• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Organic Trace Minerals

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Effects of Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on Sows' Reproductive and Neonates' Growth Performance through 2 wk Postweaning

  • Acda, S.P.;Chae, B.J.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1312-1318
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    • 2002
  • A feeding trial using sows and their neonates was conducted to determine the effects of source and level of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive performance of sows and the subsequent performance of their neonates through 2 wk post weaning. A total of 16 gestating sows ($Landrace{\times}$Yorkshire) in parities 2 to 4 were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments following a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. One of the two factors evaluated the effect of the source (inorganic vs organic), and the second factor evaluated the effect of the level (low vs high) of trace minerals added to the diet. The trace mineral premixes were formulated to provide a low concentration of trace minerals (50 ppm Fe/87.5 ppm Fe, 17.5 ppm Cu/85 ppm Cu, 45 ppm Zn/60 ppm Zn, and 20 ppm Mn/17.5 ppm Mn), and a high concentration of trace minerals (100 ppm Fe/175 ppm Fe, 35 ppm Cu/170 ppm Cu, 90 ppm Zn/120 ppm Zn, 40 ppm Mn/35 ppm Mn), when included at 0.20% in sows'/weaned pigs' diets, respectively. The total number born, total born alive and weaned, and the average neonate weight at birth were affected neither by the dietary source nor by the level of trace minerals (p>0.05), but an interaction effect (p<0.05) between the source and level of trace minerals was observed on the average weight at weaning. The neonates from sows fed the low level of organic trace minerals gained weight at an equal rate compared with those farrowed by sows fed the high level of inorganic trace minerals. Sows fed the organic trace minerals nursed their young with milk higher in Fe and Zn (p<0.05) compared with those fed diets with inorganic trace minerals. Consequently, the weaned pigs receiving the organic form of trace minerals tended to grow at a faster rate, consumed less feed and tended to utilize their feed more efficiently (p<0.10). It was further observed that the organic trace minerals significantly increased (p<0.05) Fe contents in the liver and serum, and Zn in the serum and bone. In conclusion, sows and neonates fed the organic minerals at low level showed similar performance compared with those fed the inorganic minerals at high level as specified in this study.

Trace Mineral Nutrition in Poultry and Swine

  • Richards, James D.;Zhao, Junmei;Harrell, Robert J.;Atwell, Cindy A.;Dibner, Julia J.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1527-1534
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    • 2010
  • Trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese are essential cofactors for hundreds of cellular enzymes and transcription factors in all animal species, and thus participate in a wide variety of biochemical processes. Immune development and response, tissue and bone development and integrity, protection against oxidative stress, and cellular growth and division are just a few examples. Deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to deficits in any of these processes, as well as reductions in growth performance. As such, most animal diets are supplemented with inorganic and/or organic forms of trace minerals. Inorganic trace minerals (ITM) such as sulfates and oxides form the bulk of trace mineral supplementation, but these forms of minerals are well known to be prone to dietary antagonisms. Feeding high-quality chelated trace minerals or other classes of organic trace minerals (OTM) can provide the animal with more bioavailable forms of the minerals. Interestingly, many, if not most, published experiments show little or no difference in the bioavailability of OTMs versus ITMs. In some cases, it appears that there truly is no difference. However, real differences in bioavailability can be masked if source comparisons are not made on the linear portion of the dose-response curve. When highly bioavailable chelated minerals are fed, they will better supply the biochemical systems of the cells of the animal, leading to a wide variety of benefits in both poultry and swine. Indeed, the use of certain chelated trace minerals has been shown to enhance mineral uptake, and improve the immune response, oxidative stress management, and tissue and bone development and strength. Furthermore, the higher bioavailability of these trace minerals allows the producer to achieve similar or improved performance, at reduced levels of trace mineral inclusion.

Low-dose of organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without compromising performance of laying hens

  • Qiu, Jialing;Lu, Xintao;Ma, Lianxiang;Hou, Chuanchuan;He, Junna;Liu, Bing;Yu, Dongyou;Lin, Gang;Xu, Jiming
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.588-596
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low doses of organic trace minerals (iron, copper, manganese, and zinc) on productive performance, egg quality, yolk and tissue mineral retention, and fecal mineral excretion of laying hens during the late laying period. Methods: A total of 405 healthy hens (HY-Line White, 50-week-old) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 9 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments included feeding a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at commercial levels (CON), a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (ITM), and a basal diet + proteinated trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (TRT). The trial lasted for 56 days. Results: Compared to CON, ITM decreased (p<0.05) egg production, daily egg mass, albumen height, eggshell strength, yolk Fe concentration, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and total protein, and increased (p<0.05) egg loss and feed to egg ratio. Whereas with productive performance, egg quality, yolk mineral retention, and serum indices there were no differences (p>0.05) between CON and TRT. The concentrations of Fe and Mn in the tissue and tibia were changed notably in ITM relative to CON and TRT. Both ITM and TRT reduced (p<0.05) fecal mineral excretion compared to CON. Conclusion: These results indicate that dietary supplementation of low-dose organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without negatively impacting hen performance and egg quality.

