• Title, Summary, Keyword: Organ weights

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A Study of Organ Weights in Nanjing(難經) (『난경(難經)』에 나타난 오장(五臟)의 무게에 대한 소고(小考))

  • Kim, Sang-Un;Jung, Hyun-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : This study is to verify the organ weights in Nanjing based on the weights of five viscera (五臟) in autopsy studies of modern times. Methods : Contents on organ weights from many annotations and articles on Nanjing were collected. Organ weights in autopsy studies dealt in many countries including China, India, U.S. and Korea were collected. Among the data, the average weights of liver, heart, spleen, pancreas, lung and kidney of males in the age of 18 to 60 were calculated, and the ratio of each organ was examined. Based on those results, the organ weights of Nanjing were evaluated. Results & Conclusions : There is a close correspondence between the organ weight ratios of liver(肝), heart(心), lung(肺) and kidney(腎) in Nanjing and those in autopsy studies. It proves that the organ weights in Nanjing were recorded based on an actual dissection. As a result of the analysis on autopsy studies, the average organ weights and the ratio among the organs were: liver 1416g(43.0%), heart 296g(9.0%), lung 1047g(31.8%), kidney 273g(8.3%), spleen 264g(4.5%) and pancrease 113g(3.4%). The weight of liver in Nanjing shall be 4 jin and 4 liang(4斤4兩) instead of 2 jin and 4 liang(2斤4兩) to occupy proper proportion out of other organs. It is highly possible that the weight of spleen(脾) in Nanjing is including the weight of pancrease(散膏), and the weight shall be 1 jin and 1 liang(1斤1兩) or 1 jin and 2 liang(1斤2兩) instead of 2 jin and 3 liang(2斤3兩) to occupy proper proportion out of other organs.

Reference Values of Organ Weights in Sprague-Dawley Rats (Ktc: Sprague-Dawley 랫드의 장기중량치의 자료분석)

  • Kang, Boo-Hyon;Kim, Il-Hwan;Kim, Yong-Bum;Kim, Young-Hee;Lee, Hyun-Sook;Ha, Chang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2001
  • A reference range data base containing organ weight values on animals used in 4 week and 13 week toxicity tests is described. Data listed include the values of minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation for each of the following organ weights. Organs: Brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, testis, ovary. This study was undertaken to determine organ weight reference values of Ktc: SD rats

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Effects of vitamin E and selenium (Selevit) on the orchidectomized rats

  • Chon, Seung-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2011
  • The present study was devised to determine the effects of body weight, organ weight, hematological values and biochemical parameters by vitamin E and selenium (Selevit) on the Orch rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups. Intact group (n=10) received no treatment and operation. Sham group (n=10) received only sham operation and no treatment. Orch group received operation and no treatment. Orch+Selevit received operation and Selevit. The body weights of each group increased, but that of the Orch+Selevit group were significantly lower than those of all the other groups. There were significant differences (P<0.001) of body weights between Orch+Selevit group and all the other groups. Also, organ weights such as heart, liver, spleen and kidney were measured. The heart weights were significantly lower (P<0.001) in the Orch+Selevit group than in Intact and Sham group. The liver weights in the Orch+Selevit group were significantly differences (P<0.001) in comparison with those in the Intact and Sham groups. The kidney weights in the Orch+Selevit group were significantly differences (P<0.01, P<0.001) in comparison with those in all the other groups. On the other hand, there were no significantly differences in the organ weights of spleen between the Orch+Selevit groups and the any other groups. The number of white blood cell (WBC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Orch+Selevit group than in all the other groups. The hematological values of red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not significantly different in any of the groups. The concentrations of serum total protein, albumin and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the Orch+Selevit group as compared to that in the Orch group. However, there were no significant differences in AST and ALT in any other groups. We conclude that Selevit was significantly decreased the body weight in the orchidectomized rats. Our findings suggest that Selevit may influence the process of lipid packaging and absorption in the orchidectomized rats.

Efficacy of Glucomannan-containing Yeast Product (Mycosorb®) and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate in Preventing the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Aflatoxin and T-2 Toxin in Commercial Broilers

