• Title, Summary, Keyword: Oxidative Stress

Search Result 2,983, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

A Pilot Examination of Oxidative Stress in Trichotillomania

  • Grant, Jon E.;Chamberlain, Samuel R.
    • Psychiatry investigation
    • /
    • v.15 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1130-1134
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective Trichotillomania is a relatively common illness whose neurobiology is poorly understood. One treatment for adult trichotillomania, n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), has antioxidative properties, as well as effects on central glutamatergic transmission. Preclinical models suggest that excessive oxidative stress may be involved in its pathophysiology. Methods Adults with trichotillomania provided a blood sample for analysis of compounds that may be influenced by oxidative stress [glutathione, angiotensin II, ferritin, iron, glucose, insulin and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), and hepcidin]. Participants were examined on symptom severity, disability, and impulsivity. The number of participants with out-of-reference range oxidative stress measures were compared against the null distribution. Correlations between oxidative stress markers and clinical measures were examined. Results Of 14 participants (mean age 31.2 years; 92.9% female), 35.7% (n=5) had total glutathione levels below the reference range (p=0.041). Other oxidative stress measures did not have significant proportions outside the reference ranges. Lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale sub-score) (r=0.97, p=0.001). Conclusion A third of patients with trichotillomania had low levels of glutathione, and lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness. Because NAC is a precursor for cysteine, and cysteine is a rate limiting step for glutathione production, these results may shed light on the mechanisms through which NAC can have beneficial effects for impulsive symptoms. Confirmation of these results requires a suitable larger follow-up study, including an internal normative control group.

Gpx3-dependent Responses Against Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Kho, Chang-Won;Lee, Phil-Young;Bae, Kwang-Hee;Kang, Sung-Hyun;Cho, Sa-Yeon;Lee, Do-Hee;Sun, Choong-Hyun;Yi, Gwan-Su;Park, Byoung-Chul;Park, Sung-Goo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.270-282
    • /
    • 2008
  • The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has defense mechanisms identical to higher eukaryotes. It offers the potential for genome-wide experimental approaches owing to its smaller genome size and the availability of the complete sequence. It therefore represents an ideal eukaryotic model for studying cellular redox control and oxidative stress responses. S. cerevisiae Yap1 is a well-known transcription factor that is required for $H_2O_2$-dependent stress responses. Yap1 is involved in various signaling pathways in an oxidative stress response. The Gpx3 (Orp1/PHGpx3) protein is one of the factors related to these signaling pathways. It plays the role of a transducer that transfers the hydroperoxide signal to Yap1. In this study, using extensive proteomic and bioinformatics analyses, the function of the Gpx3 protein in an adaptive response against oxidative stress was investigated in wild-type, gpx3-deletion mutant, and gpx3-deletion mutant overexpressing Gpx3 protein strains. We identified 30 proteins that are related to the Gpx3-dependent oxidative stress responses and 17 proteins that are changed in a Gpx3-dependent manner regardless of oxidative stress. As expected, $H_2O_2$-responsive Gpx3-dependent proteins include a number of antioxidants related with cell rescue and defense. In addition, they contain a variety of proteins related to energy and carbohydrate metabolism, transcription, and protein fate. Based upon the experimental results, it is suggested that Gpx3-dependent stress adaptive response includes the regulation of genes related to the capacity to detoxify oxidants and repair oxidative stress-induced damages affected by Yap1 as well as metabolism and protein fate independent from Yap1.

Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Extracts from Sambucus williamsii var. coreana on t-BHP Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang cells (접골목 추출물에 의한 항산화 활성이 정상 간세포의 t-BHP 유발 산화스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kitae
    • The Journal of the Society of Korean Medicine Diagnostics
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.275-286
    • /
    • 2013
  • In the present study, antioxidant activity and protective effect of extracts from Sambucus williamsii var. coreana stems (SWC) were evaluated on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative stress in human liver (Chang) cells. Antioxidant activities of the SWC extracts were determined by various radical scavenging activities, such as DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. SWC extracts showed strong antioxidant effect on various assay. To determine the hepatoprotective effects of SWC on t-BHP induced oxidative damage, cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Pretreatment of SWC extracts showed increasing cell viability, decreasing ROS and restoring mitochondria membrane potential on t-BHP induced oxidative stress in Chang cells. Our findings suggest that SWC extracts may be considered a potential agent for therapeutic protective effect from oxidative stress through its antioxidant activity.