Effects of Trace Mineral Source and Growth Implants on Trace Mineral Status of Growing and Finishing Feedlot Steersa,b,c

  • Dorton, K.L.;Wagner, J.J.;Larson, C.K.;Enns, R.M.;Engle, T.E.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2010
  • Three hundred and seventy-three steers (approximately 7 mo of age and $247{\pm}19.4\;kg$) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) source and growth implants on trace mineral status. Steers were blocked by ranch, post-weaning treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head/pen). Treatment consisted of: I) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), ii) inorganic trace minerals, and iii) organic trace minerals. Six pens of steers per treatment received a growth implant at the beginning of the experiment and were re-implanted during the finishing phase. The remaining steers received no growth implants. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 56 d then were gradually switched to a high concentrate finishing diet. Treatments during the finishing phase consisted of: i) control (no supplemental Zn); ii) inorganic Zn (30 mg of Zn/kg DM from $ZnSO_4$); and iii) organic Zn (iso-amounts of organic Zn). By the end of the growing and finishing phases, implanted steers had greater (p<0.01) plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers. During the growing phase, liver Cu concentrations (p<0.01) and plasma Zn concentrations (p<0.02) were greater in steers supplemented with TM compared to control steers. Steers supplemented with inorganic minerals had greater liver Cu concentrations than steers supplemented with organic minerals at the beginning (p<0.01) and end (p = 0.02) of the growing phase. During both the growing (p = 0.02) and finishing phases (p = 0.05), nonimplanted control steers had greater plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers supplemented with TM, whereas, implanted control steers had similar plasma Cu concentrations than implanted steers supplemented with TM. Non-implanted steers that received inorganic TM had lower plasma Cu concentrations (p = 0.03) during the growing phase and ceruloplasmin activity (p<0.04) during the finishing phase than non-implanted steers that received organic TM, whereas, implanted steers supplemented with either organic or inorganic TM had similar plasma Cu concentrations.

The Digestibility of Organic Trace Minerals along the Small Intestine in Broiler Chickens

  • Bao, Y.M.;Choct, M.;Iji, P.A.;Bruerton, K.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2010
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of low concentrations of organic and inorganic dietary trace minerals on broiler performance and trace mineral digestibility along the small intestine of 35-day-old broiler chickens reared under floor-pen conditions. Eight hundred male, day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments (25 birds per pen with 8 replicates per treatment). Broilers fed diets supplemented with 4, 20, 40 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn from organic chelates and inorganic salts achieved the same body weight gain as those supplemented at the NRC levels (8 mg Cu, 40 mg Fe, 60 mg Mn and 40 mg Zn/kg, respectively) from inorganic salts. However, birds fed a control diet without any supplementation at dietary levels of 7.4-8.8, 60.1-69.2, 14.6-15.4 and 19.1-20.6 mg/kg of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively, had decreased feed intake and growth rate. There was no significant difference in the digestibility of Cu in all regions of the small intestine. Throughout the small intestine the apparent absorption of Mn from both organic and inorganic sources was small, whereas the digestibility of Zn seemed to be more complex, exhibiting differences in the apparent absorption due to both mineral source and intestinal site. Therefore, the digestibility of organic Zn was improved (p<0.01) in the ileum compared to inorganic Zn. The digestibility of Zn in the duodenum was smaller (p<0.05) than that in the ileum.

