• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ovarian cancer

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Expression and Significance of Twist and E-cadherin in Ovarian Cancer Tissues

  • Wang, Wen-Shuang;Yu, Shou-Li;Yang, Xing-Sheng;Chang, Shu-De;Hou, Jian-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.669-672
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To investigate the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in ovarian cancer tissues as well as the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in ovarian cancer metastasis. Method: The expressions of Twist and E-cadherin in 54 cases of ovarian cancer and paracancerous tissues were detected by Western blottin g and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We used RNA interference to silence Twist expression in human ovarian cancer cell line, and detected E-cadherin expression using Western blotting. Results: There was an increase in the relative abundance of Twist proteins and a decrease in E-cadherin in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovary tissues (P < 0.05). The expression levels of Twist and E-cadherin mRNA were $1.49{\pm}0.53$ and $0.82{\pm}0.24$ in ovarian cancer, and $1.14{\pm}0.38$ and $1.08{\pm}0.19$ in paracancerous tissues, respectively. The difference between the indicators in ovarian cancer and in paracancerous tissues was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When the Twist expression was silenced in an ovarian cancer cell line, the expression of the E-cadherin protein increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of Twist is upregulated, whereas that of E-cadherin is downregulated in ovarian cancer. EMT, mediated by Twist, may be correlated with ovarian cancer metastasis.

Knowledge and Anxiety Related to Hereditary Ovarian Cancer in Serous Ovarian Cancer Patients (장액성 난소암 환자의 유전성 난소암에 대한 지식 및 불안정도)

  • Lee, Sang Hee;Lee, Hyangkyu;Lim, Myong Cheol;Kim, Sue
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.365-378
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The awareness of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and BRCA testing is increasing in Korea. Compared to the sizable research on HBOC knowledge among breast cancer women, studies in the ovarian cancer population are limited. This paper aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of hereditary ovarian cancer and anxiety in women diagnosed with serous ovarian cancer in Korea and determine differences in the knowledge and anxiety according to whether genetic testing was undertaken and whether BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were present. Methods: Using a descriptive research design, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 100 women diagnosed with serous ovarian cancer at N hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, from July to November 2018. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 21.0 program. Results: The hereditary ovarian cancer-related knowledge score was mid-level (mean score 8.90±3.29 out of a total of 17), as was the state anxiety level was mid-level (mean score 47.96±3.26 out of possible score range of 20-80). Genetic knowledge of hereditary ovarian cancer was associated with age, education, occupation, genetic counseling, and BRCA mutations. There were no statistically significant factors related to anxiety and there were no statistically significant correlations between knowledge level and anxiety. Conclusion: More comprehensive education on gene-related cancer is needed for ovarian cancer patients, especially for items with low knowledge scores. A genetic counseling protocol should be developed to allow more patients to alleviate their anxiety through genetic counseling.

Preclinical Activity of Lobaplatin as a Single Agent and in Combination with Taxanes for Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

  • Sun, Xu;Lou, Li-Guang;Sui, Dong-Hu;Wu, Xiao-Hua
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9939-9943
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    • 2014
  • Lobaplatin, one of the third - generation platinum compounds, has shown encouraging anticancer activity in a variety of tumor types. However, the efficacy of lobaplatin in ovarian cancer has not been systemically evaluated. In this study, lobaplatin as a single agent and in combination with taxanes was investigated in - vitro and in an in vitro model of ovarian carcinoma. Using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, the cytotoxic effects of lobaplatin alone and in combination with taxanes were compared with cisplatin and carboplatin in seven ovarian cancer cell lines. In addition, in - vitro antitumor activities were evaluated with cisplatin - sensitive and cisplatin - resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice. The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin was similar to or higher than that of cisplatin and carboplatin, with $IC_{50}$ values from 0.9 to $13.8{\mu}mol/L$ in a variety of ovarian cancer cells. The combination of lobaplatin with docetaxel yielded enhanced cytotoxic activity in vitro. In addition, in platinum - sensitive ovarian cancer xenografts, lobaplatin alone showed similar antitumor activity to cisplatin and carboplatin. Furthermore, lobaplatin alone or in combination with docetaxel exhibited significant activity in platinum - resistant ovarian cancer xenografts. These results indicate that the use of lobaplatin alone or in combination with docetaxel might be a rational and novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. Further clinical development of lobaplatin is clearly warranted.

