• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ox2R

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Elevated Expression of Ox2R in Cervical Cancers and Placentas of Uyghur Women in Xinjiang, China

  • Taximaimaiti, Reyisha;Abuliken, Xiekelai;Maihemuti, Muzhapaer;Abudujilile, Dilinuer;Abudulimu, Haimiti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4959-4963
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    • 2016
  • Objective:Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of mortality of Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. Although increased expression of orexin receptor (OxR), known to be strongly expressed in human placenta, has a proven relation to some cancers, there have been few studies of cervical cancer. Thus, we explored this question by evaluating the expression of orexin receptor as a biomarker for screening early stage of cervical cancer in Uyghur women with highest occurrence rate of cervical cancer in China. Study Design: We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining to determine the expression of both Ox1R and Ox2R in cervical cancer and cervicitis biopsies collected from Uyghur women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV)16. The expression rate was compared between cervical cancers of low, intermediate and high differentiation and cervicitis. Results:Although there was no significant difference in the expression rate of Ox1R between groups, Ox2R was significantly overexpressed in cervical cancer patients when compared to the cervicitis group. Ox1R was negative in normal human placenta while Ox2R was positive. Conclusions: While expression of Ox1R had no correlation with invasion or metastatic potential, Ox2R demonstrated elevation in cervical cancer with heterogeneity in groups with different metastatic potential, in the human placenta as well, implying that it might serve as an indicator of invasive capacity along with other indices.

2G HTS wire with enhanced engineering current density attained through the deposition of HTS layer with increased thickness

  • Markelov, A.;Valikov, A.;Chepikov, V.;Petrzhik, A.;Massalimov, B.;Degtyarenko, P.;Uzkih, R.;Soldatenko, A.;Molodyk, A.;Sim, Kideok;Hwang, Soon
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 2019
  • 2G HTS wire with high engineering current density is desired for applications where compact, high power density superconducting equipment is important. We have succeeded in enhancing engineering current density of commercial SuperOx 2G HTS wire based on GdBCO by increasing the HTS layer thickness without fast degradation of the HTS film microstructure. This was possible after improving the temperature uniformity along the HTS film deposition zone. In particular, the wire engineering current density was increased from 700-770 A/㎟ (for a 65 ㎛-thick wire without stabilisation) or 430-480 A/㎟ (for a 105 ㎛-thick stabilised wire) at the beginning of this study to almost 1200 A/㎟ (for a 67 ㎛-thick wire without stabilisation) or 770 A/㎟ (for a 107 ㎛-thick stabilised wire) at completion of this study.

The effects of blocking the oxygen in the air during the polymerization of sealant (광중합 시 공기 중 산소의 차단이 치면열구전색제의 중합에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, You-Hyang;Lee, Nan-Young;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.365-376
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of blocking the oxygen in the air during the polymerization of sealant. All curing were performed with various light curing units under the application of oxygen gel barrier, stream of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas for inhibition of oxygen diffusion into sealant surface. The results of present study can be summarized as follows : 1. The amount of eluted TEGDMA form the specimens cured with all the three different light units in the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$ gas and application of Oxygen gel barrier($DeOx^{(R)}$) were significantly lower than in the room-air atmosphere (Control) (p<0.05). 2. In the $DeOx^{(R)}$ application, the amount of eluted TEGDMA the specimen cured with PAC light for 10seconds was less than that cured in the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$ atmospheric conditions (p<0.05) 3. In the LED using 10 or 20sec irradiation times under the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$, the eluted TEGDMA showed to be no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). 4. The microhardness from the specimens cured with all the three different light units under each treated conditions were significantly higher than in the room-air atmosphere (p<0.05). 5. The surface treatment by $DeOx^{(R)}$, $N_2$ and $CO_2$ reduces the thickness of oxygen inhibited layer by sp proximately 49% of the untreated control value.

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Antioxidative Effects of Water-Soluble Chitinous Compounds on Oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein in Macrophages (대식세포에서 지단백 산화에 대한 수용성 Chitinous Compounds의 항산화 효과에 대한 연구)

