• Title, Summary, Keyword: P73

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Structure and apoptotic function of p73

  • Yoon, Mi-Kyung;Ha, Ji-Hyang;Lee, Min-Sung;Chi, Seung-Wook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2015
  • p73 is a structural and functional homologue of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Like p53, p73 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and transactivates p53-responsive genes, conferring its tumor suppressive activity. In addition, p73 has unique roles in neuronal development and differentiation. The importance of p73-induced apoptosis lies in its capability to substitute the pro-apoptotic activity of p53 in various human cancer cells in which p53 is mutated or inactive. Despite the great importance of p73-induced apoptosis in cancer therapy, little is known about the molecular basis of p73-induced apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the p73 structures reported to date, detailed structural comparisons between p73 and p53, and current understanding of the transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms of p73-induced apoptosis.

Overexpression of p73 Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

  • Kim Keun-Cheol;Jung Chul-Soo;Choi Kyung-Hee
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.152-158
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    • 2006
  • To examine a possible synergistic role for p73 and cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) in HeLa cells with a nonfunctional p53 protein, we established stable HeLa/p73 clones using a tetracycline inducible eukaryotic expression vector. The HeLa/p73 clones were not characterized by changes in growth or morphology. Cell death analysis, however, indicated a greater sensitivity to cisplatin in the p73-overexpressed HeLa cells than determined for the noninduced HeLa cells. This increased sensitivity seems to affect an induction of a sub-G1 population as assessed from flow cytometry analysis. The increased sub-G1 population may, in turn, result from a reduction of cyclin D1 and B1 expression by cisplatin in the presence of p73. Hoechest staining indicated an increased number of dead cells in the p73-induced cells compared to the non-induced cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage was shown to be distinct in the p73-overexpressed cells compared to non-induced cells, which suggests that p73 modulates the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, a synergistic effect of p73 and cisplatin to induce apoptosis could lead to new treatment for some types of human cancers.

$p19^{ras}$ Accelerates $p73{\beta}$-mediated Apoptosis through a Caspase-3 Dependent Pathway

  • Jang, Sang-Min;Kim, Jung-Woong;Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.399-403
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    • 2009
  • $p19^{ras}$ is an alternative splicing variant of the proto-oncogene c-H-ras pre-mRNA of $p21^{ras}$. In contrast to $p21^{ras}$, $p19^{ras}$ does not have a C-terminal CAAX motif that targets the plasma membrane and is localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. We found that $p19^{ras}$ activated the transcriptional activity of $p73{\beta}$ through protein-protein interactions in the nucleus. p73 is known to play an important role in cellular damage responses such as apoptosis. Although p73 is a structural and functional homologue of p53, p73-mediated apoptosis has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction between $p19^{ras}$ and $p73{\beta}$ accelerated $p73{\beta}$-induced apoptosis through a caspase-3 dependent pathway. Treatment with DEVD-CHO, a caspase inhibitor, also strengthened $p73{\beta}$-mediated apoptosis through a caspase-3 dependent pathway. Furthermore, the enhanced transcriptional activity of endogenous $p73{\beta}$ by treatment with Taxol was amplified by $p19^{ras}$ overexpression, which markedly increased caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in the p53-null SAOS2 cancer cell line. Our findings indicate a functional linkage between $p19^{ras}$ and p73 in caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of cancer cells.

TAp73 and ΔNp73 Have Opposing Roles in 5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lai, Jing;Yang, Fang;Zhang, Wenwen;Wang, Yanru;Xu, Jing;Song, Wei;Huang, Guichun;Gu, Jun;Guan, Xiaoxiang
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.605-612
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    • 2014
  • The p73 gene contains an extrinsic P1 promoter and an intrinsic P2 promoter, controlling the transcription of the pro-apoptotic TAp73 isoform and the anti-apoptotic ${\Delta}Np73$ isoform, respectively. The DNA methylation status of both promoters act equally in the epigenetic transcriptional regulation of their relevant isoforms. The aim of this study was to analyze the different effects of these p73 isoforms in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effects of the DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-dC, on the T-47D breast cancer cell line, and evaluated the methylation status of the p73 promoters and expression of TAp73 and ${\Delta}Np73$. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of p53 and p73 isoforms in 5-aza-dC-treated T-47D cells and p53 knockout cells. 5-aza-dC induced significant anti-tumor effects in T-47D cells, including inhibition of cell viability, G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. This was associated with p73 promoter demethylation and a concomitant increase in TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, the methylation status of promoter P2 was not associated with ${\Delta}Np73$ mRNA or protein levels. Furthermore, demethylation of P2 failed to inhibit the expression of ${\Delta}Np73$ with 5-aza-dC in the p53 knockdown cell model. Our study suggests that demethylation of the P1 and P2 promoters has opposite effects on the expression of p73 isoforms, namely up-regulation of TAp73 and down-regulation of ${\Delta}Np73$. We also demonstrate that p53 likely contributes to 5-aza-dC-induced ${\Delta}Np73$ transcriptional inactivation in breast cancer cells.