Effect of Inorganic and Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Fecal Mineral Excretion of Phase-fed, Grow-finish Swine

  • Burkett, J.L.;Stalder, K.J.;Powers, W.J.;Bregendahl, K.;Pierce, J.L.;Baas, T.J.;Bailey, T.;Shafer, B.L.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1279-1287
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    • 2009
  • Concentrated livestock production has led to soil nutrient accumulation concerns. To reduce the environmental impact, it is necessary to understand current recommended livestock feeding practices. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of trace mineral supplementation on performance, carcass composition, and fecal mineral excretion of phase-fed, grow-finish pigs. Crossbred pigs (Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), (n = 528); Experiment 2 (Exp. 2), (n = 560)) were housed in totally-slatted, confinement barns, blocked by weight, penned by sex, and randomly assigned to pens at approximately 18 kg BW. Treatments were allocated in a randomized complete block design (12 replicate pens per treatment) with 9 to 12 pigs per pen throughout the grow-finish period. In Exp. 1, the control diet (Io100) contained Cu as $CuSO_{4}$, Fe as $FeSO_{4}$, and Zn (of which 25% was ZnO and 75% was $ZnO_{4}$) at concentrations of 63 and 378 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment 2 (O100) contained supplemental Cu, Fe, and Zn from organic sources (Bioplex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) at concentrations of 19, 131, and 91 mg/kg, respectively, which are the commercially recommended dietary inclusion levels for these organic trace minerals. Organic Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations from O100 were reduced by 25% and 50% to form treatments 3 (O75) and 4 (O50-1), respectively. In Exp. 2, treatment 5 (Io25) contained 25% of the Cu, Fe, and Zn (inorganic sources) concentrations found in Io100. Treatment 6 (O50-2) was identical to the O50-1 diet from Exp. 1. Treatment 7 (O25) contained the experimental microminerals reduced by 75% from concentrations found in O100. Treatment 8 (O0) contained no trace mineral supplementation and served as a negative control for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, tenth-rib backfat, loin muscle area and ADG did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. Pigs fed the control diet (Io100) consumed less feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets containing organic trace minerals, thus, G:F was greater (p = 0.03). In Exp. 2, there were no differences among treatment means for loin muscle area, but pigs fed the reduced organic trace mineral diets consumed less (p<0.05) feed and tended (p = 0.10) to have less tenth-rib backfat compared to pigs fed the reduced inorganic trace mineral diet. Considering that performance and feed intake of pigs was not affected by lower dietary trace mineral inclusion, mineral excretion could be reduced during the grow-finish phase by reducing dietary trace mineral concentration.

The Effects of Replacing Inorganic with a Lower Level of Organically Complexed Minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) in Broiler Diets on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense Systems

  • Aksu, Devrim Saripinar;Aksu, Taylan;Ozsoy, Bulent;Baytok, Erol
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1066-1072
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the effects of replacing inorganic copper, zinc and manganese with different levels of organic complexes of the same trace minerals on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in broilers were investigated. Two-hundred Ross-308 one-day-old broiler chickens were placed on controlled diets until 42 d of age. The experimental animals were divided into four groups comprising three experimental groups and one control group, each consisting of 50 chickens. All groups were also divided into five subgroups each containing 10 broiler chicks. The mineral content of the control group diet was controlled using a standard inorganic mineral premix with supplement levels and sources of trace minerals typical of commercial broiler diets according to the National Research Council (NRC) (containing 8 mg Cu as $CuSO_4$, 40 mg Zn as $ZnSO_4$, and 60 mg Mn as MnO, per kg). In the experimental diets, mineral premix was also comprised of inorganic formulations, except for those of Cu, Zn and Mn. Organically-complexed Cu, Zn, and Mn were separately added to the basal diet at 1/3 (L1), 2/3 (L2) and 3/3 (L3) levels with respect to the NRC recommendation, as Bioplex $Cu^{TM}$, Bioplex $Zn^{TM}$, Bioplex $Mn^{TM}$. At the end of the trial, the plasma Zn level significantly increased when the plasma Cu level significantly decreased (p<0.05) in chickens fed at 2/3 and 3/3 levels of organically complexed minerals. The liver trace mineral concentrations were significantly higher in chickens fed inorganic trace minerals in comparison to those fed organically-complexed minerals. The plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level of experimental chickens was decreased in groups receiving levels of organic Cu, Zn and Mn in comparison to those fed inorganic forms (p<0.01). The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in all groups receiving the organic mineral supplements in comparison to those fed inorganic forms (p<0.01). No differences were observed on either the erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity or the plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) levels, and the liver MDA levels and liver CAT and SOD activities in any of the groups that received the organic supplements of Cu, Zn, and Mn. It was concluded that supplementation of lower levels of organically-complexed copper, zinc, and manganese instead of their inorganic forms in diets had no negative effects on the antioxidant defense system in broilers.

