• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ovarian cancers

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Radiotherapy for Ovarian Cancers - Redefining the Role

  • Rai, Bhavana;Bansal, Anshuma;Patel, Firuza Darius;Sharma, Suresh Chander
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4759-4763
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    • 2014
  • Radiation therapy in ovarian cancers has been considered an outdated concept for many years, mainly due to its toxicity and failure to show benefit in terms of survival. Chemotherapy has been extensively used after surgery for these cancers and it has almost replaced radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment. Nevertheless, failures in ovarian cancers continue to occur even with the use of newer and effective chemotherapy regimens. About 70% patients demonstrate recurrence in the abdomen or pelvis after first line chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. With advances in technology and sophistication of radiation techniques, along with the molecular and biological knowledge of distinct histological subtypes, there is a need to redefine the role of radiation therapy. This review article focuses on the literature on use of radiation in ovarian cancers and its rationale and indications in the present day. For this, a literature pub med/medline search was performed from January 1975 to March 2014 to redefine the role of radiotherapy in ovarian cancers.

Prevalence of Cancers of Female Organs among Patients with Diabetes Type 2 in Kelantan, Malaysia: Observations over an 11 Year Period and Strategies to Reduce the Incidence

  • Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che;Zin, Anani Aila Mat;Othman, Nor Hayati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7267-7270
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    • 2015
  • Introduction: Kelantan is one of the states in Malaysia which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Other than with endometrial carcinoma, the association of DM2 with particular female cancers is not known. Objective: To determine the proportion of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers among females with DM2 diagnosed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) over an 11 year period. Materials and Methods: All histologically confirmed cases of breast, endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinomas admitted to the Hospital were included in the study. The patient diabetic status was traced from the hospital medical records. Results: There was a total of 860 cases of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas over this period. Breast carcinoma was the commonest, accounting for 437/860 (50.8%) followed by cervix, 159/860 (18.5%), ovarian, 143/860 (16.6%) and endometrial carcinomas, 121/860 (14.1%). Out of these, 228/860 (26.5%) were confirmed diabetics. Endometrial carcinoma patients showed the highest proportion being diabetics, 42.1% (51/121), followed by ovarian cancer, 25.9% (37/143), breast carcinoma, 23.6% (103/437) and cervical cancer 23.3% (37/159). Conclusions: There is a significant proportion of DM2 among women with these four cancers, endometrial carcinoma being the highest followed by ovarian, breast and cervical carcinoma. The rising trend of these four cancers is in tandem with an increasing trend of DM2 in the community. In populations where diabetes is prevalent, screening for epithelial cancers should be rigourous. Diabetic clinics should include screening for these cancers among their female patients and gynecology clinics should screen the women they treat for their diabetes status.

Descriptive Epidemiology of Common Female Cancers in the North East India - a Hospital Based Study

  • Krishnatreya, Manigreeva;Kataki, Aamal Chandra;Sharma, Jagannath Dev;Nandy, Pintu;Talukdar, Abhijit;Gogoi, Gayatri;Hoque, Nazmul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10735-10738
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancers of the breast, uterine cervix and ovary are common cancers amongst females of North East India. Not much is known about the descriptive epidemiology of these cancers in our population. The present retrospective analysis was therefore performed. Materials and Methods: The data set available at the hospital based cancer registry of a regional cancer center of North-East India, containing information on patients registered during the period of January 2010 to December 2012, was applied. A total of 2,925 cases of breast, uterine cervix and ovarian cancer were identified. Results: Of the total, 1,295 (44.3%) were breast cancers, 1,214 (41.5%) were uterine cervix and 416 (14.2%) ovarian cancer, median age (range) for breast, uterine cervix and ovary were 45 (17-85), 48 (20-91) and 45 years (7-80), respectively. Some 43.5% of cases with uterine cervix patients were illiterate, 5.4% and 5.7% stage I in breast and cervix respectively and 96.4% of ovarian cancers in advanced stage. Conclusions: Improvement of female education can contribute to increase the proportion of early stage diagnosis of breast and uterine cervix in our population. Any population-based intervention for the detection of cancers of breast, uterine cervix and ovarian cancer should be started early in our population.