  • 이세희;박성희;이용진;윤정한;최연정;최정숙;강영희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.908-917
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    • 2003
  • It has been proposed that oxidative modification of LDL (oxLDL) plays a significant role in the pathogenicity of atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chitin and chitosan may function as antioxidants with respect to 0.1 mg cholesterol/ml LDL incubated with 5 $\mu$ M Cu$^2$$^{+}$alone or in the P338Dl mouse macrophage system using L-ascorbic acid as a standard classical antioxidant. The degree of oxLDL formation was ascertained by the relative electrophoretic mobility (rEM) in the combination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, and the cytotoxicity of oxLDL was detected by macrophage viability. The oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation of macrophages were measured by Oil Red O staining. Incubation with Cu$^2$$^{+}$and macrophages increased rEM of LDL and stimulated TBARS formation. Culture of macrophages with LDL in the presence 5 $\mu$ M Cu$^2$$^{+}$induced macrophage death. In cell-free system 200 $\mu$g/ml water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxLDL formation. Water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxLDL formation near-completely relative to L-ascorbic acid, whereas water-soluble chitin and chitin-oligosaccharide had no measurable antioxidant effect. In macrophage system water-soluble chitosan and chitosan-oligosaccharide blocked oxidation of LDL with a significant increase in cell viability, and decreased TBARS in medium. As for the inhibitory effect on macrophage foam cell formation, chitosan and its oligosaccharide, but not watersoluble chitin, revealed the effectiveness. The endothelial expression of lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) was tested by Western blot analysis, and chitosan, chitosan-oligosaccharide and chitin-oligosaccharide blocked LOX-1 expression. These results indicate that water-soluble chitosan and its oligosaccharide showed the inhibitory effect on Cu$^2$$^{+}$-induced LDL oxidation of macrophages, and chitosan, chitosan-oligosaccharide and chitin-oligosaccharide had blocking effect on oxLDL receptor expression in the human umbilical vein endothelial system. Thus, water-soluble chitosan and its oligosaccharides possess anti-atherogenic potentials possibly through the inhibition of macrophage LDL oxidation or endothelial oxLDL receptor expression depending on chemical types.l types.

Heterojunction Solar Cell with Carrier Selective Contact Using MoOx Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (원자층 증착법으로 증착된 MoOx를 적용한 전하 선택 접합의 이종 접합 태양전지)

  • Jeong, Min Ji;Jo, Young Joon;Lee, Sun Hwa;Lee, Joon Shin;Im, Kyung Jin;Seo, Jeong Ho;Chang, Hyo Sik
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.322-327
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    • 2019
  • Hole carrier selective MoOx film is obtained by atomic layer deposition(ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl[$Mo(CO)_6$] as precursor and ozone($O_3$) oxidant. The growth rate is about 0.036 nm/cycle at 200 g/Nm of ozone concentration and the thickness of interfacial oxide is about 2 nm. The measured band gap and work function of the MoOx film grown by ALD are 3.25 eV and 8 eV, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) result shows that the $Mo^{6+}$ state is dominant in the MoOx thin film. In the case of ALD-MoOx grown on Si wafer, the ozone concentration does not affect the passivation performance in the as-deposited state. But, the implied open-circuit voltage increases from $576^{\circ}C$ to $620^{\circ}C$ at 250 g/Nm after post-deposition annealing at $350^{\circ}C$ in a forming gas ambient. Instead of using a p-type amorphous silicon layer, high work function MoOx films as hole selective contact are applied for heterojunction silicon solar cells and the best efficiency yet recorded (21 %) is obtained.

Orexin-A inhibits capsaicin-induced changes in cyclooxygenase-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis of rats

  • Kooshki, Razieh;Abbasnejad, Mehdi;Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili;Raoof, Maryam;Aghtaei, Mohammad Mehdi Moeini;Dabiri, Shahriar
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2018
  • Background: The trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc) is a primary central site for trigeminal transmitting. Noxious stimulation of the trigeminal nociceptors alters the central synaptic releases and neural expression of some inflammatory and trophic agents. Orexin-A and the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) are expressed in pain pathways including trigeminal pain transmission. However, the the mechanism(s) underling orexin-A effects on trigeminal pain modulation have not been fully clarified. Methods: Trigeminal pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in the upper lip in rats. The effect of trigeminal pain on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the Vc of animals was determined by immunofluorescence. Subsequently, OX1R agonist (orexin-A) and antagonist (SB-334867-A) was administrated in the Vc to investigate the possible roles of the Vc OX1R on changes in COX-2 and BDNF levels following pain induction. Results: The data indicated an increase in COX-2 and decrease in BDNF immuno-reactivity in the Vc of capsaicin, and capsaicin- pretreated with SB-334867-A (80 nM), groups of rat. However, the effect of capsaicin on COX-2 and BDNF expressions was reversed by a Vc microinjection of orexin-A (100 pM). Conclusions: Overall, the present data reveals that orexin-A can attenuate capsaicin-induced trigeminal pain through the modulation of pain effects on COX-2 and BDNF expressions in the Vc of rats.

Origin of the α-Effect in Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Y-Substituted Phenyl Benzoates with Butane-2,3-dione Monoximate and Z-Substituted Phenoxides: Ground-State Destabilization vs. Transition-State Stabilization