Protectvie effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos against hydrogen peroxidase-induced oxidative stress on Human keratinocyte, HaCaT cells (Hydrogen peroxide로 산화적 스트레스가 유도된 HaCaT keratinocyte에서 금은화의 세포 보호 효과)

  • Seo, Seung-Hee;Choi, Mee-Ok
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.28 no.4
    • /
    • pp.57-62
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objectives : Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) has been shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-rheumatoid properties. However, it is still largely unknown whether LJF inhibits skin injury against oxidative stress in human keratinocyte, HaCaT cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of LJF against hydrogen peroxide($H_2O_2$)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. Methods : To evaluate out the protective effects of LJF on oxidative injury in HaCaT cells, an oxidative stress model of HaCaT cells was established under a suitable concentration (500 ${\mu}M$) hydrogen peroxide. HaCaT keratinocyte cells were pre-treated with LJF (0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml), and then stimulated with $H_2O_2$. Then, the cells were harvested to measure the cell viability, DNA damage, and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results : LJF (0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) itself did not show any significant toxicity in HaCaT cells. The treatment of $H_2O_2$ caused the oxidative stress, leading to the cell death, and DNA injury. However, pretreatment with LJF reduced cell death, and DNA injury. The stimulation of $H_2O_2$ on HaCaT cells resulted in excessive release of ROS, which is the main factor of oxidative stress. The excessive release of ROS was inhibited by LJF treatment significantly. Conclusions : These results could suggest that LJF exhibited the protective effects of HaCaT cells against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS release. It could be explained that LJF inhibit skin damages against oxidative stress. Thus, LJF would be useful for the development of drug or cosmetics treating skin troubles.

Association between oxidative stress and blood pressure in Korean subclinical hypertensive patients (경계성 고혈압 환자에서 혈압과 산화 스트레스 관련 지표 간의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Jeong-Hwa;Lee, Hye-Jin;Choi, Hee Jeong;Yun, Kyung Eun;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.126-136
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the association between hypertension and oxidative stress-related parameters and to evaluate these parameters in subclinical hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects living in Korea. We attempted to determine whether oxidative stress-related parameters would differ between two groups of 227 newly-diagnosed, untreated (systolic blood pressure (BP) ${\geq}$ 130 mmHg and diastolic BP ${\geq}$ 85 mmHg) and 130 normotensive subjects (systolic BP < 120 mmHg and diastolic BP < 80 mmHg). General characteristics of the subjects were collected using a simple questionnaire. From subjects' blood, degree of DNA damage in lymphocytes, the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, level of plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), glutathione, and anti-oxidative vitamins, as well as plasma lipid profiles and conjugated diene (CD) were analyzed. Evaluation of the associations of oxidative stress-related parameters with blood pressure of the subjects was performed using Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for confounding factors. Several oxidative stress-related parameters were higher in subclinical hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects. Plasma levels of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, ${\beta}$-carotene, TRAP, and activity of GSH-px were significantly lower in subclinical hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects. Increased levels of DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in subclinical hypertensive patients. These results confirm an association between blood pressure and oxidative stress-related parameters and suggest that the pathogenic role of oxidative stress in hypertension might be significant.

Effects of Oxidative Stress on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibilities and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes of Weanling Pigs

  • Yuan, Shi-bin;Chen, Dai-wen;Zhang, Ke-ying;Yu, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1600-1605
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of oxidative stress on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities and activities of antioxidant enzymes of weanling pigs. In the experiment, 24 male $Landrance{\times}Yorkshire $weanling pigs were allotted to three groups of 8 animals each. Pigs were fed individually. According to a single factorial arrangement, pigs received diets with 5% of either fresh (group 1 and group 3) or oxidized fish oil (peroxide value was 786.50 meq $O_2/kg$ before inclusion in the diet, group 2). At the beginning of the experiment, pigs in group 3 received an intraperitoneal injection of diquat at 12 mg/kg of body weight. The trial lasted for 26 d. A metabolism test was carried out during the last 4 days of the second week. The results showed that feeding diets containing oxidized fish oil or injection with diquat depressed the growth performance and nutrient digestibilities of weanling pigs, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentration of malondialdehyde in plasma and liver. Intraperitoneal injection of diquat would induce more serious oxidative stress than oral intake of oxidized fish oil in the diet. In conclusion, administration of oxidized fish oil or diquat could induce oxidative stress in weanling pigs, and oxidative stress could depress growth performance and impact anti-oxidative ability of young pigs.