STUDY ON mRNA EXPRESSION OF P21 AND P73 IN THE CELL LINES OF PRIMARY AND METASTATIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (원발성 및 전이성 구강편평세포암종 세포주에서 p21 및 p73 mRNA발현에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Kyung-Wook;Lee, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2001
  • There were many controversies in the cause and progress of tumorigenesis. Recently, studies on the mutation of genes related to the tumor have extensively been performed due to development of molecular biology. Structural and morphological changes of chromosomes, which are related to the abnormal activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppression genes, transform the normal cells into the tumor cells. p53 and Rb are well known tumor suppressor genes, while oncogenes include c-myc, bcl-2 and ras, etc. When exposed to cell damaging agents, p53 inhibits cell growth by inducing transcription of p21. Especially p73, which is homo-logy of p53, frequently deleted in melanoma, neuroblastoma, colon cancer, and breast cancer, when over produced, p73 activates the transcription of p21, bax-1 and inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis. For study on mRNA expression of p21 and p73, normal oral keratinocytes, and cell lines of primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma were cultured and then electrophoresis and RT-PCR(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were performed. 1. The mRNA of p21 and p73 in normal oral keratinocyte expressed lower than that of primary squamous cell carcinoma. 2. The mRNA of p21 in metastatic oral squamous carcinoma cell lines was expressed as various patterns compared with that of normal oral keratinocyte. 3. In the metastatic oral squamous cell lines, the mRNA of HN8 expressed higher than that of HN12 or HN19. 4. The mRNA of p73 in primary oral squamous cell lines expressed 4-5 times higher than that of normal keratinocyte. 5. In metastatic oral squamous cell lines, there was no significant expression of p73 mRNA compared with that of normal oral keratinocyte. From the results obtained in this study, mRNA expression of p73 in primary oral squamous cell lines was remarkable, while mRNA expression of p21 and p73 in metastatic oral squamous cell lines were statistically insignificant.

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Thermal Stability and Behavior of Isothermal Crystallization in Fe-P-C-B-(AI-Ge) Amorphous Alloys (Fe-P-C-B-(AI-Ge)계 비정질합금의 열적 안정성과 등온결정화 거동)

  • Jeon, U-Yong;Guk, Jin-Seon;Bae, In-Seong;Seol, Gyeong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.8 no.11
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    • pp.1026-1030
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    • 1998
  • Thermal properties of Fe- base amorpous alloys were investigated. $Fe_{80}P_6C_{12}B_{12}$ and $Fe_{73}P_{11}C_6B_4AI_4Ge_2$ amorphous alloys were fabricated by melt spinning method and thermal analysis was done by differential scanning calorimeter. After isothermal crystallization. the Avrami exponents of $Fe_{80}P_6C_{12}B_{12}$ and $Fe_{73}P_{11}C_6B_4AI_4Ge_2$ amorphous alloys were 1.8-2.2 and 2.5-4.0, respectively. It means the former alloy shows diffusion controlled growth and the latter one shows interface controlled growth. For $Fe_{80}P_6C_{12}B_{12}$ and $Fe_{73}P_{11}C_6B_4AI_4Ge_2$ amorphous alloys. the activation energies of isothermal crystallization was 353 and 371kJlmol. Also the activation energies of nucleation and growth were 301, 324kJlmol and 273. 30lkJ/mol, respectively. Thus $Fe_{73}P_{11}C_6B_4AI_4Ge_2$ amorphous alloy is considered to be more stable than $Fe_{73}P_{11}C_6B_4AI_4Ge_2$ amorphous alloy.

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Association between a p73 Gene Polymorphism and Genetic Susceptibility to Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in the South of China

  • Wang, Shuang-Shuang;Guo, Hai-Yan;Dong, Lin-Li;Zhu, Xiang-Qian;Ma, Liang;Li, Wen;Tang, Jian-Xin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10387-10391
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study aimed to identify any association between the p73 gene G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism and risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the south of China. Materials and Methods: We genotyped the p73 gene polymorphism of peripheral blood DNA from 168 patients with NSCLC and 195 normal controls using HRM (high resolution melting) and PCR-CTPP (polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers). Results: The results of genotyping by HRM and PCR-CTPP were consistent with direct sequencing, the p73 genotype distribution in 168 lung cancer patients being as follows: GC/GC 101 cases (60.1%), GC/AT 59 cases (35.1%), AT/AT 8 cases (4.8%). The carriers of AT/AT genotype had a significantly reduced risk of NSCLC (OR=0.370; 95%CI: 0.170-0.806; p=0.010) as compared with non-carriers. However, we found no relations between p73 genotypes and histological type (p=0.798, $x^2=0.452$), tumor stage (p=0.806, $x^2=0.806$), or lymph node metastasis (p=0.578, $x^2=1.098$). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism may be a modifier of NSCLC susceptibility in the Chinese population.

