• Title/Summary/Keyword: Oxidant

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Alteration of hepatic anti-oxidant systems by 4-nonylphenol, a metabolite of alkylphenol polyethoxylate detergents, in Far Eastern catfish Silurus asotus

  • Park, Kwan Ha
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.30
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    • pp.6.1-6.7
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    • 2015
  • Objectives This study aimed to estimate the effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP), a ubiquitously present surfactant in aquatic environments, on the anti-oxidant systems of the liver in the Far Eastern catfish Silurus asotus. Methods Changes in biochemical parameters involved in glutathione (GSH)-related and other anti-oxidant systems were analyzed following 4 weeks of 4-NP administration (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg diet) via a formulated diet to catfish. Results 4-NP exposure induced an elevation in hepatic lipid peroxide levels and an accompanying decrease in reduced state GSH after 2 weeks, suggesting pro-oxidant effects of the chemical in catfish. This oxidative stress was associated with an inhibition of the GSH-utilizing enzyme glutathione peroxidase at the same time point. This inhibition was restored after 4 weeks. The activities of other anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased after 4 weeks. These enzyme increases occurred more strongly at the higher 4-NP concentration (1.0 mg/kg diet). Conclusions 4-NP given to catfish at 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg diet, concentrations relevant to environmental levels, depletes the endogenous anti-oxidant molecule GSH and temporarily inhibits GSH-related anti-oxidant enzymes. Such declines in anti-oxidant capacity and elevated oxidative stress seem to be compensated eventually by subsequent activation of various anti-oxidant enzyme systems.

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine

  • Ko, Seong-Hee;Choi, Seong-Won;Ye, Sang-Kyu;Yoo, Sang-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Chung, Myung-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2008
  • Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein(DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority(about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority(more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers(more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/Rubus schizostylus(覆盆子), Schisandra chinensis Baillon/Schizandra chinensis(五味子) and Terminalia chebula Retziusl Terminalia chebula(訶子). Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.

The Effect of Kamihaengche-tang Plus Yukmijihwang-tangon Oxidant and Hg-induced Rabbit's Liver Cell Injury (가미행체탕 합 육미지황탕이 Oxidant 및 Hg에 의한 가토 간세포손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 이수행;김원길;김우환
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.174-187
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    • 2002
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to determine whether Kamihaengche-tang plus Yulanijihwang-tang (KCYH) exerts a protective effect against oxidant-induced liver cell injury. Methods : Cell injury was estimated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release, and lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation in rabbit liver slices. Results : Oxidants (tBHP and $H_2O_2$) increased dose-dependently LDH release which was significantly prevented by 1% KCYH. The protective effect of KCYH against oxidant-induced cell injury was dose-dependent in the range of 0.05-1 % concentrations. Similarly, KCYH inhibited oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. When liver tissues were exposed to Hg (0.5 mM), ALT activity in the medium and lipid peroxidation in tissues were markedly increased. These changes were prevented by 1% KCYH, KCYH restored toxicant-induced inhibition of cellular GSH content. KCYH increased the activities of catalase and glutathion peroxidase in oxidant-treated tissues. Conclusions : These results indicate that KCYH exerts a protective effect against oxidant-induced liver cell injury, and this effect is attributed to prevention of lipid peroxidation. These effects may be due to an increase in concentration of endogenous antioxidants.

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Effects of Oxidant Addition to Fuel on Soot Formation of Laminar Diffusion Flames (동축류 확산화염의 매연생성에 미치는 연료에 첨가된 산화제의 영향)

  • Lee, Won-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1998
  • The influence of oxidant addition on soot formation is investigated experimentally with ethylene, propane and mixture fuel co-flow diffusion flames. Oxidant addition into fuel shows the increase of integrated soot volume fractions for ethylene, ethylene/ethane and ethylene/methane mixture flames. However, the increase of integrated soot volume fraction with oxidant addition was not significant for propane and ethylene/propane mixture flames. This discrepancy is explained with $C_2\;and\;C_3$ chemistry at the early stage of soot formation process. The oxidant addition increases the concentration of $C_3H_3$ in the soot formation region, and therefore, enhances soot formation process. A new soot formation rate model that includes both dilution effect and chemical effect of oxygen is suggested to interpret the increase of integrated soot volume fractions with oxidant addition into ethylene. Also, the role of adiabatic flame temperature for the chemical effect of oxygen addition into fuel was reviewed. The influence of oxidant or diluent addition into fuel on soot formation process are the fuel dilution effect, the adiabatic flame temperature altering effect and/or the chemical effect of oxygen. Their relative importance could change with fuel structure and adiabatic flame temperature.

