• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAR

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Par-4 Modulates Cell Migration through Inhibition of MMP-2 Activity in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells (인간 신장암 Caki세포에서 Par-4에 의한 MMP-2 활성 저해를 통한 세포 이동 조절)

  • Woo, Seon Min;Kwon, Taeg Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.614-619
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    • 2016
  • The prostate-apoptosis-response-gene-4 (Par-4) protein has been identified as an effector of cell death in response to various apoptotic stimuli in prostate cancer cells. We found that overexpression of Par-4 by stable transfection inhibits cell migration and invasion in Caki cells. The expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether ectopic expression of Par-4 modulates MMP-2 expression and activity in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that overexpression of Par-4 markedly inhibited MMP-2 activity, but not MMP-9 activity. However, loss of the leucine zipper domain of Par-4 (Par-4 ΔLZ#1 and #2) did not inhibit MMP-2 activity. Further, knock-down of Par-4 with the corresponding siRNA resulted in increased invasion and metastasis of renal carcinoma Caki cells. Interestingly, overexpression or knock-down of Par-4 did not affect the expression levels of MMP-2 mRNA. Taken together, our findings suggest that Par-4 may inhibit MMP-2 activity through its post-transcriptional regulation in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) as a Cancer Therapeutic Target (암 치료 표적으로써 prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4))

  • Woo, Seon Min;Kwon, Taeg Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.947-952
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    • 2015
  • Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) was originally identified in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 is ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and tissues, but it is downregulated in several types of cancers. Par-4 is a 38 kDa tumor suppressor protein encoded by the PARW gene. Par-4 promotes apoptosis in a variety of cancerous cells, but not in normal cells. In this review, we focused on the structure, expression and function of Par-4 in apoptotic signaling pathway. Functional domains of Par-4 include two nuclear localization sequences (NLS), a leucine zipper (LZ) domain, a nuclear export sequence (NES) and selective for apoptosis in cancer cell (SAC) domain. Many studies have underlined the importance of Par-4 in preventing cancer development. The activity of Par-4 is differently regulated by localization of intracellular and extracellular Par-4. Intracellular Par-4 inhibits Akt- and NF-κB-mediated cell survival pathways and downregulates Bcl-2 expression. Extracellular Par-4 activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by binding to cell surface receptor GRP78, a stress response protein that is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Endogenous Par-4 sensitizes cancer cells to various apoptotic stimuli, while exogenous Par-4 enhances SAC domain-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells, but not normal cells. Therefore, Par-4 is an attractive target for cancer therapy.

Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Data (정지궤도 해양관측위성 (GOCI) 자료를 이용한 광합성 유효광량 추정)

  • Kim, Jihye;Yang, Hyun;Choi, Jong-Kuk;Moon, Jeong-Eon;Frouin, Robert
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.253-262
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    • 2016
  • Here, we estimated daily Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) from Geostationary Ocean Colour Imager (GOCI) and compared it with daily PAR derived from polar-orbiting MODIS images. GOCI-based PAR was also validated with in-situ measurements from ocean research station, Socheongcho. GOCI PAR showed similar patterns with in-situ measurements for both the clear-sky and cloudy day, whereas MODIS PAR showed irregular patterns at cloudy conditions in some areas where PAR could not be derived due to the clouds of sunglint. GOCI PAR had shown a constant difference with the in-situ measurements, which was corrected using the in-situ measurements obtained on the days of clear-sky conditions at Socheongcho station. After the corrections, GOCI PAR showed a good agreement excepting on the days with so thick cloud that the sensor was optically saturated. This study revealed that GOCI can estimate effectively the daily PAR with its advantages of acquiring data more frequently, eight times a day at an hourly interval in daytime, than other polar orbit ocean colour satellites, which can reduce the uncertainties induced by the existence and movement of the cloud and insufficient images to map the daily PAR at the seas around Korean peninsula.

