• Title, Summary, Keyword: Organic matter

Search Result 3,652, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Effects of Organic Matter and pH on Chromium Oxidation Potential of Soil

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Eum, Jin-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.20 no.5
    • /
    • pp.346-351
    • /
    • 2001
  • Oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) can increase availability and toxicity of chromium. In this study, possible mechanisms by which pH and organic matter can control the chromium oxidation and reduction in soil system were examined using four soils of different pHs and organic matter contents. Reduction of Mn-oxides occurred in the soils of higher organic matter content (4.0%), but Mn-oxide was quite stable during the incubation in the soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Manganese oxides can be reductively dissolved at lower pH and higher organic matter conditions. The soil of pH 7.0 and 4.0% organic matter content showed the highest Cr-oxidation potential. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) was observed in all the soils examined. The most rapid reduction was found in soil of pH 5.5 and 4.0% organic matter content, but the reduction was slow in soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Thus, the reductive capacity of organic matter added soils was much higher as compared to other two soils of lower organic matter content. In all the soils examined, the reductive capacity of soluble chromium was much higher than the oxidative capacity. Organic matter was found to be the most important controlling factor in the chromium oxidation and reduction. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) could be a potentially useful remediation or detoxification process, and availability and toxicity of chromium in soil would be controlled by controlling organic matter content and pH of the soils.

  • PDF

Effects of Nitrogen Source and Organic Matter on Growth and Quality of Zoysia japonica Steud. (질소 급원과 유기물 시용이 들잔디의 생육 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 이용범;황규석;배공영
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.24-30
    • /
    • 1990
  • This study was carried out to search for growth and quality -of turfgrass by Nitrogen source (Urea Ammonium sulphate) and organic matter, and to obtain methods of pr6per turfgrass management by the results. This experiment was conducted in turf field from 1988 to 1989. The results of this experiment was summarized as follows; 1.Without application of organic matter, turfgrass growth between urea and ammonium sulphate was not significant, however ammonium sulphate resulted in superior to urea in total dry weight when organic matter was applied. 2.The addition of organic matter showed significant effect on color rating and visible quality, and ammonium sulphate was higher quality than urea. 3.Shoot density increased, particularly in ammonium sulphate treatment, when organic matter was applied. 4.Rhizome and stolon were shown significant effect in urea treatment by the application of organic matter. 5.Surface soil pH was allowed to become slightly acid by the ammonium sulphate treatments, but soil acidity remained mostly unaffected when organic matter was supplied. 6.Total nitrogen of log tissue and organic matter content increased when organic matter w-as applied.

  • PDF

Latitudinal Differences in the Accumulation of Soil Organic Matter in Selected Kroean Forest Types (한반도의 몇 삼림형에 따른 임토육기물 축종량의 위도적차이에 대해서)

  • 임양재
    • Journal of Plant Biology
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.5-13
    • /
    • 1971
  • Accumulation of soil organic matter and its vertical distribution at different latitudes in peninsular Korea were studied in the soil of four different forest types viz. Pinus densiflora forest, Castanea forest, Quercus acutissima forest and Carpinus laxiflora forest. Among them, accumulation of soil organic matter in Cheju sites, with a mean annual temperature of 15$^{\circ}C$, was maximum with increasing latitude, soil organic matter concentration decreased. Considering the relationship between concentration of soil organic matter and some climatic conditiions, it seems that concentrations of soil organic matter is a function of annual temperature, especially warmth index or cold index.

  • PDF

Elution Patterns and Hydraulic Conductivity Depending on the Incorporated Organic Matter Contents in a Multi-Layered Soil Column (토양내 유기물 함량 변화에 따른 다층 토주의 수리전도도 및 용출 경향)

  • Chung, Doug Young
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.125-134
    • /
    • 2000
  • This observation was to investigate the influence of raw organic matter incorporated into soil at various rates on hydraulic conductivity and elution of solute throughout soil column. Generally the organic matter content in a practical agricultural field was approximately 3%. However, the application rate of organic matter in the field tends to rapidly increase in these days. Therefore, we raised the application rate of organic matter up to 10% in this investigation. From the experiment, we found that the hydraulic conductivities rapidly decreased with increasing rate of organic matter as well as rapid decrease in total volume of eluent during the same period. And electrical conductivities in the effluent significantly decreased after 2 pore volume, resulting in approaching to the criteria of saline soli. From this we could assume that the organic matter may influence the crop growth in the beginning. However excessive irrigation in the field may cause saturation of soil leading to reduction of soil. Therefore, there must be a management methods in application of organic matter with respect to soil water control.