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The Effect of Angelicae gigantis radix according to Heat-process on Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Thrombotic (초법에 따른 당귀의 항산화 및 항혈전 효과)

  • Kim, Min Yeong;Kown, O Jun;Choo, Byung Kil;Lee, Chia Wei;Park, Eun Hey;Kim, Hong Jun
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Arachidonic acid is control the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacycline (PGI2) synthesis, TXA2 increase lead to thrombus produced by induces platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Angelicae gigantis radix (RAR) is mainly used blood deficiency and stagnation. In previous studies, RAR has been reported that a vasodilating and blood clotting delay effects. In this study, investigate that anti-oxidant and anti-thrombotic effects of RAR by heat-process.Methods: The heated angelicae gigantis radix sample were made by 140, 180, and 220 ℃ and 4, 6, 9 and 12 min using water or 30% ethanol. The anti-oxidant effects were measured by total polyphenol, total flavonoid, DPPH and ABTS radical scavening activation. Anti-thrombotic effect conducted in samples that are determined to be effective through the anti-oxidant experiment such as angelicae gigantis radix roasted 180℃, and 220℃ and angelicae gigantis radix roasted with 30% ethanol 180℃, and 220℃.Results: Anti-oxidant parameters were efficacious in high temperature roasted AR. Also AR and EAR increased a inhibitory activity of FXa compared with RAR. The blood coagulation time of administration groups were significantly increased compare with control group. The TXB2 was significantly decreased in AR and EAR.Conclusions : We confirmed that whether AR and EAR administration has anti-oxidant and anti-thrombotic effect or not. As the results, AR and EAR were improved anti-oxidant effects and blood biochemistry compare with control group. This study provides scientific evidence that AR and EAR are have an anti-oxidant effect and anti-thrombotic effect, it expected that there is no difference between the two.

The Comparison of Antioxidant Capacities and Catechin Contents of Korean Commercial Green, Oolong, and Black Teas (국내 시판되는 녹차, 우롱차 및 홍차의 카테킨 함량과 항산화능 비교)

  • Lee, Min-June;Kwon, Dae-Joong;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.449-453
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    • 2007
  • Using green tea(GT), oolong tea(OT), black tea(BT) and green tea bag(GTB) out of tea products in market, this study quantified polyphenol and catechins as anti-oxidant substances and analyzed their respective anti-oxidant capacities. As a result, more epigallocathechin(EGC) was found in GT and GTB as well as caffein(CAF) in GT and BT. GT contained more epigallocathechin gallate(EGCG) than other tea types. Both FRAP and ORAC, as two methods of analyzing anti-oxidant capacities, showed that GTB had highest anti-oxidant capacities, while OT had lowest of all. By brand, it was found that all the 3 brands of GT had similarly high anti-oxidant capacities, but there were differences in the anti-oxidant activities of GTB and BT depending on brand. Out of catechin components, it was found that epicatechin(EC), epicathechin gallate(ECG) and EGCG were major components affecting anti-oxidant capacities.

A Comparative Study on Variability of Oxidants Out of Air Pollution Materials in Seoul: Metropolitan vs. Suburban Area (서울지역의 대기오염 물질중 산화성 물질의 지역간 차이에 대한 연구)

