• Title, Summary, Keyword: Oxidative Stress

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Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Intake on Antioxidative Capacity in Rats Oxidatively Stressed with Dietary Cadmium

  • Kim, You-Jin;Jeong, Se-Won;Kwon, Sang-Hee;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1055-1062
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate whether dietary chlorella intake could have an effect on antioxidative capacity in rats oxidatively stressed with cadmium (Cd). Sprague-Dawley rats fed dietary chlorella (0, 5, and 10%) for 4 weeks after induction of oxidative stress by exposing to Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. After the oxidative stress applied, plasma and liver malondialdehyde concentrations and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased in 5% chlorella fed group compared to chlorella free group. Although liver heme oxygenase-1 protein expression was not affected by chlorella, the enzyme activity was improved in 5% chlorella fed group. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic metallothionein concentration were increased in 5% chlorella fed group. However, 10% chlorella intake had no effect on the improvement of oxidative stress-related enzymes and proteins. These findings suggest that, after induction of oxidative stress with Cd, 5% chlorella intake might improve antioxidative capacity against oxidative stress.

Resistance of SOD2-transgenic petunia line to oxidative stress

  • Lee, Su-Young;Han, Bong-Hee;Kim, Yeong-Tae;Kim, Jin-Seog
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.562-566
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    • 2010
  • SOD2-transgenic $T_3$ petunia line (A2-36-2-1-1-35) was treated with different levels of methyl viologen (MV) to determine its resistance to oxidative stress. Four (4) levels of MV (0, 100, 200, and $400\;{\mu}M$) were applied. The SOD2-transgenic $T_3$ petunia line exhibited a very significant oxidative stress resistance at the highest MV concentration ($400\;{\mu}M$) treatment compared to non-transgenic plant. RNA and protein expression of SOD2 transgene and higher parenchyma cell density in the transgenic petunias exhibiting resistance to oxidative stress proves its contribution to the expression of its resistance to oxidative stress.

Korean Red Ginseng and Korean black ginseng extracts, JP5 and BG1, prevent hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation induced by environmental heat stress

  • Song, Ji-Hyeon;Kim, Kui-Jin;Chei, Sungwoo;Seo, Young-Jin;Lee, Kippeum;Lee, Boo-Yong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2020
  • Background: Continuous exposure to high temperatures can lead to heat stress. This stress response alters the expression of multiple genes and can contribute to the onset of various diseases. In particular, heat stress induces oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. The liver is an essential organ that plays a variety of roles, such as detoxification and protein synthesis. Therefore, it is important to protect the liver from oxidative stress caused by heat stress. Korean ginseng has a variety of beneficial biological properties, and our previous studies showed that it provides an effective defense against heat stress. Methods: We investigated the ability of Korean Red Ginseng and Korean black ginseng extracts (JP5 and BG1) to protect against heat stress using a rat model. We then confirmed the active ingredients and mechanism of action using a cell-based model. Results: Heat stress significantly increased gene and protein expression of oxidative stress-related factors such as catalase and SOD2, but treatment with JP5 (Korean Red Ginseng extract) and BG1 (Korean black ginseng extract) abolished this response in both liver tissue and HepG2 cells. In addition, JP5 and BG1 inhibited the expression of inflammatory proteins such as p-NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor alpha-α. In particular, JP5 and BG1 decreased the expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a key inflammatory signaling factor. Thus, JP5 and BG1 inhibited both oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions: JP5 and BG1 protect against oxidative stress and inflammation induced by heat stress and help maintain liver function by preventing liver damage.