  • PDF

Treatment Efficiency and Organic Matter Characterization of Wastewater through Activated Sludge Process and Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process (활성슬러지공정과 고도처리공정에 따른 하수처리수의 처리효율과 유기물 특성)

  • Hong, JiHea;Sohn, Jinsik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
    • /
    • v.18 no.6
    • /
    • pp.807-813
    • /
    • 2004
  • Wastewater was treated by two different treatment processes; activated sludge process and advanced wastewater treatment process (KNR process) using lab-scale experiment. Two treated wastewater showed good treatment efficiency of organic matter removal, up to 90% removal. Nitrogen and phosphorus were not effectively removed though activated sludge process, while KNR process showed good removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus; 56% nitrogen removal and 95% phosphorus removal. KNR process showed better removal efficiency of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus compared to activated sludge process. Organic matter characterization was tracked though measurement of UV scan, SUVA, and XAD fractionation. Treated wastewater showed higher SUVA value than wastewater influent, indicting less aromatic characteristic of organic matter. XAD fractionation showed hydrophilic fraction decreased though wastewater treatment, suggesting microbes preferentially digest hydrophilic and aliphatic molecules rather than hydrophobic and aromatic molecules of organic matter.

Effects of Organic Material Application on the Growth and Yield of Crops in Korea (우리나라에서의 유기물(有機物) 시용효과(施用效果))

  • Park, Chon-Suh
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.175-194
    • /
    • 1979
  • The soil organic matter contents in arable land are generally low in Korea. Thus it is generally agreed that the application of organic materials to soils would be much beneficial. Present paper is a review on the effectiveness of organic mat ter application in uplands and lowlands. 1. The effect of organic matter application in uplands are of more clear and simple to explain as compared to that in lowlands. In uplands, appropriate application of organic matters such as compost and various crops residues improves the physical properties of soils leasing to increased water holding capacity, better aeration, and decrease in soil erosion. 2. In lowland, rice soils under water logged conditions the effect of organic matter application on rice yield is not straight borward and demands more refined knowledges for the interpretation of it. 3. It is found that the application of compost in rice soils is more effective when nitrogen fertilizer application is limited it dicating that nitrogen contained in the organic maerials can become available to rice plant and plays an important role for increased yield of rice under the condition where nitrogen fertilizer supply is limited. 4. Application of organic matter does not always bring about the desirable effects. Very often the organic matter application results in more intensive soil reduction leading to the accumulation of harmful substances which would can cancel out the positive effects of organic matter. This is partiunlarly true in poorly drained soils. 5. Rice straw or compost, when applied rice soils, supply sizeable amounts of available silicate to rice plant resulting in yield increase. 6. Although the effectiveness of organic matter application on rice yield in short term experiments is not consistent due to many reasons, the long term effect of organic matter is significant. 7. The term of the $O.M/SiO_2$ ratio in rice soils can serve as a criterion for the judgement of whether organic matter or silicate fertilizer is needed to be applied in a certain soil.

  • PDF

Distribution Characteristics of Organic Matter and Heavy Metal of Sediment in Daecheon Port (대천항 퇴적물의 유기물 및 중금속 분포 특성)

  • Shin, Woo-Seok;Lim, Ji-Yoon;Yoon, Young-Gwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.43-51
    • /
    • 2018
  • In order to systematically and scientifically manage the organic and heavy metals against sediment at Daecheon Port, this study conducted particle composition, organic materials and heavy metals irradiation studies of sediments. Analysis of the grain size composition of sediments in the target study area showed the distribution characteristics of the mix of sand, silt and clay. That is, Station C (Stn. C) showed superior by fine-grained sediment, Station A and B (Stn. A and B) showed superior by coarse-grained sediment. The organic matter(COD, TOC, and IL) of Stn. C was appeared to be heavily polluted more than Stn. A and B. These data for the spatial properties in sediment showed that organic matter was related positively to the sediment silt-clay content. Also, in the case of heavy metals contamination in surface sediments, Stn. C was higher than Stn. A and B. Particularly, at the Stn. C, high organic matter concentration and C/N ratio value( >10) indicated that the sediment was composed highly of land-derived organic matter. From these results, it considered that the correlation analysis among to silt-clay, organic matter and heavy metal was found to have a good interrelationship.

