• Title, Summary, Keyword: P4 (Progesterone)

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Role of cAMP in the Regulation of Progesterone Production and Secretion by Frog (Rana dybowskii) Follicles in vitro (북방산 개구리(Rana dybowskii)의포의 프로젝트론 생서에 대한 cAMP의 조절작용)

  • 권혁방;안연섭;김지열;윤용달
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 1988
  • The pattern of progesterone production and secretion of frog(R. dybowskii) follicles was investigated in follicle culture in vitro. Involvement of cAMP in the regulation of the steroid production by the follicles was also investigated by manipulating endogeneous cAMP level with forskolin and/or 3-isoburyl- 1 - methylxanthine(IBMX). Endogeneous follicular progesterone level increased rapidly in one hour of culture by treatment of frog pituitary homogenate(FPH) and reached peak level at 2 hours or later. But the absolute amount of progesterone produced (60-300 pg/follicle) or the peak time of the honnone level was different between individual animals. Basal level of progesterone in untreated sister follicles was very low (around 10 pg/follicle) and nearly undetectable in most cases regardless of culture lime. Secretion level of progesterone by the follicles obtained by measunng the honnone in the culture media was just the reflection of the intrafollicular level. Exogeneously added forskolin, an adenylate cyclase stimulator, and/or IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could mimic FPH action in terms of progesterone production and secretion. Thus, it seems clear that FPH regulates progesterone production via cAMP system in the follicle cells.

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The Effect of Progesterone on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Human Choriodecidual Membranes

  • Choi, Seong Jin;Sohn, Joon Hyung;Han, Kyoung-Hee;Park, Eun Young;Kang, Jieun;Chung, In-Bai
    • Perinatology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Progesterone is used to prevent recurrent preterm delivery, however the molecular mechanisms of its effect are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone on tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in human choriodecidual (CD) membranes. Methods: We collected CD membranes from women with uncomplicated term pregnancies who were scheduled for elective cesarean delivery (n=10). CD membranes ($1{\times}1cm$) were incubated in tissue culture media at $37^{\circ}C$. We pre-treated the CD membranes with progesterone (P4), $17{\alpha}$-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P), promegestone (R5020), or vehicle (ethanol) for 24 hours. The CD membranes were subsequently treated with $TNF-{\alpha}$ (with continued progesterone treatment) for 48 hours, then media was harvested for measuring MMP-9 activity by zymography and total protein was isolated from CD membrane tissues for MMP-9 expression by western blot analysis. Results: P4, 17P, and R5020 significantly reduced $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced MMP-9 activity in fetal membrane tissue samples (P=0.0078, P=0.0156, and P=0.0391, respectively) by zymography. Western blot analysis also showed decreased expression of MMP-9 in progesterone pretreated groups (P=0.0313). Conclusion: Progesterone reduces $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced MMP-9 activity in human CD membranes. These findings may provide further support for the role of progesterone in preventing preterm birth.

A Comparative Study on Clinical Effectiveness of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Progesterone on Luteal Support in Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulatian far IVF (체외수정 시술시 과배란 유도에서 Luteal Phase Support에 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin과 Progesterone의 효용성에 관한 비교 연구)

  • Nah, O-Soon;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Bae, Do-Whan
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to compare the endocrine milieu, and pregnancy rates in In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer(IVF-ET) program employing combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a) and pergonal(LH 75lU+FSH 75lU) when either human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) or progesterone were used for luteal phase support. A total number of 40 IVF-ET treatment cycles were prospectively studied. Ovarian hyperstimulation method was modified ultrashort protocol using GnRH-a. All patients started Decapeptyl at menstrual cycle day # 2, and HMG was started at # 3 days. When leading follicle was ${\geqq}$18mm or at least two follicles were ${\geqq}$14mm in diameter, HCG 10000lU intramuscularly was injected. After 36 hours HCG administration, oocytes were retrieved as usual guided by transvaginal ultrasound. Embryo were transfered 36-48 hours later. The patient's cycles were prospectively randomized to receive HCG(20cycles) or Progesterone (20cycles) for luteal support. The progesterone group received 25mg 1M starting from the day of ET. The HCG group received 1500IU 1M. on days 0, +2, +5 after ET. Estadiol($E_2$) and Progesterone($P_4$) were measured on the day of oocyte aspiration, ET day, and every 6 days thereafter. Results were follows as; 1. Estradiol, progesterone and LH levels on the day of HCG trigger, retrieved oocytes and number of transfered embryo were not significantly different in both groups. 2. On the day of aspiration and embryo transfered day, $E_2$, $P_4$ level were significantly higher in progesterone group than HCG group(p<0.01). 3. $E_2$, $P_4$ level on 6 days after ET were significantly higher in progesterone group than HCG group(p<0.01). But, $P_4/E_2$ ratio was not different in both groups. 4. $E_2$, $P_4$ level 12 days after ET were decreased abruptly in both groups and higher hormonal level appeared in HCG group(P<0.01). 5. The total pregnancy rate in the HCG group was 40% (8/20) and in the progesterone group 15%(3/20). 6. Comparing the pregnant and nonpregnant cases progesterone group was not different the hormonal status. In HCG group, pregnant cases appeared in higher $P_4$, $P_4/E_2$ ratio than nonpregnanct cases(P<0.01).