  • 김정수
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 1981
  • A Continuous monitoring of Air Pollution in city of Seoul was carried out from January 1 to December 31 of 1979 at two selected sites, Kwanghwamun observatory and Kwanag observatory. The measured data were averaged on monthly basis. The maximun value of oxidant pollution was observed in July, and the minimum in February. It is the purpose of this study to determine the effect of hydrocarbon, nitrogenoxide, wind velocity and ambient temprature on the observed values of oxidant pollution for the above two months. The results of the study may be summarized as follows. 1) The oxidant concentration in February was higher than in July by about 2 times in both downtown area and the suburbia. The concentration in downtown area was $25.75\pm 4.75ppb$, and that in suburbia was $29.83\pm 5.16ppb$. As for the oxidant concentration in July, it was observed that the suburban area ($26.464\pm 7.59ppb$) had about 2.8 times higher value than the downtown area ($9.284\pm 1.55ppb$). 2) The peak oxidant concentration of suburban area during the daytime is occured from noon to 5:00 P.M.. These patterns are similar to the classical patterns, but the peak Oxidant Concentration of downtown area in February was occured at 9:00A.M. 3) The overall level of nitrogen oxide pollution was much higher in downtown area than in suburban area. Two peaks of nitrogen oxide concentration occured at 10 A.M. and 12 midnight in downtown area. This observation agrees with the report that the air pollution is higher in the area where the pollution sources are concentrated. 4) The multiple correlation analysis for the oxidant and the other variables measured in February in downtown area showed close correlation with nitrogen oxide and ambient temprature. The multiple correlation coefficient of oxidant with nitrogen oxide was 0.872, and that with nitrogen oxide and temperature simultaneously was 0.903. The multiple correlation equation used for this study may be expressed as follows:

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Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene with Carbon Dioxide as Soft Oxidant over Supported Vanadium-Antimony Oxide Catalyst

  • Hong, Do-Young;Vislovskiy, Vladislav P.;Park, Sang-Eon;Park, Min-Seok;Yoo, Jin-S.;Chang, Jong-San
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1743-1748
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    • 2005
  • This work presents that carbon dioxide, which is a main contributor to the global warming effect, could be utilized as a selective oxidant in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over alumina-supported vanadium-antimony oxide catalyst has been studied under different atmospheres such as inert nitrogen, steam, oxygen or carbon dioxide as diluent or oxidant. Among them, the addition of carbon dioxide gave the highest styrene yield (up to 82%) and styrene selectivity (up to 97%) along with stable activity. Carbon dioxide could play a beneficial role of a selective oxidant in the improvement of the catalytic behavior through the oxidative pathway.

A Study on the Anti-microbial Effect on S. mutans and Anti-oxidant Effect of Zanthoxylum pericarpium Extract (산초 추출물의 S. mutans 항균활성 및 항산화 효능 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Gon;Park, Chan-Ik
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The Zanthoxylum pericarpium has been used as oriental spicy seasoning and a medicinal plant from old times. This study was performed to determine the anti-oxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract and the anti-microbial effects. Methods : We got Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract using PSE (pressurized solvent extraction) method. The anti-microbial effect of Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract was assessed on Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) and anti-oxidant effect of the extract was assessed by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD like activity. Results : 1. Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract had high anti-microbial activity on S. mutans. 2. DPPH radical scavenging activity significantly increased in the Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract. 3. SOD like activity also significantly increased in the Zanthoxylum pericarpium extract. Conclusions : The PSE extract from Zanthoxylum pericarpium has good anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner.

The Electrorheological and Dielectric Behaviors of Conducting Polymer-coated Poly(ethyl methacrylate) Suspensions

  • Kim, Young-Dae;Park, Dong-Hyup;Nam, Suk-Woo;Park, Tae-Jin
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2002
  • The electrorheological (ER) and dielectric behaviors of the polypyrrole(PPy)-coated poly(ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) suspensions in mineral oil were investigated. PPy was coated on PEMA particles to enhance the particle polarization, which would lead to the enhanced ER response. Various PPy-coated PEMA particles were synthesized by controlling the oxidant amount during the pyrrole polymerization, and the ER responses of their suspensions were investigated. The ER response initially increases with the oxidant amount, passes through a maximum, and then decreases with the oxidant amount. The initial increase in the ER response with oxidant amounts is due to the enhanced particle polarization with the increased particle surface conductivity. The dielectric properties of the corresponding suspensions support that the ER enhancement arises from the enhanced particle polarization. The decrease in the ER response at large oxidant amounts seems to arise from the increased conduction between the PPy-coated PEMA particles.