The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Nrf2 and P73 in Egyptian Women with Breast Cancer

  • Azhary, Nevin M Al;Kamel, Mahmoud M;Ismail, Yahia M;Mahmoud, Amal A;Radwan, Enas M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4945-4949
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in Egyptian females. Nrf2 is involved in oxidative stress while P73 functions in response to DNA damage. This study aimed to assess the role of Nrf2 promoter and P73 G4C14 to A4T14 SNPs in breast cancer in Egypt. Patients: Eighty-five female patients with breast tumours (41 malignant, 44 benign) were included. Nrf2 (rs6721961) and p73 (G4A) SNPs were determined by PCR- CTPP assay. Results: Genotype frequencies of the Nrf2 promoter SNP were 34.2% and 37.9% for AA in benign and malignant groups respectively, and 43.9% and 40.5% for CC and, 21.9 % and 21.6% for CA. Genotype frequencies for the P73 G4A SNP were 52.9% and 44.7% for GA in benign and malignant groups respectively, and 47.1% and 55.3% for GG. Discussion: Nrf2 genotypes in pre - and post-menopausal patients, showed significantly different distributions in the 2 patient groups, the AA genotype being significantly more common in pre-menopausal patients. The P73 G4A SNP showed no relation to age of disease onset. Conclusion: The Nrf2 (rs6721961) AA genotype might be related to early breast cancer onset. In contrast the P73 G4A polymorphism showed no relation to either disease risk or age at presentation.

Production of porcine fibroblasts carrying a vector enforced specific expression of CD73 to endothelial cells (돼지 혈관내피세포 특이적 CD73 발현 벡터가 도입된 돼지 섬유아세포 생산)

  • Oh, Keon Bong;Lee, Haesun;Hwang, Seongsoo;Ock, Sun-A;Chung, Hak-Jae;Byun, Sung June;Lee, Poongyeon;Im, Gi-Sun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2016
  • Nucleotide metabolism in endothelium is variable between different species. Recent studies demonstrated that this variability could contribute coagulation dysfunction, even though organs of the alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout pig were transplanted into the primate. CD73 (ecto-5'-nucelotidase) is an enzyme at cell surface catalyzing the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine, which plays role on a substance for anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant. Thus, overexpression of CD73 in endothelial cells of the pig is considered as an approach to reduce coagulopathy. In this study, we constructed a human CD73 expression vector under control of porcine Icam2 promoter (pIcam2-hCD73), which is expressed specifically at endothelial cells, and of CMV promoter as a control (CMV-CD73). First, we transfected the CMV-CD73 vector into HEK293 cells, and then confirmed CD73 expression at cell surface by flow cytometry analysis. Next, we transfected the pIcma2-CD73 and CMV-CD73 vectors into primary porcine fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Consequence was that the pIcma2-CD73 vector was expressed only at the porcine endothelial cells, meaning that the pIcam2 promoter lead to endothelial cell-specific expression of CD73 in vitro. Finally, we nucleofected the pIcam2-hCD73 vector into passage 3 fibroblasts, and enforced hygromycin selection of 400mg/ml. We were able to obtain forty three colonies harboring pIcam2-CD73 to provide donor cells for transgenic cloned porcine production.

ACOX1 destabilizes p73 to suppress intrinsic apoptosis pathway and regulates sensitivity to doxorubicin in lymphoma cells

  • Zheng, Fei-Meng;Chen, Wang-Bing;Qin, Tao;Lv, Li-Na;Feng, Bi;Lu, Yan-Ling;Li, Zuo-Quan;Wang, Xiao-Chao;Tao, Li-Ju;Li, Hong-Wen;Li, Shu-You
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.566-571
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    • 2019
  • Lymphoma is one of the most curable types of cancer. However, drug resistance is the main challenge faced in lymphoma treatment. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation. Deregulation of ACOX1 has been linked to peroxisomal disorders and carcinogenesis in the liver. Currently, there is no information about the function of ACOX1 in lymphoma. In this study, we found that upregulation of ACOX1 promoted proliferation in lymphoma cells, while downregulation of ACOX1 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Additionally, overexpression of ACOX1 increased resistance to doxorubicin, while suppression of ACOX1 expression markedly potentiated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, downregulation of ACOX1 promoted mitochondrial location of Bad, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and provoked apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 related apoptotic pathway. Overexpression of ACOX1 alleviated doxorubicin-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Importantly, downregulation of ACOX1 increased p73, but not p53, expression. p73 expression was critical for apoptosis induction induced by ACOX1 downregulation. Also, overexpression of ACOX1 significantly reduced stability of p73 protein thereby reducing p73 expression. Thus, our study indicated that suppression of ACOX1 could be a novel and effective approach for treatment of lymphoma.