Reduced Ovarian Cancer Incidence in Women Exposed to Low Dose Ionizing Background Radiation or Radiation to the Ovaries after Treatment for Breast Cancer or Rectosigmoid Cancer

  • Lehrer, Steven;Green, Sheryl;Rosenzweig, Kenneth E
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2979-2982
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    • 2016
  • Background: High dose ionizing radiation can induce ovarian cancer, but the effect of low dose radiation on the development of ovarian cancer has not been extensively studied. We evaluated the effect of low dose radiation and total background radiation, and the radiation delivered to the ovaries during the treatment of rectosigmoid cancer and breast cancer on ovarian cancer incidence. Materials and Methods: Background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States, 2011. Ovarian cancer incidence data are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of ovarian cancer following breast cancer and rectosigmoid cancer are from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. Obesity data by US state are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mean ages of US state populations are from the United States Census Bureau. Results: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, which reveal that in 194,042 cases of breast cancer treated with beam radiation, there were 796 cases of ovarian cancer by 120+ months of treatment (0.41%); in 283, 875 cases of breast cancer not treated with radiation, there were 1,531 cases of ovarian cancer by 120+ months (0.54%). The difference in ovarian cancer incidence in the two groups was significant (p < 0.001, two tailed Fisher exact test). The small dose of scattered ovarian radiation (about 3.09 cGy) from beam radiation to the breast appears to have reduced the risk of ovarian cancer by 24%. In 13,099 cases of rectal or rectosigmoid junction cancer treated with beam radiation in the SEER data, there were 20 cases of ovarian cancer by 120+ months of treatment (0.15%). In 33,305 cases of rectal or rectosigmoid junction cancer not treated with radiation, there were 91 cases of ovarian cancer by 120+ months (0.27%). The difference in ovarian cancer incidence in the two groups was significant (p = 0.017, two tailed Fisher exact test). In other words, the beam radiation to rectum and rectosigmoid that also reached the ovaries reduced the risk of ovarian cancer by 44%. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between ovarian cancer in white women and radon background radiation (r = - 0.465. p = 0.002) and total background radiation (r = -0.456, p = 0.002). Because increasing age and obesity are risk factors for ovarian cancer, multivariate linear regression was performed. The inverse relationship between ovarian cancer incidence and radon background was significant (${\beta}=-0.463$, p = 0.002) but unrelated to age (${\beta}=-0.080$, p = 0.570) or obesity (${\beta}=-0.180$, p = 0.208). Conclusions: The reduction of ovarian cancer risk following low dose radiation may be the result of radiation hormesis. Hormesis is a favorable biological response to low toxin exposure. A pollutant or toxin demonstrating hormesis has the opposite effect in small doses as in large doses. In the case of radiation, large doses are carcinogenic. However, lower overall cancer rates are found in U.S. states with high impact radiation. Moreover, there is reduced lung cancer incidence in high radiation background US states where nuclear weapons testing was done. Women at increased risk of ovarian cancer have two choices. They may be closely followed (surveillance) or undergo immediate prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. However, the efficacy of surveillance is questionable. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is considered preferable, although it carries the risk of surgical complications. The data analysis above suggests that low-dose pelvic irradiation might be a good third choice to reduce ovarian cancer risk. Further studies would be worthwhile to establish the lowest optimum radiation dose.

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms as Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Risk

  • Gao, Song;Liu, Ning;Ma, Yang;Ying, Liu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.569-573
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    • 2012
  • Early diagnosis and better prognosis of ovarian cancer is still a challenge. Besides environmental risk factors, genetic factors have established a role in pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Methods: A case-control and a prospective study design conducted in 224 ovarian cancer patients and 432 controls in Chinese population. MTHFR C677T genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Results: Patients with ovarian cancer is associated with a higher less number of delivery and less frequent oral contraceptive use. When potential confounding factors adjusted logistic regression analysis between cases and controls were performed, significant association was obtained for 677T/T genotype and ovarian cancer (OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.59-5.72). Cox regression survival analysis showed individuals carrying T/T genotype had significantly increased HR for death in ovarian cancer patients (HR=2.86, 95% CI=1.27-7.93). In conclusion, we observed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility and survival of ovarian cancer in Chinese population.

Ovarian Metastasis and other Ovarian Neoplasms in Women with Cervical Cancer Stage IA-IIA

  • Ngamcherttakul, Vijit;Ruengkhachorn, Irene
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4525-4529
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predicting factors of ovarian metastasis, and evaluate the histology of other ovarian neoplasms in women with early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: The medical records of women with cervical cancer stage IA-IIA who underwent primary surgical treatment at Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University from January 2007 to December 2011 were used for the study. Demographic, clinical and histopathologic data of the women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy were reviewed. Results: Of 264 women, the mean age was 52.3 years. The types of hysterectomy procedures were composed of 210 radical hysterectomy, 9 modified radical hysterectomy, 40 simple hysterectomy, and 5 abandoned hysterectomy. The prevalence of ovarian metastasis was 0.76% (2/264). All of ovarian metastatic patients were older than 60 years old, postmenopause, and had macroscopical stage IB1 cervical cancer. Others ovarian tumors were found in 7 patients including 1 synchronous ovarian carcinoma, 1 serous cystadenoma, 1 fibroma, and 4 teratoma. Conclusions: In cases of early-stage cervical carcinoma of the population studied, ovarian preservation could be another option in <60-year-old patients, with non-neuroendocrine cell type, stage IA, and no extracervical or ovarian lesions.