Fertility-Preserving Treatments in Patients with Gynecological Cancers: Chinese Experience and Literature Review

  • Liu, Chun-Yan;Li, Hua-Jun;Lin, Hua;Ling, Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4839-4841
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    • 2015
  • We conducted a retrospectively reviewed of the literature published of patients underwent fertility-preserving treatments for cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers using the WANFANG database in Chinese. A majority were retrospective studies and case reports. With cervical cancer, radical trachelectomy(RT) in combination with pelvic lymphadenectomy could preserve the fertility of patients with early stage IA1-IB1 cancers, Tumor size ${\leq}2cm$ should be emphasized as the indication of RT in considering of the higher recurrent rate in patients with tumor size >2cm. For endometrial cancers, there is much experience on it. Given accurate pretreatment assessment, hormonal therapy is feasible management option to preserve fertility in young patients with early stage lesions that limited to the endometrium and well differentiated. High dose progestin have been applied, oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), 250-500mg/day, megestrol acetate 160-480mg/day. Other therapies that have been used in a limited number of cases include GnRH analog, intrauterine devices (IUDS) containing progestogen, usually combination of these therapies. All patients should be followed up by ultrasound and/or MRI evaluation, and endometrial curettage at intervals of 3 months. With ovarian cancer, in China, fertilitypreserving surgery in patients with stage IA (grade G1) of epithelial ovarian tumor and patients with germ cell tumor and borderline ovarian tumor have been successfully performed.

Proportion of Ovarian Cancers in Overall Ovarian Masses in Thailand

  • Kunpalin, Yada;Triratanachat, Surang;Tantbirojn, Patou
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7929-7934
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    • 2014
  • Background: The primary objective of this study was to assess the proportion of malignancies in ovarian masses during $1^{st}$ January 2002, to $31^{st}$ December 2011 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. A secondary objective was to evaluate associations with patients' clinical characteristics and ovarian malignancy proportion and subtypes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study analyzed data of ovarian masses larger than 3 centimeters in maximal diameter, from the division of Gynecologic Cyto-Pathology at KCMH. SPSS software version 17 (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used. Results: A total number of 6,115 patients were included. Among the total ovarian masses studied, 13.7% were malignant. After the age of sixty, the proportion reached almost 40%. It was also above 20% in women younger than 20 years old. During premenarche period, proportion of ovarian malignancies was 50%. Only 1% of ovarian masses were found to be malignant during the pregnancy and post-partum periods. Parity decreased the probability of ovarian malignancy during postmenopausal years. Period of menopause did not have any impact on this probability. During the first two decades of life, germ cell malignancy dominated. As the age increased, the percentage of surface epithelial-stromal malignancy increased with a peak at the fifth decade. In contrast, malignant sex cord-stromal cell tumors occurred at a constant rate in each age group after the thirties. Conclusions: Proportion of ovarian cancers in each age group, menstrual and pregnancy status are similar. However there are differences in the distribution of ovarian subtypes especially for the surface epithelial-stromal category.

Genetic Variants at 6p21.1 and 7p15.3 Identified by GWASs of Multiple Cancers and Ovarian Cancer Risk: a Case-control Study in Han Chinese Women

  • Li, Da-Ke;Han, Jing;Liu, Ji-Bin;Jin, Guang-Fu;Qu, Jun-Wei;Zhu, Meng;Wang, Yan-Ru;Jiang, Jie;Ma, Hong-Xia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2014
  • A recent study summarized several published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of cancer and reported two pleiotropic loci at 6p21.1 and 7p15.3 contributing to multiple cancers including lung cancer, noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC), and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Han Chinese. However, it is not known whether such genetic variants have similar effects on the risk of gynecologic cancers, such as ovarian cancer. Hence, we explored associations between genetic variants in 6p21.1 and 7p15.3 and ovarian cancer risk in Han Chinese women. We performed an independent case-control study by genotyping the two loci (rs2494938 A > G at 6p21.1 and rs2285947 A > G at 7p15.3) in a total of 377 ovarian cancer cases and 1,034 cancer-free controls using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that rs2285947 at 7p15.3 was significantly associated with risk of ovarian cancer with per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.64, P=0.008]. However, no significant association was observed between rs2494938 and ovarian cancer risk. Our results showed that rs2285947 at 7p15.3 may also contribute to the development of ovarian cancer in Han Chinese women, further suggesting pleiotropy of 7p15.3 in multiple cancers.