Radiocarbon for Studies of Organic Matter Cycling in the Ocean (방사성탄소를 이용한 해양 유기탄소 순환 연구 동향)

  • Hwang, Jeomshik
    • The Sea
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.189-201
    • /
    • 2012
  • Radiocarbon is a powerful tool for studies of carbon cycling in the ocean. Development of measurement technology of accelerator mass spectrometry has enabled researchers to measure radiocarbon even in specific compounds. In this paper, a brief introduction on radiocarbon measurement and reporting of radiocarbon data is provided. Researches that used radiocarbon measurements on bulk organic matter, organic compound classes, and specific organic compounds are reviewed. Examples include works to understand the cycling of particulate and dissolved organic matter, biochemical composition of particulate organic matter, post-depositional transport of sedimentary organic matter, selective incorporation of fresh organic matter by benthic organisms, chemoautotrophy by archaea, and sources of halogenated chemical compounds found in marine mammals.

The Origin and Biogeochemistry of Organic Matter in Surface Sediments of Lake Shihwa and Lake Hwaong

  • Won, Eun-Ji;Cho, Hyen-Goo;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Ocean Science Journal
    • /
    • v.42 no.4
    • /
    • pp.223-230
    • /
    • 2007
  • To understand the origin and biogeochemistry of the organic matter in surface sediments of Lake Shihwa and Lake Hwaong, organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, labile organic carbon, and residual organic carbon contents as well as stable isotope ratios for carbon and nitrogen were determined by KOBr-KOH treatment. Ratios of organic carbon to organic nitrogen $(C_{org}/N_{org})$ (mean = 24) were much higher than ratios of organic carbon to total nitrogen $(C_{org}/N_{tot})$ (mean= 12), indicating the presence of significant amounts of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments of both lakes. Stable isotope ratios for organic nitrogen were, on average, $5.2\%_{\circ}$ heavier than ratios of inorganic nitrogen in Lake Shihwa, but those same ratios were comparable in Lake Hwaong. This might be due to differences in the origin or the degree of degradation of sedimentary organic matter between the two lakes. In addition, stable isotope ratios for labile organic carbon were, on average, $1.4\%_{\circ}$ heavier than those for residual organic carbon, reflecting the preferential oxidation of $^{13}C$-enriched organic matter. The present study demonstrates that KOBr-KOH treatment of sedimentary organic matter can provide valuable information for understanding the origin and degradation state of organic matter in marine and brackish sediments. This also suggests that the ratio of $(C_{org}/N_{org})$ and stable isotope ratios for organic nitrogen can be used as indexes of the degree of degradation of organic matter.

Chemical Budgets in Intensive Carp Ponds

  • Peng Lei;Oh Sung-Yong;Jo Jae-Yoon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.4
    • /
    • pp.194-202
    • /
    • 2003
  • Budgets for water, nitrogen, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined in two 0.012 ha earthy-bottom ponds stocked with Israeli strain common carp at an initial stocking density of $20\;fish/m^3$. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations increased continuously but later decreased in pond A as a consequence of high nitrification. COD concentrations increased during the experimental period due to the accumulation of feed input. Nutrient budgets showed that feed represented $94-95\%$ of nitrogen input and about 99% of organic matter input. Fish harvest accounted for $40\%$ of nitrogen and organic matter input. Seepage and water exchange removed $15-17\%$ of nitrogen input but only $1-2\%$ of organic matter. Draining of the ponds removed $20-26\%$ of input nitrogen, mostly in inorganic forms, but removed only minus organic matter. Fish and water column respiration accounted for $39\%$ of organic matter input, and benthic respiration accounted for $7-12\%$ of organic matter input. No significant change of nitrogen and organic matter in both pond bottoms were found during the three-month growth period. The unrecovered input nitrogen, about $6.3-13\%$, was lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization. On a dry matter basis, fish growth removed $31\%$ of total feed input and left $69\%$ as metabolic wastes.