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Effect of Post Insemination Progesterone Supplement on Pregnancy Rates of Repeat Breeder Friesian Cows

  • Ababneh, Mohammed M.;Alnimer, Mufeed A.;Husein, Mustafa Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1670-1676
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    • 2007
  • Fifty repeat breeder (RB) Friesian cows were allocated to five groups of 10 cows each, to determine the effect of progesterone (P4) supplement on P4 concentrations and pregnancy rates during the periods of corpus luteum (CL) formation and development between days 2-7 and 7-12 following a spontaneous or $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$-induced estrus. Cows were artificially inseminated during $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$-induced (PGF-P4-d2 and PGF-P4-d7 groups) or spontaneous (S-P4-d2, S-P4-d7, and control groups) estrus. Progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) devoid of estrogen capsule were inserted either on d 2 (PGF-P4-d2 and S-P4-d2 groups) or d 7 (PGF-P4-d7 and S-P4-d7 groups) post-insemination and left in place for 5 days. Control cows did not receive any treatment. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis from all cows once daily for 4 days starting on the day of estrus (d 0) and once every 3 days thereafter until d 22. Progesterone treatment by day interaction accounted for higher plasma P4 in treated than non-treated control cows. Progesterone concentrations differed significantly (p<0.05) during metestrus (d 2 to d 7) but not during diestrus (d 7 to d 12). $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ treatment, lactation number, service number or their interactions did not affect progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rates. Therefore, cows were grouped according to the day of P4 supplement irrespective of the $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ treatment. Progesterone supplement on d 7 but not d 2 significantly increased (p<0.03) pregnancy rates in repeat breeding cows with four or more previous services but not in cows in their third service. In conclusion, post-insemination P4 supplement to repeat breeding cows with four or more previous services improved pregnancy rates and should be advocated when no specific reason for infertility is diagnosed. Further studies with larger numbers of repeat breeding cows under field conditions are needed to ascertain the findings of this study.

Reproductive Responses of Awassi Ewes Treated with either Naturally Occurring Progesterone or Synthetic Progestagen

  • Husein, Mustafa Q.;Kridli, Rami T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1257-1262
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    • 2002
  • The objective was to identify the appropriate form of progesterone, which exhibits compact reproductive responses in Awassi ewes during mid to late seasonal anestrous period. Forty-eight Awassi ewes were randomly allocated into four groups to be treated with 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA), 40 mg FGA, or 600 mg progesterone sponges. After a 12 day period, sponges were removed and ewes were administered i.m. with 600 IU PMSG (d 0, 0 h). Five harnessed Awassi rams were turned-in with the ewes to detect heat. Ewes were checked for breeding marks at 6 h intervals for 5 days. Blood samples were collected from all ewes for analysis of progesterone concentrations. Pretreatment (d -13 and -12) progesterone concentrations were ${\leq}0.2ng/mL$ among all ewes and were indicative of seasonal anestrous period. On d 0, progesterone concentrations were elevated to $1.4{\pm}0.1ng/mL$ in ewes received progesterone sponges only and were higher (p<0.0001) than those (${\leq}0.2ng/mL$) administered MAP or FGA sponges. Progesterone concentrations returned to their basal values of <0.2 ng/mL within 24 h of sponge removal and were similar (p>0.1) among all ewes. Incidence of estrus was similar (p>0.1) among the four groups and occurred in 75% (9/12), 82% (9/11), 67% (8/12) and 58% (7/12) of the ewes receiving MAP, 30 mg FGA, 40 mg FGA and progesterone sponges, respectively. Estrous responses occurred 14.7, 20 and 13.6 h earlier in progesterone-sponge-treated ewes than those of MAP- (p<0.04), 30 mg FGA- (p<0.01) and 40 mg FGA-treated (p=0.06) ewes, respectively. Induced estrus conception rates were 50% (6/12), 55% (6/11), 50% (6/12) and 42% (5/12), out of which 4/6, 4/6, 3/6 and 3/5 lambed 151 days following d 0, and were similar (p>0.1) among ewes of the four treatment groups. Ewes that returned to estrus 16 to 20 days following d 0 were 5/12, 5/11, 6/12 and 4/12 ewes treated with MAP, 30 mg FGA, 40 mg FGA and progesterone sponges, respectively, and all lambed 169 days later. Overall lambing rates were 75% (9/12), 82% (9/11), 75% (9/12) and 58% (7/12) ewes treated with MAP, 30 mg FGA, 40 mg FGA and progesterone sponges, respectively. Results demonstrate that applications of MAP, 30 mg FGA, 40 mg FGA and progesterone sponges Awassi ewes were equally effective in induction of estrus and tended to favor both types of FGA and MAP in overall lambing rates over progesterone sponges during the seasonal anestrous period.