Comparison of Treatment Outcome Assessment for Class I Malocclusion Patients: Peer Assessment Rating versus American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System

  • Hong, Mihee;Kook, Yoon-Ah;Baek, Seung-Hak;Kim, Myeng-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Dental Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.6-15
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the degree of coincidence between the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system (ABO-OGS) in the assessment of orthodontic treatment outcomes of Class I malocclusion cases. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 26 Class I patients. The PAR index was used for evaluation of pre-(T0) and posttreatment (T1) casts, and the ABO-OGS for assessment of T1 casts. If there was a reduction in PAR scores from T0 to T1 of more than 30%, the label 'PAR+' was given to the case, and if not, it was labeled 'PAR-'. If the ABO-OGS was less than 27, the label 'OGS+' was given to the case and if not, it was labeled 'OGS-'. 'A PAR-only qualified group' (PAR+), 'ABO-OGS-only qualified group' (OGS+), 'both indices qualified group' (PAR+/OGS+), and 'both indices disqualified group' (PAR-/OGS-) were compared with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test, sensitivity/specifi city test and Spearman's correlation test. Result: PAR scores for T0, T1, and percentage reduction were 21.1, 6.4, and 65.9%, respectively, and 35.4 for ABOOGS. The distribution of the 'PAR+/OGS+', 'PAR+', and 'PAR-/OGS-' group was 19.3%, 76.9%, and 3.8%, respectively. The T0-PAR, T1-PAR and PAR point reductions for the 'PAR+' group were significantly higher than those of 'PAR+/OGS+' groups (23.1 vs. 15.6; 6.7 vs. 4.6; and 16.5 vs. 11.0; all P<0.05). However, the PAR-percentage reduction and treatment duration between the two groups were not statistically different (70.0% vs. 67.0%, P=0.4325; 24.1 months vs. 25.0 months, P=0.4057). The T1-ABO-OGS score for 'PAR+' group was significantly higher than that of the 'PAR+/OGS+' groups (38.2 vs. 24.0, P<0.001). Conclusion: Since the fraction of the 'PAR+/OGS+' group was less than 20% and there was no significant correlation between PAR-percentage reduction and T1-ABO-OGS, development of a new index system for the accurate evaluation of treatment outcome is needed.

A New PAR Reduction Scheme in OFDM Systems by PTS Using Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 적용한 PTS에 의한 새로운 OFDM 시스템 PAR 감소 기법)

  • Kim Sung-Soo;Kim Myoung-Je
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.995-1002
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    • 2005
  • An orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) system has the problem of the peak-to-average power ratio(PAR). In general, in order to obtain optimal PAR reduction using the partial transmitted sequence(PTS), the total search for the number of sub-blocks and the rotation factors must be accomplished. As the number of sub-blocks and rotation factors increases, PAR reduction improves, such that complexity increases exponentially and the process delay occurs simultaneously. Therefore a technique that reduces PAR, which is almost close to optimal, and the amount of calculation is desired. In this paper a new method using genetic algorithm(GA), which is widely used to search for a point that is globally optimal in many problems, is proposed to search for a rotation factor that reduces simultaneously both the PAR and the amount of calculation, such that the complexity of calculation and the process time are reduced at the same time, Comparison is performed between the proposed method and the various techniques developed previously. The superiority of proposed method is presented by demonstrating the reduction of complexity while a similar PAR reduction is obtained.

Role of Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Aspergillus Protease Allergen Induces Th2 Related Airway Inflammatory Response (Aspergillus 단백분해효소 알러젠에 의해 유도된 Th2 관련 기도염증반응에서 protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2)의 역할)

  • Yu, Hak-Sun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2010
  • Most allergens have protease activities, suggesting that proteases may be a key link between Th2-type immune reactions in allergic responses. Protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 is activated via the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal domain by proteinases. To know the role of PAR2 in Aspergillus protease allergen activated Th2 immune responses in airway epithelial cells, we investigated and compared immune cell recruitment and level of chemokines and cytokines between PAR2 knock out (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice. There were evident immune cell infiltrations into the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of WT mice, but the infiltrations in PAR2 KO mice were significantly lowered than those of WT mice. The IL-25, TSLP, and eotaxin gene expressions were profoundly increased after Aspergillus protease, but their expression was significantly lowered in PAR2 KO mice in this study. Compared to PAR2 KO mice, OVA specific IgE concentrations in serum of WT mice were quite increased; moreover, the IgE level of PAR2 KO mice was lower than in WT mice. The IL-25 expression by Aspergillus protease stimulation was significantly reduced by p38 specific inhibitor treatment. In this study, we determined that Th2 response was initiated with IL-25 and TSLP mRNA up-regulation in lung epithelial cells via PAR2 after Aspergillus protease allergen treatment.