  • Girish, C.K.;Devegowda, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.877-883
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    • 2006
  • A feeding trial was conducted on commercial broilers for a period of 35 days to determine the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin (AF) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ weights and immune status. The efficacy of dietary glucomannan-containing yeast product (GYP) ($Mycosorb^{(R)}$) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin was also evaluated. Twelve dietary treatments ($4{\times}3$ factorial) comprising two dietary levels each of AF (0 and 2 mg/kg), T-2 toxin (0 and 1 mg/kg), GYP (0 and 1 kg/ton) and HSCAS (0 and 10 kg/ton) were tested on 720 commercial broiler chickens divided at random into 36 replicates of 20 chicks each (10 males and 10 females). Weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly. Organ morphology and antibody titers for Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) were measured on the $35^{th}$ day. AF and T-2 toxin individually decreased weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.05). AF alone (p<0.05) increased weights of liver, kidney, gizzard and spleen and reduced thymus and bursal weights. T-2 toxin (p<0.05) increased liver and gizzard weights and decreased thymus weight. Both AF and T-2 toxin when fed individually affected ND and IBD titers in a significant manner. Significant interactions between AF and T-2 toxin were observed for their additive effects on weight gain, FCR, organ weights and antibody titers. Addition of GYP (p<0.05) improved weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and restored the organ weights. Antibody titers against ND and IBD were significantly improved with the supplementation of GYP. Supplementation of HSCAS (p<0.05) resulted in improvement in weight gain and restored organ weights in the groups fed AF alone, but not in T-2 toxin fed groups. HSCAS inclusion did not influence FCR in toxin fed groups. Addition of HSCAS (p<0.05) improved the antibody titers against ND and IBD only in AF fed groups. Thus, the results indicate that addition of GYP is effective in averting the individual and combined toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in commercial broilers, while HSCAS is effective only against aflatoxin.

Genetic architecture and candidate genes detected for chicken internal organ weight with a 600 K single nucleotide polymorphism array

  • Dou, Taocun;Shen, Manman;Ma, Meng;Qu, Liang;Li, Yongfeng;Hu, Yuping;Lu, Jian;Guo, Jun;Wang, Xingguo;Wang, Kehua
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Internal organs indirectly affect economic performance and well-being of animals. Study of internal organs during later layer period will allow full utilization of layer hens. Hence, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential quantitative trait loci or genes that potentially contribute to internal organ weight. Methods: A total of 1,512 chickens originating from White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-Shelled chickens were genotyped using high-density Affymetrix 600 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. We conducted a GWAS, linkage disequilibrium analysis, and heritability estimated based on SNP information by using GEMMA, Haploview and GCTA software. Results: Our results displayed that internal organ weights show moderate to high (0.283 to 0.640) heritability. Variance partitioned across chromosomes and chromosome lengths had a linear relationship for liver weight and gizzard weight ($R^2=0.493$, 0.753). A total of 23 highly significant SNPs that associated with all internal organ weights were mainly located on Gallus gallus autosome (GGA) 1 and GGA4. Six SNPs on GGA2 affected heart weight. After the final analysis, five top SNPs were in or near genes 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, general transcription factor IIF polypeptide 2, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing 2, non-SMC condensin I complex subunit G, and sonic hedgehog, which were considered as candidate genes having a pervasive role in internal organ weights. Conclusion: Our findings provide an understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of internal organs and are beneficial in the selection of chickens.

Effects of testosterone on the orchidectomized rats

  • Chon, Seung-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.417-421
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to determine the changes of body weight, organ weight, hematological values and biochemical parameters by testosterone (Testos) on the orchidectomized (Orch) rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups. Intact group (n=10) received no treatment and operation. Sham group (n=10) received only sham operation and no treatment. Orch group received operation and no treatment. Orch+Testos received operation and testosterone. The body weights of each group increased, but that of Orch+Testos group was significantly lower in Orch+Testos group than in all the other groups. There were significant differences (P<0.05, P<0.001) of body weights between Orch+Testos group and all the other groups. Also, organ weights such as heart, liver, spleen and kidney were measured. The heart weights were significantly lower (P<0.001) in the Orch+Testos group than in all the other groups. The liver weights in the Orch+Testos group were significantly differences in comparison with those in the Sham (P<0.001) and Orch group (P<0.05). On the other hand, there were no significantly differences in the organ weights of spleen and kidney between the Orch+Testos group and the any other groups. The hematological values of white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were no significant differences in any other groups. The concentrations of serum total protein and albumin increased significantly (P<0.05) in the Orch+Testos group as compared to that in the Orch group. However, there were no significant differences in Ca, IP and Mg in any other groups. We conclude that testosterone was significantly decreased the body weight in the orchidectomized rats. Our findings suggest that testosterone may influence the process of lipid packaging and absorption in the orchidectomized rats.