Influence of a Single Dose of Fe Dextran Administration with Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance of Piglets

  • Acda, S.P.;Joo, J.W.;Kim, W.T.;Shim, Y.H.;Lee, S.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1469-1474
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    • 2002
  • This study was designed to evaluate the influence of a single or double dose of Fe dextran with organic trace mineral supplementation on the performance of piglets from dams fed diets with either inorganic (ITM) or organic trace minerals (OTM). It also determined the effect of the source of the trace minerals on the reproductive performance of sows. The trace mineral premixes were prepared using metal proteinates and the corresponding inorganic salts for the OTM and the ITM, respectively. Each mineral premix provided 100 ppm Fe/175 ppm Fe, 35 ppm Cu/170 ppm Cu, 90 ppm Zn/120 ppm Zn, and 40 ppm Mn/35 ppm Mn when added at 0.20% in sows /weaned pigs' diets, respectively. The first dose of Fe dextran was administered to piglets at 3 d and the second dose at 10 d after birth. One dose of Fe dextran supplied 100 mg of Fe. A total of 16 gestating sows (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) in parities 2 to 4 were randomly allocated to four treatments: 1) diet with ITM/one dose of Fe dextran to piglets, 2) diet with ITM/two doses of Fe dextran to piglets, 3) diet with OTM/one dose of Fe dextran to piglets, and 4) diet with OTM/two doses of Fe dextran to piglets. The total born alive, weaned, body weight at birth and at weaning were not affected by the sow's dietary treatment. Although organic trace mineral supplementation tended to increase the milk Fe content (p<0.10) at 7 d postpartum, piglets in all treatments performed equally from birth to weaning. The double doses of Fe dextran neither improved the average daily gain (ADG) nor influenced the survival of piglets from birth to weaning (21 d). Results suggest that a single dose of Fe dextran given to suckling pigs is adequate to sustain their needs for growth throughout the lactation period (21 d). Furthermore, there was a 21% improvement in both the ADG and the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) in weaned pigs fed diets with OTM. Cu and Fe in the liver (p<0.01), and Zn in both the bone (p<0.01) and the serum (p<0.01) were higher in piglets fed OTM than in those fed ITM. It would be concluded that single dose of Fe dextran administration with organic trace mineral supplementation show similar growth performance compared to 2 dose Fe dextran administration with inorganic mineral supplementation in young pigs.

Effects of low-dose organic trace minerals on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion of sows

  • Ma, Lianxiang;He, Junna;Lu, Xintao;Qiu, Jialing;Hou, Chuanchuan;Liu, Bing;Lin, Gang;Yu, Dongyou
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of low-dose trace mineral proteinates on reproductive performance, mineral status, milk immunoglobulin contents and fecal mineral excretion of sows. Methods: Eighty crossbred sows (Landrace×Large White) were randomly allocated to two groups in a 135-day trail, from breeding through 21 d postpartum. The two treatments were inorganic trace minerals (ITM): a basal diet+inorganic iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) at 90, 15, 25 and 90 mg/kg, respectively and organic trace minerals (OTM): a basal diet+proteinates of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn at 72, 12, 20, and 72 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Compared with ITM, OTM significantly increased (p<0.05) the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight, and milk Fe, Cu contents. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed on sow hair mineral contents or immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA contents in colostrum and milk. In comparsion to ITM, OTM decreased fecal Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents of gestating sows (p<0.01) and Fe, Mn, and Zn in lactating sows (p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that low-dose mineral proteinates can increase the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight and certain milk mineral concentrations while reducing fecal mineral excretion.

Characterization of Clay Minerals in Ranch Pasture

  • Kang, Sangjae;Jang, Jeonghun;Park, Nayun;Park, Junhong;Choi, Seyeong;Park, Man;Lee, Changhee;Lee, Donghoon;Zhang, Yongseon
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2016
  • This study deals with the distribution of the clay minerals separated from clay fractions of ranch pastures in Korea and their chemical and mineralogical properties. Crystalline phases of the clay minerals were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and FT-IR spectra, and their relative chemical compositions were also analyzed by X-ray flourescence spectrometry (XRF). Primary minerals consisted mainly of quartz and mica and chlorite and kaolinite along with a trace of swelling micas were identified as secondary clay minerals. However, the relative content of these clay minerals was different with the locations, which led to significant effects on physical and chemical properties of soils like inorganic elemental composition. In particular, $SiO_2$ content was higher in Gochang ranch pasture than in other ranch pasture. Infrared (IR) spectra did not indicate any significant differences in organic functional groups among the locations. This study clearly showed that ranch pastures had different relative content of clay minerals and chemical properties depending on the location and consequently that those properties are worthy to be taken into account for soil amendment.