformity phantom. By using VIBE-DIXON sequence of PET/MRI, human anatomical structure was divided into air-lung-fat-soft tissue for attenuation correction coefficient. In case of PET/CT, the hounsfield unit of CT was used. By setting the ROI at five places of each PET phantom images that is corrected attenuation, the maximum SUV was measured, evaluated %diff about PET/CT vs. PET/MRI. In clinical study, the 18 patients who underwent simultaneous PET/CT and PET/MRI was selected and set the ROI at background, lung, liver, brain, muscle, fat, bone from the each attenuation correction PET images, and then evaluated, compared by measuring the maximum SUV. Results: For solid $^{68}Ge$ source, SUV from PET/MRI is measured lower 88.55% compared to PET/CT. In case of liquid $^{18}F$ uniform phantom, SUV of PET/MRI as compared to PET/CT is measured low 70.17%. If the clinical study, the background SUV of PET/MRI is same with PET/CT's and the one of lung was higher 2.51%. However, it is measured lower about 32.50, 40.35, 23.92, 13.92, 5.00% at liver, brain, muscle, fat, femoral head. Conclusion: In the case of a CT image, because there is a linear relationship between 511 keV ${\gamma}-ray$ and linear absorption coefficient of X-ray, it is possible to correct directly the attenuation of 511 keV ${\gamma}-ray$ by creating a ${\mu}$map from the CT image. However, in the case of the MRI, because the MRI signal has no relationship at all with linear absorption coefficient of ${\gamma}-ray$, the anatomical structure of the human body is divided into four segmentations to correct the attenuation of ${\gamma}-rays$. Even a number of protons in a bone is too low to make MRI signal and to localize segmentation of ${\mu}-map$. Therefore, to develope a proper sequence for measuring more accurate attenuation coefficient is indeed necessary in the future PET/MRI.

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The Evaluation for Attenuation Map using Low Dose in PET/CT System (PET/CT 시스템에서 감쇠지도를 만들기 위한 저선량 CT 평가)

  • Nam, So-Ra;Cho, Hyo-Min;Jung, Ji-Young;Lee, Chang-Lae;Lim, Han-Sang;Park, Hoon-Hee;Kim, Hee-Joung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.134-138
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    • 2007
  • The current PET/CT system with high quality CT images not only increases diagnostic value by providing anatomic localization, but also shortens the acquisition time for attenuation correction than primary PET system. All commercially available PET/CT system uses the CT scan for attenuation correction instead of the transmission scan using radioactive source such as $^{137}Cs,\;^{68}Ge$. However the CT scan may substantially increase the patient dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quality of PET images reconstructed by CT attenuation map using various tube currents. in this study, images were acquired for 3D Hoffman brain phantom and cylindrical phantom using GE DSTe PET/CT system. The emission data were acquired for 10 min using phantoms after injecting 44.03 MBq of $^{18}F-FDG$. The CT images for attenuation map were acquired by changing tube current from 10 mA to 95 mA with fixed exposure time of 8 sec and fixed tube voltage of 140 kVp. The PET images were reconstructed using these CT attenuation maps. Image quality of CT images was evaluated by measuring SD (standard deviation) of cylindrical phantom which was filled with water and $^{18}F-FDG$ solution. The PET images were evaluated by measuring the activity ratio between gray matter and white matter in Hoffman phantom images. SDs of CT images decrease by increasing tube current. When PET images were reconstructed using CT attenuation maps with various tube currents, the activity ratios between gray matter and white matter of PET images were almost same. These results indicated that the quality of the PET images using low dose CT data were comparable to the PET images using general dose CT data. Therefore, the use of low dose CT is recommended than the use of general dose CT, when the diagnostic high quality CT is not required. Further studies may need to be performed for other system, since this study is limited to the GE DSTe system used in this study.

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Diagnostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Comparison to Bone Scintigraphy, CT and 18F-FDG PET for the Detection of Bone Metastasis