Inclusion of Dried Bakery Product in High Fat Broiler Diets: Effect on Pellet Quality, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Organ Weights

  • Catala-Gregori, P.;Garcia, V.;Madrid, J.;Orengo, J.;Hernandez, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.686-693
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    • 2009
  • A 21- to 42-day feeding study was conducted in Ross male broilers to evaluate the use of dried bakery product (DBP) and the influence of adding fat at different points in the manufacturing process. Six dietary treatments were formulated using a factorial arrangement (3${\times}$2 design) with three levels of fat in the mixer (high: 4.8%, medium: 3.8% and low: 2.8%) with or without DBP (0 and 7%). Additional fat was sprayed on pellets in a post-pelleting liquid application to bring the fat content to a similar level in all diets. Data on pellet quality (before and after post-pelleting fat addition), broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and organ weights were studied. Pellets made with DBP showed higher hardness values when measured before post-pelleting fat addition (p<0.001), although DBP did not affect final pellet hardness or durability. Higher post-pelleting hardness and durability were shown by diets to which a lower level of fat had been added in the mixer (p<0.001). In general, post-pelleting fat application improved durability (p<0.05). However, broiler performance and ileal digestibility were not affected by any of the factors tested. Dietary treatments had a significant but variable effect on carcass yield (p<0.01), although there were no differences among treatments regarding breast and leg yield, abdominal fat or organ weights. The results indicate that up to 7% DBP could be used in the broiler diet without impairing performance, ileal digestibility or organ weights. The place or point of fat addition in the manufacturing process has a strong influence on pellet quality.

CHANGES IN BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS, HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, AND FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD ERYTHROCYTES OF ICR MICE EXPOSED TO LOW-DOSE-RATE $\gamma$-RADIATION

  • Kang, Yu-Mi;Shin, Suk-Chul;Jin, Young-Woo;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2009
  • We exposed ICR mice to low-dose (0.2 Gy) and low-dose-rate (0.7 mGy/h) $\gamma$-radiation ($^{137}Cs$) in the Low-dose-rate Irradiation Facility at the Radiation Health Research Institute to evaluate systemic effects of low-dose radiation. We compared the body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells and platelets), levels of biochemical markers in serum, and frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes between low-dose irradiated and non-irradiated control mice. The ICR mice irradiated with total doses of 0.2 and 2 Gy showed no changes in body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells), or frequency of micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of peripheral blood. However, the number of platelets (P = 0.002) and the liver weight (P < 0.01) were significantly increased in mice exposed to 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that a low-dose-rate of 0.7 mGy/h does not induce systemic damage. This dose promotes hematopoiesis in the bone marrow microenvironment and the proliferation of liver cells. In the future, the molecular biological effects of lower doses and dose rates need to be evaluated.

Determination of Growth Performance, Viscera Organ Weights and Ileal Intestinal Architecture of Broilers in Response to Drinking Water Added Extractions from Wooden Chips for the Starter Period

  • Macelline, Shemil Priyan;Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Shin, Taeg Kyun;Kim, Eunjoo;Cho, Hyun Min;Hong, Jun Seon;Nam, Jeong Bin;Yang, Seung Min;Oh, Geun Hye;Kang, Seog Goo;Heo, Jung Min
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2018
  • A total of 90 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, each consisting of six replicates (5 broilers/cage). The dietary treatments were 1) control (CON: fresh clean water with no supplement); 2) low dose [LD: CON + 1.56% extractions from the wooden chips (EWC)] and 3) high dose (HD: CON + 12.5% EWC). Drinking water supplemented with EWC was provided using specifically designed individual nipple drinker units. Average daily water intake (ADWI), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured weekly for 21 days. One broiler from each cage was euthanized for measuring the visceral organ weights and collecting ileal tissue samples for ileal architecture analysis on day 21. Broilers assigned to the LD and HD watery groups showed higher ADWI than that in broilers consumed CON on day 7 (P<0.05). The broilers subjected to HD treatment showed a deeper crypt depth (P<0.05) than that in broilers subjected to LD and CON on day 21. Therefore, broilers consumed HD showed a lower (P<0.05) villus height:crypt depth ratio than that broilers consumed CON on day 21. Broilers provided drinking water containing any of the tested concentrations of EWC showed no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance, ileal villus height, and visceral organ weights as compared with those in the CON from hatch to 21 days. In conclusion, broilers fed HD showed reduction in villus height:crypt depth ratio without impairing growth performance and visceral organ weights for the experimental period.

Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Kong-Jin-Dan, a Polyherbal Formula in ICR Mice

  • Park, Mee-Yeon;Choi, Hae-Yun;Kim, Jong-Dae;Lee, Hyeung-Sik;Ku, Sae-Kwang
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2007
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the single dose toxicity of Kong-Jin-Dan (KJD), a polyherbal formula in male and female mice. KJD was administered to female and male ICR mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000 and 500 mg/kg (body wt.) according to the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 12 principle organs were examined. As results, we could not find any mortality, clinical signs, and changes in the body and organ weight except for increases of lymphoid organ weights in KJD-dosing groups. These increases of lymphoid organ weights considered that related to the immune modulate effect of KJD not toxicological signs. In addition, no KJD-treatment related abnormal gross findings and changes in histopathology of principle organs were detected except for some sporadic accidental findings. The results obtained in this study suggest that the KJD does not cause any toxicological signs. The $LD_{50}$ and approximate LD of KJD extracts in both female and male mice were considered as over 2000 mg/kg.