Prediction on Ultimate Vertical and Horizontal Bearing Capacity of Steel Pipe Piles by Means of PAR (PAR에 의한 강관 말뚝의 극한 수직 및 수평 지지력 예측)

  • 최용규
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 1997
  • A predicting method for ultimate vertical and horizontal bearing capacity by means of PAR(Pile Analysis Routines) was suggested. Based on the static pile load test data, case studies by means of PAR were performed. Ultimate pile capacity predicted by PAR was within 15% error range of that determined by stairs pile load tests. Also, the results of static pile load test, statnamic tests and PDA data performed on pipe piles were compared and, by using PAR, ultimate pile capacity was determined. Distributions of atrial pile load could be predicted and load transfer analysis could be done approximately by those distributions.

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Performance Analysis of Combining Method for PAR Reduction in OFDM (OFDM에서 PAR을 제거하기 위한 혼합방법의 성능 해석)

  • 김병주;변건식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.163-166
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    • 2002
  • OFDM should be used for the fourth generation communication for high speed communication. Because of high spectral efficiency and high tolerance to fading channel, OFDM is applied to many high speed wire and wirless communication such as DAB(Digital Audio Broudcast), DVB(Digital Video Broadcast), IMT 2000 etc. Inter-modulation, however, is derived from PAR(Peak to Average Power Ratio) of OFDM signals. The paper describes PTS(Partial Transmit Sequence) and SLM(Select Mapping) of an existing methods which can reduce PAR. And then the document introduces the new method that is called "Combine PAR method". The method proposed in this paper is to combine PTS and SLM. As a result of the simulation, Combine PAR method is better than the existing methods.g methods.

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Performance Analysis of SLM Method for PAR Reduction Based on OFDM System (OFDM 시스템에서 PAR 감소를 위한 SLM 기법의 성능 분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Geun;Lee, Yoon-Hyun;Jin, Seong-Woo
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2006
  • In these days, OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is adopted to support high-speed data communication based on multi-path RF channel, but it has some weak point. One of those is that it has a higher PAR(peak-to-average power ratio) compared with single-carrier method. If some PAR of the transmitted signal is high, nonlinear amplitude distortion has occurred when it pass through the HPA(high power amplifier). There is a solution to prevent nonlinear distortion using higher peak power HPA, but it makes inefficiency and a cost problem. In this paper, we choose the SLM(Selected Mapping) scheme, which transmit the lowest PAR signal after OFDM symbol mapping, in various schemes reducing PAR for OFDM system. And we derived the performances of SLM method in fading channel through computer simulations.

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A Study on PAR Improvement of OFDM system using SLM-PTS Combine Method and ETD-Turbo Code (SLM-PTS 결합기법 및 ETD-Turbo부호를 적용한 OFDM 시스템에서의 PAR 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Sung Tae-Kyung;Kim Dong-Seek;Cho Hyung-Rae
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.755-761
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we propose a high-speed adaptive PTS method which eliminates high PAR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) and we compare the proposed method with other conventional methods. In addition, we have designed a combined type SLM-PTS scheme to reduce PAR and evaluate the performance. The system used for evaluating PAR performance can be constructed as COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) applying ETD(Enhabced Time Diversity)-Turbo coding scheme. All the analyses in this paper are focused on the system characteristics according to IFFT's point and modulation method and the performance evaluation are based on the PAR reduction rates. As a result, the SLM-PTS combination method reveals good PAR reduction rate and remarkable reduction in the amount of calculations. Especially, in the case of combine-3 scheme, we can achieve approximately $3.7\~3.9$ dB PAR reduction on a basis of 10-5 BER level. Moreover, we can eliminate the side information in COFDM system because of its adaptive characteristics in evaluating PAR reduction rate, so that the additional errors can be omitted.