Free radical scavenging activity and protective effect from cellular oxidative stress of active compound from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) (가지(Solanum melongena L.) 활성물질의 라디칼 소거능과 산화적 스트레스에 대한 세포 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Young;Cho, Yun-Ju;Yamabe, Noriko;Cho, Eun-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.625-629
    • /
    • 2011
  • To investigate the protective effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its active compound, delphinidin, we used in vitro and cellular system. The active fraction from eggplant, BuOH fraction, showed protective effect from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in WI-38 fibroblast cells. It suggests that eggplant would have the protective activity from radical-induced oxidative damage and its BuOH fraction would play the crucial role with antioxidative activity. In addition, delphinidin, the active compound from eggplant, exerted the strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging effect with $IC_{50}$ value of 6.59 ${\mu}g/mL$. Furthermore, the cellular oxidative stress was induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in LLC-$PK_1$ cells, while treatment of delphinidin atteunated AAPH-induced oxidative stress as dose-dependent manner. The present study suggests the antioxidative activity of eggplant and delphinidin against free radical-induced oxidative stress.

Epigenetic Control of Oxidative Stresses by Histone Acetyltransferases in Candida albicans

  • Kim, Jueun;Park, Shinae;Lee, Jung-Shin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.181-189
    • /
    • 2018
  • Candida albicans is a major pathogenic fungus in humans, and meets at first the innate immune cells, such as macrophages, in its host. One important strategy of the host cell to kill C. albicans is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the macrophages. In response to ROS produced by the macrophages, C. albicans operates its defense mechanisms against them by expressing its oxidative stress response genes. Although there have been many research studies explaining the specific transcription factors and the expression of the oxidative stress genes in C. albicans, the regulation of the oxidative stress genes by chromatin structure is little known. Epigenetic regulation by the chromatin structure is very important for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression, including the chromatin structure dynamics by histone modifications. Among various histone modifications, histone acetylation is reported for its direct relationship to the regulation of gene expression. Recent studies reported that histone acetyltransferases regulate genes to respond to the oxidative stress in C. albicans. In this review, we introduce all histone acetyltransferases that C. albicans contains and some papers that explain how histone acetyltransferases participate in the oxidative stress response in C. albicans.

Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress

  • So, Mi Jung;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.129-135
    • /
    • 2014
  • The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions ($O_2{^-}$), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, $O_2{^-}$, and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated $H_2O_2$-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS.

Search for Plant Extracts with Protective Effects of Pancreatic Beta Cell against Oxidative Stress (산화적 스트레스에 대한 췌장 베타 세포 보호활성 식물추출물 탐색)

  • Lee, Dong-Sung;Jeong, Gil-Saeng;An, Ren-Bo;Li, Bin;Byun, Erisa;Kim, Youn-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.335-340
    • /
    • 2008
  • Diabetes mellitus is metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin secretion or insulin receptor insensitivity to endogenous insulin. It is well-known that hyperglycemia is one of the main causes of oxidative stress in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is related by death of pancreatic ${\beta}$ cell and dysfunction of ${\beta}$ cell. Although ${\beta}$ cell death or dysfunction is induced by many substances or molecules, increased evidences that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in ${\beta}$ cell death or dysfunction. Considering the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, we investigated the cytoprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in pancreatic ${\beta}$ cell line RIN-m5F cell. 110 Plant sources were collected in Mt. Baek-du, and extracted with methanol. These extracts had been screened the protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in RIN-m5F cells at 50 and 200 ${\mu}g$/ml. Of these, ten methanolic extracts, aerial part of Erigenron cannadensis, aerial part of Lespedeza juncea, whole plant of Alopecurus aequalis, fruit of Lycium chinense, leaf of Morus alba, rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum, root of Ampelosis japonica, whole plant of Ranunculus japonicus, aerial part of Polygonum sieboldii, rhizome of Arisaema amurense var. violaceum showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in pancreatic ${\beta}$ cell line RIN-m5F cell.