  • Liu, Ning-Bo;Zhu, Lei;Li, Ming-Huan;Sun, Xiao-Rong;Hu, Man;Huo, Zong-Wei;Xu, Wen-Gui;Yu, Jin-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3647-3652
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT for detection of bone metastasis in comparison with the efficacies of $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT, CT, $^{18}F$-FDG PET and conventional planar bone scintigraphy in a series of cancer patients. Methods: Five hundred and thirty patients who underwent both $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy within 1 month were retrospectively analyzed. The skeletal system was classified into 10 anatomic segments and interpreted blindly and separately. For each modality, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were calculated and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Bone metastases were confirmed in 117 patients with 459 positive segments. On patient-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT were significantly higher than bone scintigraphy, CT and $^{18}F$-FDG PET (P<0.05). On segment-based analysis, the sensitivity of CT, bone scintigraphy, $^{18}F$-FDG PET and $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT were 70.4%, 89.5%, 89.1% and 97.8%, respectively (P<0.05, compared with $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT). The overall specificity and accuracy of the four modalities were 89.1%, 91.8%, 90.3%, 98.2% and 90.3%, 90.9%, 89.8%, 98.0%, respectively (P<0.05, compared with $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT). The PPV and NPV were 89.8%, 87.6%, 85.6%, 97.2% and 85.6%, 93.2%, 92.8%, 98.6%, respectively. Three hundred and twelve lesions or segments were presented as lytic or sclerotic changes on CT images at the corresponding sites of increased $^{18}F$-FDG uptake. In lytic or mixed lesions, the sensitivity of $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT and $^{18}F$-FDG PET were better than bone scintigraphy, while in osteoblastic lesions bone scintigraphy had a similar performance with $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT but better than $^{18}F$-FDG PET alone. Conclusion: Our data allow the conclusion that $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT is superior to planar bone scintigraphy, CT or $^{18}F$-FDG PET in detecting bone metastasis. $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT may enhance our diagnosis of tumor bone metastasis and provide more information for cancer treatment.

Role of $^{18}F$-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Recurrent Ovary Cancer (재발 난소암의 진단에서의 $^{18}F$-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT의 유용성: Enhanced CT와 Tumor Marker CA 125와의 비교)

  • O, Joo-Hyun;Yoo, Ie-Ryung;Choi, Woo-Hee;Lee, Won-Hyoung;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Chung, Soo-Kyo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To date, anatomical imaging modalities of the pelvis and tumor markers have been the mainstay of surveillance for recurrent ovary cancer. This study aimed to assess the role of $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT in evaluation of ovary cancer recurrences, especially in comparison with enhanced a and tumor marker CA 125. Materials and methods: 73 patients who had PET/CT scan for restaging of confirmed ovary cancer, and additional imaging with enhanced a of the pelvis within one month were included. CA 125 level was available in all patients. From the PET/CT images, maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of suspected recurrence sites were recorded. Confirmation was available through re-operation or biopsy in 26 cases, and clinical assessment with series of follow-up images in 47. Results: PET/CT had 93% sensitivity and 88% specificity for detecting recurrent ovary cancer. Enhanced a of pelvis had sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 88%, and CA 125 50% and 95%. Conclusion: PET/CT has higher sensitivity for detecting recurrent ovary cancer compared to enhanced a though the differences were not significant. PET/CT has significantly higher sensitivity than CA 125. However, the three tests all agreed in only 43% of the recurrence cases, and recurrence should be suspected when any of the tests, especially PET/CT, show positive findings.

Clinical Application of F-18 FDG PET(PET/CT) in Malignancy of Unknown Origin (원발부위미상암에서 F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT)의 임상 이용)

  • Kim, Byung-Il
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2008
  • Diagnosis of primary origin site in the management of malignancy of unknown origin (MUO) is the most important issue. According to the histopathologic subtype of primary lesion, specialized treatment can be given and survival gain is expected. F-18 FOG PET (PET/CT) has been estimated as useful in detection of primary lesion with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) study before conventional studies is also recommended because it has high diagnostic performance compared to conventional studies. Although there has few data, F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) is expected to be useful in diagnosis of recurrence, restaging, evaluation of treatment effect, considering that PET (PET/CT) has been reported as useful in other malignancies.

Image Registration for PET/CT and CT Images with Particle Swarm Optimization (Particle Swarm Optimization을 이용한 PET/CT와 CT영상의 정합)

  • Lee, Hak-Jae;Kim, Yong-Kwon;Lee, Ki-Sung;Moon, Guk-Hyun;Joo, Sung-Kwan;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Choi, Jong-Hak;Kim, Chang-Kyun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2009
  • Image registration is a fundamental task in image processing used to match two or more images. It gives new information to the radiologists by matching images from different modalities. The objective of this study is to develop 2D image registration algorithm for PET/CT and CT images acquired by different systems at different times. We matched two CT images first (one from standalone CT and the other from PET/CT) that contain affluent anatomical information. Then, we geometrically transformed PET image according to the results of transformation parameters calculated by the previous step. We have used Affine transform to match the target and reference images. For the similarity measure, mutual information was explored. Use of particle swarm algorithm optimized the performance by finding the best matched parameter set within a reasonable amount of time. The results show good agreements of the images between PET/CT and CT. We expect the proposed algorithm can be used not only for PET/CT and CT image registration but also for different multi-modality imaging systems such as SPECT/CT, MRI/PET and so on.

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