• Title, Summary, Keyword: P2RY2

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P Element-Mediated Transformation with the rosy Gene in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster에 있어서 P Element를 이용한 rosy 유전자의 형질전환)

  • Kim, Wook;Kidwell, Margaret G.
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.340-347
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    • 1995
  • We have used two kinds of P element constructs, Pc[(ry+)B] and p[(ry+)$\Delta$SX9], for genetic transformation by microinjection of D. melanogaster. Pc[(ry+)B] construct carrying the rosy gene within an autonomous P element was injected into a true M strain caring the ry506. mutation. The source of transposase for microinjection and transformation was provided by a P element helper plasmid designated p-$\Delta$2-3hs$\pi$, which was co-injected with nonautonomous P[(ry+)$\Delta$SX9] construct into same ry506 M strains. A dechorination method was adopted and 35 independent transformed lines were obtained froin 1143 G0 Injected (35/1143). About 20% of the injected embryos eclosed as adults. Among G0 eclosed flies, approximately 40% exhibited eye color that was similar to wild-type (ry+), but about 60% of fertile G0 transformed lines appeared to have no G1 transformants. Therefore it is unlikely that G0 expression requires integration of the rosy transposon into chromosomes. Pc[(ry+)B] and P[(ry+)$\Delta$SX9] constructs were found to be nearly same in the frequency of element-mediated transformation. On the basis of these results, nonautonomous P elements constructs could he used as same effective vectors in P element-mediated transformation for introducing and fixing genes in insect populations.

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Increased Expression of P2RY2, CD248 and EphB1 in Gastric Cancers from Chilean Patients

  • Aquea, Gisela;Bresky, Gustavo;Lancellotti, Domingo;Madariaga, Juan Andres;Zaffiri, Vittorio;Urzua, Ulises;Haberle, Sergio;Bernal, Giuliano
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1931-1936
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    • 2014
  • Background: Gastric cancer (GC) ranks as one of the major causes of mortality due to cancer worldwide. In Chile, it is currently the leading cause of cancer death. Identification of novel molecular markers that may help to improve disease diagnosis at early stages is imperative. Materials and Methods: Using whole-genome DNA microarrays we determined differential mRNA levels in fresh human GC samples compared to adjacent healthy mucosa from the same patients. Genes significantly overexpressed in GC were validated by RT-PCR in a group of 14 GC cases. Results: The genes CD248, NSD1, RAB17, ABCG8, Ephb1 and P2RY2 were detected as the top overexpressed in GC biopsies. P2RY2, Ephb1 and CD248 showed the best sensitivity for GC detection with values of 92.9%, 85.7% and 64.3% (p<0.05), respectively. Specificity was 85.7%, 71.4% and 71.4% (p<0.05), for each respectively.

Characterization of Ca2+-Dependent Protein-Protein Interactions within the Ca2+ Release Units of Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

  • Rani, Shilpa;Park, Chang Sik;Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar;Kim, Do Han
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2016
  • In the heart, excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is mediated by $Ca^{2+}$ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the interactions of proteins forming the $Ca^{2+}$ release unit (CRU). Among them, calsequestrin (CSQ) and histidine-rich $Ca^{2+}$ binding protein (HRC) are known to bind the charged luminal region of triadin (TRN) and thus directly or indirectly regulate ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) activity. However, the mechanisms of CSQ and HRC mediated regulation of RyR2 activity through TRN have remained unclear. We first examined the minimal KEKE motif of TRN involved in the interactions with CSQ2, HRC and RyR2 using TRN deletion mutants and in vitro binding assays. The results showed that CSQ2, HRC and RyR2 share the same KEKE motif region on the distal part of TRN (aa 202-231). Second, in vitro binding assays were conducted to examine the $Ca^{2+}$ dependence of protein-protein interactions (PPI). The results showed that TRN-HRC interaction had a bell-shaped $Ca^{2+}$ dependence, which peaked at pCa4, whereas TRN-CSQ2 or TRN-RyR2 interaction did not show such $Ca^{2+}$ dependence pattern. Third, competitive binding was conducted to examine whether CSQ2, HRC, or RyR2 affects the TRN-HRC or TRN-CSQ2 binding at pCa4. Among them, only CSQ2 or RyR2 competitively inhibited TRN-HRC binding, suggesting that HRC can confer functional refractoriness to CRU, which could be beneficial for reloading of $Ca^{2+}$ into SR at intermediate $Ca^{2+}$ concentrations.