Urinary Concentrations of Human Epidydimis Secretory Protein 4 (He4) in The Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer: A Case-Control Study

  • Macuks, Ronalds;Baidekalna, Ieva;Donina, Simona
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4695-4698
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To analyze differential diagnostic accuracy of urinary human epidydimis secretory protein 4 (HE4) in patients with ovarian tumors. Materials and methods: In the case-control study 23 patients with ovarian cancer, 37 patients with benign ovarian tumors and 18 women in the control group were included. Serum CA125 values and urinary concentrations of HE4were assessed quantitatively. Urinary creatinine concentrations and glomerular filtration rate were also determined and used to calculate ratios to HE4. Results: Higher urinary HE4 concentrations were observed in patients with late stage ovarian cancer (p=0.001) and also in patients with early stage ovarian cancer when compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors (p=0.044). On analysis where all ovarian cancer patients were included, higher diagnostic accuracy was observed with calculated ratio of HE4 to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to unchanged urinary HE4 concentrations -AUC 0.861 vs. 0.858. When discriminatory accuracy was calculated for urinary HE4/GFR ratio and unchanged urinary HE4 concentrations, the last demonstrated a higher area under the curve - 0.701 vs. 0.602. The urinary HE4/creatinine ratio had lower discriminatory characteristics than unchanged concentrations of urinary HE4. However, HE4 serum concentration was more accurate for discrimination of patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors when compared to urinary HE4 and CA125 in sera (AUCs were 0.868 for serum HE4 and 0.856 and 0.653 for urinary HE4 and CA125, respectively). Conclusions: Ovarian cancer patients have higher urinary concentrations of human epidydimis secretory protein 4 than patients with benign ovarian tumors. Urinary HE4 has comparable discriminatory accuracy with serum HE4 for benign and malignant ovarian tumors and can be recommended as a non-invasive ovarian cancer risk assessment method.

Adipose Stromal Cells from Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Facilitate Migration of Ovarian Cancer Cells via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathway

  • Kim, Boyun;Kim, Hee Seung;Kim, Soochi;Haegeman, Guy;Tsang, Benjamin K.;Dhanasekaran, Danny N.;Song, Yong Sang
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.338-349
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) play an important regulatory role in cancer progression and metastasis by regulating systemic inflammation and tissue metabolism. This study examined whether visceral and subcutaneous ASCs (V- and S-ASCs) facilitate the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Materials and Methods $CD45^-$ and $CD31^-$ double-negative ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous and visceral fat using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Ovarian cancer cells were cultured in conditioned media (CM) obtained from ASCs to determine the cancer-promoting effects of ASCs. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Boyden chamber assay, and western blotting were performed to determine the proliferative activity, migration ability, and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, respectively. Results CM from ASCs enhanced the migration of the ovarian cancer line, SKOV3, via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Interestingly, in response to ASC-CM, the ascites cells derived from an ovarian cancer patient showed an increase in growth and migration. The migration of ovarian cancer cells was suppressed by blocking the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 using a neutralizing antibody against interleukin 6, small molecular inhibitors (e.g., WP1066 and TG101348), and silencing of STAT3 using siRNA. Anatomical differences between S- and V-ASCs did not affect the growth and migration of the ovarian cancer cell line and ascites cells from the ovarian cancer patients. Conclusion ASCs may regulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and possibly provide a potential target for anticancer therapy.

Clinical Practice Guideline for Korean Medicine for Ovarian Cancer (난소암 치료에 대한 한의 임상 가이드라인)

  • Kim, Kyung-Soon;Choi, Hong-Sik;Kim, Seung-Mo;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Korean Traditional Oncology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 2016
  • Ovarian cancer is the tenth most common cancer in Korean female, and the third most common cancer of female reproductive organ after breast cancer and uterine cervical cancer. In spite of develop of conventional treatment, high modality of ovarian cancer comes from difficulty of an early diagnosis. Recent studies revealed that combining conventional and integrative medical treatment can reduce the adverse effect of surgical operation, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Also it can improve survival rate, quality of life. However there isn't still a systemic clinical protocol for ovarian cancer in Korean medicine. This study will be helpful to establish clinical practice guidelines of Korean Medicine for ovarian cancer. And further studies on integrative ovarian cancer treatment are needed to build the clinical practice guidelines of ovarian cancer.

The Laying Hen: An Animal Model for Human Ovarian Cancer

  • Lee, Jin-Young;Song, Gwonhwa
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2013
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal world-wide gynecological disease among women due to the lack of molecular biomarkers to diagnose the disease at an early stage. In addition, there are few well established relevant animal models for research on human ovarian cancer. For instance, rodent models have been established through highly specialized genetic manipulations, but they are not an excellent model for human ovarian cancer because histological features are not comparable to those of women, mice have a low incidence of tumorigenesis, and they experience a protracted period of tumor development. However, the laying hen is a unique and highly relevant animal model for research on human ovarian cancer because they spontaneously develop epithelial cell-derived ovarian cancer (EOC) as occurs in women. Our research group has identified common histological and physiological aspects of ovarian tumors from women and laying hens, and we have provided evidence for several potential biomarkers to detect, monitor and target for treatment of human ovarian cancers based on the use of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Therefore, this review focuses on ovarian cancer of laying hens and relevant regulatory mechanisms, based on genetic and epigenetic aspects of the disease in order to provide new information and to highlight the advantages of the laying hen model for research in ovarian carcinogenesis.