Reproductive Performance of Holstein Cattle Treated with Progesterone and Combination of Progesterone and Estradiol (인공수정 후 외인성 Progesterone과 Estradiol 병용 투여 및 Progesterone 단독 투여가 젖소의 번식 성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, K.S.;Lee, W.S.;Son, J.K.;Park, S.B.;Park, S.J.;Kim, H.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kang, S.J.;Jeong, G.Y.;Jeon, B.S.;Ahn, B.S.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hormones (progesterone, and combination of progesterone and estradiol) on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The intravaginal CIDR was inserted in the vagina of cow on day 14 post-insemination to stimulate progesterone secretion with and without estradiol. The CIDR was removed on the day of next expected estrus. The cows for control group were not treated with CIDR or hormones. Conception rate, estrus interval, estrus intensity and serum progesterone were measured. Conception rates in control, CIDR without estradiol and CIDR treated cows were 15.4, 38.9 and 60%, respectively. Estrus interval in cows treated with CIDR was 26.5 days compared with 37.1 and 48.5 days in control and CIDR without estradiol treated cows. Estrus signs were more intense in cows treated with CIDR compared with control and CIDR without estradiol treated cows. Pregnant cows treated with CIDR showed higher serum progesterone concentration than pregnant and non-pregnant cows in control group. Particularly, serum progesterone was significantly higher in CIDR treated pregnant cows compared to non-pregnant cows at days 1, 2 and 6 of gestation. It may be concluded from present results that CIDR treatment is better than CIDR without estradiol to improve conception rate in dairy cattle.

Studies on Changes of Ovarian and Placental Weight and Periods of Pregnancy by Progesterone-tube Implantation during Pregnancy in Rats (흰쥐의 번식과정에 있어서 Progesterone-tube 이식이 난소와 태반중량 및 임신기간에 미치는 영향)

  • 민관식;오석두;윤창현
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to find out the changes of ovarian, placental and fetal weights and periods of pregnancy in rats implanted with progesterone-tube during the reproductive stages. One hundred and thirty-four mature rats, 10~13 weeks old, were offered for this experiment. The animals, which were implanted with silicon tubes filled with progesterone on day 15 of pregnancy, were sacrified at 18, 20, 21 and 22 days of pregnancy. The changes of ovarian, placental and fetal weights and the number of fetuses during late pregnancy were recorded. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. After progesterone-tube implantation, ovarian weight reached to a peak value of 92.0$\pm$0.9mg at 20 days of pregnancy, there after decreased significantly to 79.5$\pm$7.6 and 68.26$\pm$4.2mg at 20 and 22 days of pregnancy(P<0.01). 2. The placental weight increased rapidly during 15~18 days of pregnancy in control and progesterone treated rats. A peak value of 447.78$\pm$20.9mg was shown at 20 days of pregnancy after progesterone-tube implantation, and in control rats the value decreased significantly to 419.42$\pm$11.6 and 404.1$\pm$29.3mg at 20 and 21 days of pregnancy(P<0.01). 3. The fetal weights was not shown any significant differences between control and progesterone-tube implanted rats. 4. The number of fetuses in control rats were 14.75$\pm$0.4 at 8~10 days of pregnancy and 13.5$\pm$0.3 and 13.25$\pm$0.4 at 12 and 20 days of pregnancy. 5. The significant difference in periods of pregnancy was appeared between progesterone-tube implanted(27.3$\pm$0.3 days) and control(22.1$\pm$0.3 days)rats(P<0.01).