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Min, Se-Won;Seo, Jin-A;Um, Ik-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.2913-2917
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    • 2009
  • Second-order rate constants (k$_{Nu–}$) have been measured for nucleophilic substitution reactions of Y-substituted phenyl benzoates (1a-i) with butane-2,3-dione monoximate ($Ox^-\;an\;\alpha$-nucleophile) and Z-substituted phenoxides in 80 mol% H$_2$O/20 mol% DMSO at 25.0${\pm}$0.1$^{\circ}C$. Hammett plots correlated with ${\sigma}^o$ and ${\sigma}^-$ constants for reactions of 1a-h with Ox$^–$ exhibit many scattered points. In contrast, the Yukawa-Tsuno plot results in a good linear correlation with ${\rho}_Y$ = 2.20 and r = 0.45, indicating that expulsion of the leaving group occurs in the rate-determining step (RDS). A stepwise mechanism with expulsion of the leaving-group being the RDS has been excluded, since Y-substituted phenoxides are less basic and better nucleofuges than Ox$^–$. Thus, the reactions have been concluded to proceed through a concerted mechanism. Ox$^–$ is over 10$^2$ times more reactive than its reference nucleophile, 4-chlorophenoxide (4-ClPhO$^–$). One might suggest that stabilization of the transition-state (TS) through intramolecular general acid/base catalysis is responsible for the ${\alpha}$-effect since such general acid/base catalysis is not possible for the corresponding reactions with 4-ClPhO$^–$. However, destabilization of the ground-state (GS) of Ox$^–$ has been concluded to be mainly responsible for the ${\alpha}$-effect found in this study on the basis of the fact that the magnitude of the ${\alpha}$-effect is independent of the nature of the substituent Y.

The α-Effect in Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Y-Substituted-Phenyl X-Substituted-Cinnamates with Butane-2,3-dione Monoximate

  • Kim, Min-Young;Son, Yu-Jin;Um, Ik-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.2877-2882
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    • 2013
  • Second-order rate constants ($k_{Ox^-}$) have been measured spectrophotometrically for nucleophilic substitution reactions of 4-nitrophenyl X-substituted-cinnamates (7a-7e) and Y-substituted-phenyl cinnamates (8a-8e) with butane-2,3-dione monoximate ($Ox^-$) in 80 mol % $H_2O$/20 mol % DMSO at $25.0{\pm}0.1^{\circ}C$. The Hammett plot for the reactions of 7a-7e consists of two intersecting straight lines while the Yukawa-Tsuno plot exhibits an excellent linearity with ${\rho}_X$=0.85 and r=0.58, indicating that the nonlinear Hammett plot is not due to a change in the rate-determining step but is caused by resonance stabilization of the ground state (GS) of the substrate possessing an electron-donating group (EDG). The Br${\o}$nsted-type plot for the reactions of Y-substituted-phenyl cinnamates (8a-8e) is linear with ${\beta}_{lg}$ = -0.64, which is typical of reactions reported previously to proceed through a concerted mechanism. The ${\alpha}$-nucleophile ($Ox^-$) is more reactive than the reference normal-nucleophile ($4-ClPhO^-$). The magnitude of the ${\alpha}$-effect (i.e., the $k_{Ox^-}/k_{4-ClPhO^-}$ ratio) is independent of the electronic nature of the substituent X in the nonleaving group but increases linearly as the substituent Y in the leaving group becomes a weaker electron-withdrawing group (EWG). It has been concluded that the difference in solvation energy between $Ox^-$ and $4-ClPhO^-$ (i.e., GS effect) is not solely responsible for the ${\alpha}$-effect but stabilization of transition state (TS) through a cyclic TS structure contributes also to the Y-dependent ${\alpha}$-effect trend (i.e., TS effect).

Optimization of wire construction from several 2G HTS tapes

  • Kumarov, D.R.;Sotnikov, D.;Scherbakov, V.I.;Mankevich, A.;Molodyk, A.;Sim, Kideok;Hwang, Soon
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.24-28
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    • 2019
  • Despite the second generation HTS tapes (2G HTS tape) have limits in critical current value, scientific and electric devices require more current density day after day. These requirements are realized by using different superconducting wires that consist of 2G HTS tapes designed in various combinations. Authors of this paper have developed the numerical model for estimation of total critical current in the superconducting wire and critical current in each 2G HTS tape placed in this superconducting wire. The current drop in six 2G HTS tapes having different constructions was analyzed. The result of this research is the decrease of critical current up to 25 % for the stack of tapes and up to 5 % for the parallel tapes in the same plane. In addition, what was also made is the estimation of the current distribution by length for six 25 m 2G HTS tapes in different constructions and determination of current deviation by length of the wire.

Structure evolution of Pt doped amorphous $V_{2}O_{5}$ cathode film for thin film battery (Pt이 도핑된 박막 전지용 비정질 산화바나듐 박막의 구조적 변화)

  • 김한기;전은정;옥영우;성태연;조원일;윤영수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.889-892
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    • 2000
  • We have investigated the Pt doping effect on structural and electrochemical properties of amorphous vanadium oxide film, grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Room temperature charge-discharge measurements based on a half-cell with a constant current clearly indicated that the Pt doping could improve the cyclibility of V$_2$O$_{5}$ cathode film. Using glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GXRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, we found that the Pt doping with l0W r.f. power induce more random amorphous structure than undoped V$_2$O$_{5}$ film. As the r.f. power of Pt increases, large amount of Pt incorporates into amorphous V$_2$O$_{5}$ and makes PtOx microcrystalline phase in amorphous matrix. This result suggests that the semicondcuting PtOx microcrystalline phase in amorphous matrix lead to a drastically faded cyclibility of 50W Pt doped V$_2$O$_{5}$ cathode film. Possible explanations are given to describe the Pt doping effect on cyclibility of vanadium oxide cathode film.de film.

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