Ca-release Channel of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of the Snake (Reptile) Skeletal Muscle (뱀 (파충류) 골격근 소포체 칼슘유리 채널)

  • Nam, Jang-Hyeon;Seok, Jeong-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 1996
  • To investigate properties of Ca-release channel in the reptile skeletal muscle, electrophoretical analysis, purification of RyR, $[^3H]ryanodine$binding study, and $^{45}Ca-release$ were carried out in the SR vesicles prepared from the snake skeletal muscle. The snake SR vesicle has the single high molecular weight protein band on SDS-PAGE, and its mobility was similar with that of rat skeletal SR vesicles. The high molecular weight band on SDS-PACE was found in the $[^3H]ryanodine$ peak fractions $(Fr_{5-7})$ obtained from the purification step of the RyR. Maximal binding site and Kd of the snake SR RyR were 6.36 pmole/mg protein and 17.62 nM, respectively. Specific binding of $[^3H]ryanodine$ was significantly increased by calcium and AMP (P<0.05), but not or slightly inhibited by tetracaine, ruthenium red (5.4%), or $MgCl_2$ (21%). $^{45}Ca-release$ from the SR vesicles loaded passively was significantly increased by the low concentration of calcium $(1{\sim}10{\mu}M)$ and AMP (5 mM)(P<0.05), but significantly decreased by the high concentration $(300{\mu}M)$ of calcium, tetracaine (1 mM), ruthenium red $(10{\mu}M)$, and $MgCl_2$ (2 mM)(P <0.05). From the above results, it is suggested that snake SR vesicles also have the RyR showing the similar properties to those of mammalian skeletal RyR with the exceptions of no or slight inhibition of $[^3H]ryanodine-binding$ by tetracaine, ruthenium red, or $MgCl_2$.

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Optimization of Hybrid Process of(Chemical Coagulation, Fenton Oxidation and Ceramic Membrane Filtration) for the Treatment of Reactive Dye Solutions (반응성 염료폐수 처리를 위한 화학응집, 펜톤산화, 세라믹 분리막 복합공정의 최적화)

  • Yang, Jeong-Mok;Park, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Byung-Hwan;Kim, Tak-Hyun;Lee, Jin-Won;Kim, Sang-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2006
  • This study investigated the effects of hybrid process(chemical coagulation, Fenton oxidation and ceramic UF(ultrafiltration)) on COD and color removals of commercial reactive dyestuffs. In the case of chemical coagulation, the optimal concentrations of $Fe^{3+}$ coagulant for COD and color removals of RB49(reactive blue 49) and RY84(reactive yellow 84) were determined according to the different coagulant dose at the optimal pH. They were 2.78 mM(pH 7) in RB49 and 1.85 mM(pH 6) in RY84, respectively. In the case of Fenton oxidation, the optimal concentrations of $Fe^{3+}\;and\;H_2O_2$ were obtained. Optimal $[Fe^{2+}]:[H_2O_2]$ molar ratio of COD and color removals of RB49 and RY84 were 4.41:5.73 mM and 1.15:0.81 mM, respectively. In the case of ceramic UF, the flux and rejection of supernatant after Fenton oxidation were investigated. After ceramic UF for 9 hr, the average flux of RB49 and RY84 solutions were $53.4L/m^2hr\;and\;67.4L/m^2hr$ at 1 bar, respectively. In addition, the permeate flux increased and the average flux recovery were 98.5-99.9%(RB49) and 91.0-97.3%(RY84) according to adopting off-line cleaning(5% $H_2SO_4$). Finally, COD and color removals were 91.6-95.7% and 99.8% by hybrid process, respectively.