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Sperm Selection in Frozen-semen Using Progesterone and BSA (Progesterone과 BSA를 이용한 동결정액내 정자의 선별)

  • 박영식
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 1996
  • The aim of this study is to elucidate sperm chemotaxis and to set up the optirnal condition for selection of motile and capacitated sperm from hovine frozen-semen. Thus, the effects of semen-washing after thawing, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and sperm-washing frequency on sperm selection were examined. For evaluating their effects, number, viability and acrosome reaction of sperm swim-up seperated from semen, which were incubated for 30 minutes at 36$^{\circ}C$ in the M2 solution containing P4 and BSA, were investigated. For frozen-semen just after thawing, sperm recovery and viability were not significantly different between P4-treated and -untreated semen. However, washing frozen-semen decreased the number of sperm and increased the viability of sperm that were recovered from semen treated with P4. Progesterone affected the recovery rate, the viability and the acrosome-reaction rate of sperm recovered from washed frozen-semen. Especially, number of motile and capacitated sperm were highest in semen treated with 50$\mu$g /ml among 0, 20, 50 and 100$\mu$g /ml of P4 concentrations. BSA affected the recovery rate and the viability of sperm recovered from washed frozen-semen that were treated with 50$\mu$g /ml of P4. Especially, the percentage of viable sperm were highest in semen treated with 4mg /ml among 0, 2, 4, and 6mg /ml of BSA concentrations. Repeatedly sperm-washing did not affect the recovery rate and the viability of sperm recovered from washed frozen-semen that were treated with 50$\mu$g /ml of P4 and 4mg /ml of BSA In conclusion, using progesterone and BSA could efficiently make the selection of motile and capacitated sperm from washed frozen-semen.

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Correlations of Litter Size and Maternal Serum Progesterone Concentration during Pregnancy with Mammary Gland Growth and Development Indices at Parturition in Javanese Thin-Tail Sheep

  • Manalu, W.;Sumaryadi, M.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 1998
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate correlations of litter size and average serum progesterone concentrations during pregnancy with mammary gland growth and development at parturition. Twenty ewes (5, 9, 4, and 2 ewes carrying 0, 1, 2, and 3 lambs, respectively) were used to measure weekly serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy. At parturition, the experimental ewes were slaughtered for determination of mammary gland growth and development at parturition (mammary dry fat-free tissue [DFFT], DNA, RNA, collagen, protein, and glycogen). Correlation of mammary DFFT with litter size and averages serum progesterone concentrations were 0.75 and 0.72, respectively. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations did not correlate with the mammary DNA concentration. However, litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the mammary RNA and protein concentrations, but negatively correlated with the mammary collagen (p < 0.01) and. glycogen (p < 0.05) concentrations. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the total mammary DNA, RNA, collagen, protein and glycogen contents. These results implied that the increased concentrations of progesterone with the increased litter size during pregnancy improved mammary gland growth and development at parturition.

Effect of Gonadotropin Administration on Blood Ovarian Steroid Hormone Level in Rabbit (성선자극 호르몬 투여가 토끼의 혈중 난소 스테로이드호르몬 수준에 미치는 영향)

  • 김병기
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.363-371
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    • 1997
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gonadotropin administration on blood ovarian steroid hormone in angora rabbit. Mature angora rabbits were primed for superovulation with PMSG 100IU. Eighty hours later, the rabbit were induced to ovulate with HCG 100IU. In exp 1, blood progesterone and estradiol of superovulated does were measured by radiommunoassay. Blood progesterone concentration at 93, 99, 102 and 114 hours after HCG injection were 12.9$\pm$0.5, 34.8$\pm$5.1, 12.2$\pm$2.7 and 43.4$\pm$5.8ng/ml, respectively. Mean progesterone concentration of blood collected at 99 and 114 hours after HCG injection(p<0.05). However, mean blood estradiol concentration was not changed. In exp 2, superovulated does were unilaterally ovariectomized at 96 hours after HCG injection. Blood progesterone concentration was tend to be decreased after ovariectomy. Nosignificant changes in blood estradiol concentration was observed after ovariectomy. In exp 3, superovulated does were bilaterally ovariectomized at 96 hours after HCG injection Ovariectomized does were treated with progesterone. Blood progesterone level in the rabbits treated, twice daily, with 5mg progesterone after ovariectomy was similiar to that in the superovulated intact rabbits. Blood estradiol concentration of the rabbits after bilateral ovariectomy was beyond detection range. Blood progesterone concentration was significantly decreased to 7.6$\pm$3.0ng/ml wi thin 3 hours after ovriectomy(p<0.05). However, that value was increased to 34.8$\pm$8.2ng/ml by 5 mg progesterone treatment and this elevated level was significatnly decreased to 7.3$\pm$2.4ng/ml at 12 hours after progesterone administration(p<0.05).

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