Malignant Tumors of the Female Reproductive System

  • Weiderpass, Elisabete;Labreche, France
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.166-180
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    • 2012
  • This review summarizes the epidemiology of cancer of the female reproductive system and associated lifestyle factors. It also assesses the available evidence for occupational factors associated with these cancers. Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers are relatively common, and cause significant cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, whereas vulvar, vaginal, fallopian tube cancers, and choriocarcinomas are very rare. As several lifestyle factors are known to play a major role in the etiology of these cancers, very few published studies have investigated possible relationships with occupational factors. Some occupational exposures have been associated with increased risks of these cancers, but apart from the available evidence on the relationships between asbestos fibers and ovarian cancer, and tetrachloroethylene and cervical cancer, the data is rather scarce. Given the multifactorial nature of cancers of the female reproductive system, it is of the utmost importance to conduct occupational studies that will gather detailed data on potential individual confounding factors, in particular reproductive history and other factors that influence the body's hormonal environment, together with information on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors, including physical activity from multiple sources. Studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the female reproductive organs are also needed in order to elucidate the possible role of chemical exposures in the development of these cancers.

Meta-analysis of Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 (ERCC1) Association with Response to Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

  • Li, Feng-Ying;Ren, Xiao-Bin;Xie, Xin-You;Zhang, Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7203-7206
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    • 2013
  • Recent studies suggested that the ovarian cancers with negative excision repair cross-complementation group 1 enzyme (ERCC1) expression have a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy than those with positive ERCC1 expression. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ERCC1 expression is associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI databases were used for searching studies relating to ERCC1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Statistical analysis was based on the method for a fixed effects meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals for ERCC1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy were generated. Publication bias was investigated with Begg's test. Five studies involving 306 patients with ovarian cancer were included. Compared to patients with positive ERCC1 expression, those with negative ERCC1 expression had a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The pooled OR was 5.264 (95% CI: 2.928-9.464, P < 0.001) and publication bias was not found (P = 0.904). The result was similar in both in Asians and Caucasians (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). ERCC1 protein expression status is significantly associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers.

FDG-PET in Gynecologic Cancer (부인암에서 FDG-PET의 역할)

  • Ryu, Sang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2002
  • Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18-F deoxyglucose (FDG) is a molecular imaging modality that detects metabolic alteration in tumor cells. In various human cancers, FDG-PET shows a potential clinical benefit in screening, tumor characterization, staging, therapeutic follow-up and detecting recurrence. In gynecologic cancers, FDG-PET is also known to be effective in characterization of adnexal masses, detection of recurrence, and lymph node invasion. This review discusses the clinical feasibility and future clinical application of this imaging modality in patients with cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and other gynecologic cancers.

Endometriosis, Leiomyoma and Adenomyosis: the Risk of Gynecologic Malignancy

  • Verit, Fatma Ferda;Yucel, Oguz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5589-5597
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this review article was to evaluate the relationship and the possible etiological mechanisms between endometriosis, leiomyoma (LM) and adenomyosis and gynecological cancers, such as ovarian and endometrial cancer and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). MEDLINE was searched for all articles written in the English literature from July 1966 to May 2013. Reports were collected systematically and all the references were also reviewed. Malignant transformation of gynecologic benign diseases such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and LM to ovarian and endometrial cancer remains unclear. Hormonal factors, inflammation, familial predisposition, genetic alterations, growth factors, diet, altered immune system, environmental factors and oxidative stress may be causative factors in carcinogenesis. Early menarche, low parity, late menopause and infertility have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of these cancers. Ovarian cancers and endometriosis have been shown to have common genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, p53, ARID1A mutations. MicroRNAs have also been implicated in malignant transformation. Inflammation releases proinflammatory cytokines, and activates tumor associated macrophages (TAMS) and nuclear factor kappa b (NF-KB) signaling pathways that promote genetic mutations and carcinogenesis. MED12 mutations in LM and smooth muscle tumors of undetermined malignant potential (STUMP) may contribute to malignant transformation to LMS. A hyperestrogenic state may be shared in common with pathogenesis of adenomyosis, LM and endometrial cancer. However, the effect of these benign gynecologic diseases on endometrial cancer should be studied in detail. This review study indicates that endometriosis, LM, adenomyosis may be associated with increased risk of gynecological cancers such as endometrial and ovarian cancers. The patients who have these gynecological benign diseases should be counseled about the future risks of developing cancer. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between STUMPs, LMS and LM and characteristics and outcome endometrial carcinoma in adenomyotic patients.