Capacity of Activated Carbon Derived from Agricultural Waste in the Removal of Reactive Dyes from Aqueous Solutions

  • Manoochehri, Mahboobeh;Rattan, V.K.;Khorsand, Ameneh;Panahi, Homayon Ahmad
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2010
  • The study describes the results of batch experiments on the removal of Reactive Yellow 15 (RY15) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from synthetic textile wastewater onto Activated Carbon from Walnut shell (ACW). The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlish, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models of adsorption. The experiments were carried out as function of initial concentrations, pH, temperature (303-333), adsorbent dose and kinetics. The surface area and pore volumes of adsorbent were measured by BET and BJH methods. The findings confirm the surface area (BET) is 248.99 $m^2/g$. The data fitted well with the Temkin and D-R isotherms for RY15 and RB5, respectively. The most favorable adsorption occurred in acidic pH. Pseudo-second order kinetic model were best in agreement with adsorption of RY15 and RB5 on ACW. The results indicate that walnut shell could be an alternative to more costly adsorbent currently being used for dyes removal.

Unaided Stapling Technique for Pure Single-Incision Distal Gastrectomy in Early Gastric Cancer: Unaided Delta-Shaped Anastomosis and Uncut Roux-en-Y Anastomosis

  • Suh, Yun-Suhk;Park, Ji-Ho;Kim, Tae Han;Huh, Yeon-Ju;Son, Young Gil;Yang, Jun-Young;Kong, Seong-Ho;Lee, Hyuk-Joon;Yang, Han-Kwang
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Intracorporeal anastomosis is the most difficult procedure during pure single-incision distal gastrectomy (SIDG) that affects its generalization. We introduced unaided delta-shaped anastomosis (uDelta), a novel anastomosis technique, for gastroduodenostomy after pure SIDG, and compared the results with those of previously reported Roux-en-Y anastomosis (RY). Materials and Methods: Between March 2014 and March 2015, SIDG with D1+ lymph node dissection was performed for early gastric cancer through a 2.5-cm transumbilical incision without any additional port. uDelta was performed by the operator alone, without any intracorporeal assistance. Results: uDelta was performed on 11 patents, and uncut RY was performed on 5-patients without open or multiport conversion. R0 resection was performed in all cases. No significant differences were observed in mean age and body mass index between patients who underwent uDelta or RY. Mean operation times were $214.5{\pm}36.2$ minutes for uDelta and $240.8{\pm}65.9$ minutes for RY, which was not significantly different. Reconstruction time for uDelta was shorter than that for RY, with marginal statistical significance ($26.1{\pm}8.3$ minutes vs. $38.0{\pm}9.1$ minutes, P=0.05). There were no intraoperative transfusions, 30-day mortality, or anastomosis-related complications in either group. Average length of hospital stay was $8.2{\pm}1.9$ days in the uDelta group and $7.2{\pm}0.8$ days in the RY group (P=0.320). Conclusions: After carefully considering indications, uDelta can be a feasible and can be a reproducible reconstruction method after SIDG in early gastric cancer.

Effect of Soil Incorporation of Graminaceous and Leguminous Manures on Tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) Growth and Soil Nutrient Balances (화본과 및 두과 녹비작물 토양환원에 따른 토마토 생육 및 토양 양분수지량 변화)

  • Lee, In-Bog;Kang, Seok-Beom;Park, Jin-Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the effects of incorporation of green manures (GM) into a sandy loam soil on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) and nutrient balances (input minus offtake of nutrients), five tomato production systems were compared under the condition of plastic film house: 1) a no input system (no additional amendment or inputs, 0-To-0-To); 2) a conventional system (application of N-P-K chemical fertilizers, Cf-To-Cf-To); 3) a leguminous GM-containing system (hairy vetch-tomato-soybean-tomato, Hv-To-Sb-To); 4) a graminaceous GM-containing system (rye-tomato-sudan grass-tomato, Ry-To-Sd-To); and 5) system mixed with leguminous and graminaceous GMs (rye-tomatosoybean- tomato, Ry-To-Sb-To). Here, hairy vetch and rye were cultivated as winter cover crops during late $Dec{\sim}late$ Feb and soybean and sudan grass were cultivated as summer cover crops during late $Jun{\sim}mid$ Aug. All of them cut before tomato planting and then incorporated into soil. Biomass of GMs was greater in summer season than that of winter season. Nitrogen amount fixed by a leguminous plants was about $126\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ per a cropping season, corresponding to 60% N level needed for tomato production, which was comparable to 50 and $96\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ fixed by rye and sudan grass. As a result, tomato yield of Hv-To-Sb-To system (legume GM treatment) was similar to Cf-To-Cf-To (conventional), but that in Ry-To-Sd-To system (graminaceous GM treatment) was not attained to a half level of conventional treatment. Nutrient budgets for N, P and K on the conventional farm were balanced or somewhat positive exception for minus-balanced K. Ry-To-Sd-To system showed a positive N, P and K budgets due to the depressed growth of tomato which is caused by high C/N ratio and low N-fixing capacity of the GMs. Inversely, those of Hv-To-Sb-To system were negative in all of N, P and K budgets because of increased growth and yield of tomato with high nitrogen-supplying capacity as well as low C/N ratio of leguminous GM. In conclusion, although conventional cultivation has an advantage in relation to N, P and K nutrient budgets rather than GM-incorporated systems, a leguminous GMs could be recommended as nitrogen reservoir and soil amendment because the yield of tomato between use of leguminous GM and conventional cultivation was not only significantly difference, but also GMs commonly reduce nutrient loss and improve microbial communities.