Buckwheat Extract Increases Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (꼬마선충에서 메밀 추출물에 의한 산화성 스트레스 저항성 증가 및 수명 연장 효과)

  • Kim, Chul Kyu;Park, Sang Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2013
  • Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has been known for having strong anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The free radical theory of aging, also known as the oxidative stress theory of aging, claims that cellular oxidative damage accumulated with time is a major causal factor of aging. In the present study, we investigated the effect of buckwheat extracts on resistance to oxidative stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Survival under an oxidative-stress condition induced by paraquat increased markedly following 500mg/L buckwheat extracts treatment, suggesting lower cellular oxidative damage by buckwheat extracts. A lifespan assay also revealed that treatment of buckwheat extracts significantly extended both the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. Interestingly, this lifespan-extension by buckwheat extracts was not accompanied by reduced fertility. These findings suggest that buckwheat extracts can confer longevity phenotype to C. elegans through its strong anti-oxidant activity and support the aging theory which emphasizes a pivotal role of oxidative stress during aging.

Antioxidant Effect of Crataegi Fructus Extract on the Oxidative Stress of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cultured Human Skin Fibroblast (배양 인체피부섬유모세포에 있어서 활성산소의 산화적 손상에 대한 산사(山査)추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Lim, Young-Mi;Kim, Byoung-Ryun;Hong, Gi-Youn
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2008
  • This study was done to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Crataegi Fructus (CF) extract on the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), The human skin fibroblasts (Detroit 551) were cultured with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide $(H_2O_2)$. The cytotoxicity of $H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress was performed by XTT assay for the cell viability according to the dose- and time-dependent treatment. For the protective effect of CF extract on $H_2O_2-mediated$ oxidative stress, cell viability, lactate dehydroganase (LDH) activity, and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) assay for the inhibitive activity of lipid peroxidation on CF extract were carried out. In this study, $H_2O_2-mediated$ oxidative stress was decreased cell viability dose-, and time-dependent manner and increased LDH activity compared with the control in these cultures. In the protective effect, CF extract increased cell viability and decreased LDH activity on $H_2O_2-mediated$ oxidative stress, especially, CF extract has antioxidant effect by the showing the inhibitive activity of lipid peroxidation by FTC assay. From these results, It is suggested that $H_2O_2-mediated$ oxidative stress was highly toxic, and also, CF extract showed the protective effect on $H_2O_2-mediated$ oxidative stress by showing the increased cell viability, decreased LDH activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition in these cultures.

Protective role of oligonol from oxidative stress-induced inflammation in C6 glial cell

  • Ahn, Jae Hyun;Choi, Ji Won;Choi, Ji Myung;Maeda, Takahiro;Fujii, Hajime;Yokozawa, Takako;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Natural products or active components with a protective effect against oxidative stress have attracted significant attention for prevention and treatment of degenerative disease. Oligonol is a low molecular weight polyphenol containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers derived from Litchi chinensis Sonn. We investigated the protective effect and its related mechanism of oligonol against oxidative stress. MATERIALS/METHODS: Oxidative stress in C6 glial cells was induced by hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) and the protective effects of oligonol on cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis, and mRNA expression related to oxidative stress were determined. RESULTS: Treatment with oligonol inhibited NO and ROS formation under cellular oxidative stress in C6 glial cells. In addition, it recovered cell viability in a dose dependent-manner. Treatment with oligonol also resulted in down-regulated mRNA expression related to oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-${\kappa}B$) p65, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), compared with the control group treated with $H_2O_2$. In particular, expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65, COX-2, and iNOS was effectively reduced to the normal level by treatment with $10{\mu}g/mL$ and $25{\mu}g/mL$ of oligonol. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that oligonol has protective activity against oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Oligonol might be a promising agent for treatment of degenerative diseases through inhibition of ROS formation and NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway gene expression.

Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid, Phenolic Compound of Momordica Charantia, against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in C6 Glial Cell (여주의 페놀성 화합물인 Protocatechuic Acid의 산화적 스트레스 개선 및 신경염증 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Jung Ran;Cho, Eun Ju;Kim, Hyun Young
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.10-19
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation has been supposed as a crucial factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective activity against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation of protocatechuic acid (PA), active phenolic compound from Momordica Charantia. Methods: Protective activity of PA from oxidative stress was performed under in vitro conditions. Our study investigated the protective mechanism of PA from neuroinflammation in cellular system using C6 glial cell. To investigate the improvement the effects on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we induced oxidative stress by H2O2 (100 μM) stimulation and induced neuroinflammation by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 ㎍/mL) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (10 ng/mL) in C6 glial cells. Results: PA showed strong radical scavenging effect against 1,1-dipenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxy radical (·OH) and nitric oxide (NO). Under oxidative stress treated by H2O2, the result showed the increased mRNA expressions of oxidative stress markers such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS). However, the treatment of PA led to reduced mRNA expressions of NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, PA attenuated the production of interleukin-6 and scavenged NO generated by both endotoxin LPS and IFN-γ together. Furthermore, it also reduced LPS and IFN-γ-induced mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Conclusions: In conclusion, our results collectively suggest that PA, phenolic compound of Momordica Charantia, could be a safe anti-oxidant and a promising anti-neuroinflammatory molecule for neurodegenerative diseases.

The Regulation of Taurine Transport through the Blood-Placental Barrier under Oxidative Stress

  • Kang, Young-Sook;Yoon, Yoo-Geum
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, we examined the changes of uptake and efflux of taurine under various conditions inducing oxidative stress using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line, TR-TBT cell, as blood-placental barrier in vitro model. In addition, we identified the characteristics of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells including general features, besides effect of calcium ion on taurine transport. Taurine uptake showed time, $Na^+$ and $Cl^-$ dependency, and was decreased by PKC activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium free condition decreased taurine uptake and evoked taurine efflux in the cells. Oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of stimulation inducing oxidative stress. The taurine uptake was increased by TNF-$\alpha$, LPS and DEM stimulation but decreased by $H_2O_2$ and NO stimulation. Also, the taurine efflux was regulated by TNF-$\alpha$ stimulation. In conclusion, the taurine transport through the blood-placental barrier was regulated in oxidative stress conditions, and these results demonstrated that oxidative stress affected the taurine supplies to fetus and taurine level of fetus.

Red Strain Oryza Sativa-Unpolished Thai Rice Prevents Oxidative Stress and Colorectal Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Rats

  • Tammasakchai, Achiraya;Reungpatthanaphong, Sareeya;Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat;Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet;Suwannalert, Prasit
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1929-1933
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    • 2012
  • Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in colorectal cancer development. Many dark pigments of plants have potent oxidative stress preventive properties. In this study, unpolished Thai rice was assessed for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. Red strain unpolished Thai rice was also administered to rats exposed to azoxymethane (AOM) for induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated for cellular oxidative stress and serum antioxidants, respectively. Red pigment unpolished Thai rice demonstrated high antioxidant activity and was found to significantly and dose dependently decrease the total density and crypt multiplicity of ACF. Consumption of Thai rice further resulted in high serum antioxidant activity and low MDA cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, the density of ACF was strongly related to MDA at r = 0.964, while it was inversely related with FRAP antioxidants (r = -0.915, p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that the consumption of red strain of unpolished Thai rice may exert potentially beneficial effects on colorectal cancer through decrease in the level of oxidative stress.

Oxidative Stress and Skin Diseases: Possible Role of Physical Activity

  • Kruk, Joanna;Duchnik, Ewa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.561-568
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    • 2014
  • Background: The skin is the largest body organ that regulates excretion of metabolic waste products, temperature, and plays an important role in body protection against environmental physical and chemical, as well as biological factors. These include agents that may act as oxidants or catalysts of reactions producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and other oxidants in skin cells. An increased amount of the oxidants, exceeding the antioxidant defense system capacity is called oxidative stress, leading to chronic inflammation, which, in turn, can cause collagen fragmentation and disorganization of collagen fibers and skin cell functions, and thus contribute to skin diseases including cancer. Moreover, research suggests that oxidative stress participates in all stages of carcinogenesis. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of dermatologic diseases, defensive systems against ROS/RNS, and discuss how physical activity may modulate skin diseases through effects on oxidative stress. The data show duality of physical activity actions: regular moderate activity protects against ROS/RNS damage, and endurance exercise with a lack of training mediates oxidative stress. These findings indicate that the redox balance should be considered in the development of new antioxidant strategies linked to the prevention and therapy of skin diseases.