Effect of no-tillage and green manure practices on the nitrous oxide emission from cropland (농경지에서 무경운 및 녹비 투입에 따른 아산화질소 배출특성)

  • Lee, Sun-Il;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Jong-Sik;Choi, Eun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2019
  • Cropland is a major source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and we need technologies in the field of agriculture that can reduce the presence of N2O. In this study, a field experiment encompassing six treatments was conducted to determine the efflux of N2O in cropland during the growing season. An experimental plot was composed of two main sectors, no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT), which were subdivided into three plots according to types of nitrogen (N) sources: CF, chemical fertilizer; HV, hairy vetch+chemical fertilizer; and RY, rye+chemical fertilizer. The cumulative N2O emissions were 179.8 mg N2O m-2 for CF-CT, 108.1 mg N2O m-2 for HV-CT, 303.5 mg N2O m-2 for RY-CT, 86.7 mg N2O m-2 for CF-NT, 73.8 mg N2O m-2 for HV-NT, and 122.7 mg N2O m-2 for RY-NT during the fallow season. The CT, HV, and RY of no-tilled soils were reduced by 51.8, 31.7 and 59.6%, respectively (p<0.001). Our results indicate that the use of no-tillage and hairy vetch practice rather than conventional tillage and chemical fertilizer practice can decrease N2O emission.

The Generation Model of Problem Solving as a Reinterpretation on Polya Thesis (해법(解法) 발생(發生)의 연추적(連推的) 모형(模型) -기존의 폴리아(Polya) 틀에 대한 재해석-)

  • Jo, Dong-Ho
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.3
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    • pp.229-249
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    • 1997
  • 폴리아가 그의 저서 ‘How to Solve It.'에서 주창한 문제 해결의 모형은 이렇게 해석될 수 있다. 곧, 절대 다수의 수학 문제는 조건문 (p${\rightarrow}$q)의 명제 형식으로 분해된다는 것이다. 그리하여 순조롭게 발생되는 문제 해법의 전과정은 아래와 같이 마치 징검다리를 놓듯 추이율(transitivity)을 연거퍼 적용하는(이른바 연추적이라 함) 절차이다. (p: 주어진 정보) ${\rightarrow}$ ${\cdots}$ ${\rightarrow}$ ${\cdots}$ ${\rightarrow}$ (구하는 정보: q) 이것은, 일반적으로, 추이율이 성립하는 모든 관계(relation)의 연추적 확인 과정으로 확장될 수 있다. 요컨대 항진식 (p${\rightarrow}$r) ${\wedge}$ (r${\rightarrow}$q) ${\rightarrow}$ (p${\rightarrow}$q)의 보장 아래 관계의 추이율 xRz ${\wedge}$ zRy ${\rightarrow}$ xRy 로 연결되는 온갖 경로를 포괄한다. 이상과 같이 정식화되는 이 도식의 한계와 효용은 (1) 모든 문제가 조건문의 형태를 갖추고 있는 것은 아니며, (2) 조건문 형식의 문제라도 해법이 반드시 연추적으로 발생되는 법도 아니고, (3) 더구나 이것이 해법 발생의 만능 열쇠는 아닐뿐더러, (4) 발상을 촉진하는 데는 교육공학적으로 더 정교한 배려가 필요하므로, (5) 초보 단계에서 행동 수정을 위한 치유 목적으로 사용됨이 바람직하다.

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