• Title, Summary, Keyword: Organ indexes

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Effects of Omahwan(OMH) on CD4+, CD8+ T cell and Immune Organ Index in Rat (오마환(烏麻丸)이 백서(白鼠)의 혈액내(血液內) CD4+, CD8+ T cell 및 면역기관(免疫器官) 장기지수(臟器指數)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee Song-Shil;Lee Sang-Jae;Kim Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.76-89
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    • 2001
  • OMH which is known for its properties of recruiting vitality, is composed of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and Sesamum indicum DC.. This formula is known to possess the properties of recruiting vitality, blackening white hair and expanding life span. 16-week-old SD-Rats were treated with OMH for 16 days. After 24 hours, the rats were treated with MTX(Mthotrexate is oral administrated for 4 days(1mg/kg/day), in order to lower immunity. Then, These rats were classified in to groups, the N-16 group(not specially tested), the Control group(MTX), the OMH-L group(2.5% OMH+MTX)&the OMH-H group(10% OMH+MTX) and 6 rats were assigned to each group. After 18 hours from MTX treatment the organ index of the rats from each group Thymus and Spleen were measured. The percentage of CD+4, CD8+ T cell were measured and compared by flow cytometer. 1) Rats from the OHM-L&OMH-H group showed higher organ indexes of the Thymus and Spleen compared to the rats from the Control Group. This proves that OMH possesses the properties to mitigate degenerations of immunity($F_{thymus}=20.162,\;F_{spleen}=5.882$, ANDVA, p<0.05). 2) The rats from the two OMH groups showed higher rates of CD4+ T cell counts compared to the control group(F=26.906, ANOVA, p<0.05). CD8+ T cell showed lower rates compared to the Control group, but showed no differences within the two OMH groups(F=1.254, ANOYA, p>0.05). CD4+/CD8+ showed higher rates in the two OMH groups compared to the control group which can be thought as a proof that OMH prevents depression of immune response(F=10.554, ANOVA, p<0.05). In this test 16 week-old rats were used, which can be considered as the middle and prime age of the human being. These rats were treated with OMH which ended up showing properties of mitigating degeneration of immune responses and maintaining T-cell rates within the blood. It was possible to study that OMH possesses the properties to increase immune responses.

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The effects of paeoniflorin injection on soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid-1 (sTREM-1) levels in severe septic rats

  • Liu, Xiao-Rong;Xu, Jie;Wang, Yi-Min;Ji, Ming-Suo;Liu, Fu-Shan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.565-571
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    • 2016
  • Paeoniflorin (PAE) is the most abundant compound in Xuebijing injection widely used to treat sepsis. We aimed to investigate effect of PAE on expression of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in a rat model of sepsis. Wistar rats were divided into Normal, Model, and PAE groups (n=20 each). Endotoxin was administrated at 5 mg/ml/kg in Model and PAE rats to establish rat sepsis model. 1 h after endotoxin administration, PAE was administrated at 4 ml/kg in PAE group once per day for 3 days. Routine blood tests and biochemical indexes were assessed, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). The plasma sTREM-1 level was measured using quantitative ELISA. At the end of experiment, the small intestine, liver, kidney and lung were subjected to pathological examinations. A rat model of sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was established successfully with endotoxin administration (5 mg/ml/kg), evidenced by histo-pathological examinations, routine blood tests and biochemical indexes: platelet count decreased and white blood cell count increased (p<0.05), CK-MB and AST increased (p<0.05). PAE treatment significantly reduced the plasma levels of AST, CK-MB, and sTREM-1, compared to Model group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, sepsis-induced damages in the liver, lung, stomach and intestinal mucosa were also markedly ameliorated by PAE treatment. PAE demonstrated a significantly protective effect in a rat model of sepsis by decreasing plasma sTREM-1 level, reducing inflammation, preventing MODS and protecting organ functions.

Effect of Yeonsan Ogye bioactive peptides on anti-oxidant indexes in rats' liver

  • Kim, Hye Won;Shim, Jung Hun;Kim, Ki Nam
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.408-411
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study investigated the effect of bioactive Yeonsan Ogye peptides (YOPs) intake on changes in the hepatic anti-oxidant indexes in male rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups and given a casein-based AIN-93G diet and distilled water ad libitum without any added YOPs (control), distilled water with 250 mg of YOPs (Y250), or 500 mg of YOPs (Y500) per kg of body weight for 4 weeks. YOP dose was decided as referred to in the referenced study where toxicity did not occur. The hepatic anti-oxidant indexes were determined using a commercial kit. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0 and are expressed as $mean{\pm}standard$ error of mean. Differences among the groups were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Duncan's multiple comparisons test. Results: There were no differences in the body weights, weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio, or organ weight, including liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and epididymal fat, among all of the groups. The hepatic nitric oxide (NO) level in the Y500 group was lower than that in the control and Y250 groups, and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level was lower in the Y500 group than in the Y250 group. The differences in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were not statistically significant between the groups. From these results we speculated that YOPs may have anti-oxidative abilities to regulate NO and MDA production without affecting SOD and CAT activities. Conclusion: YOPs are presumed to act as anti-oxidants in the animal or human body.

Determining Relative Weights of Criteria for Evaluating National Quarantine Station by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP방법을 적용한 국립검역소 평가 준거의 가중치 결정)

  • Jeong, Mun-Yong;Lee, Moo-Sik;Kim, Dae-Kyung;Yoo, In-Sook
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2010
  • In accordance with the increasing possibility that the new and reoccurring epidemics continuously appearing abroad flow into Korea, it is very important to evaluate the efficiency of quarantine management projects of National Quarantine Station. This study adopted the pairwise comparison approach using the analytical hierarchy process(AHP) that has been recognized with its scientific adequacy for allocating the weight, the relative importance of evaluation components. AHP technique is evaluated to be distinguished in measuring the impact by making hierarchy of, simplifying and systemizing the complicated multi-criteria decision making problems. The weights by evaluation indexes were 0.2 in the organization evaluation field and 0.8 in the service and program field. The quarantine business showed the highest value, 0.45, in the service and program field. The indexes were classified into the upper category (organization evaluation field, service and program evaluation field) and lower category (input/process/result/quarantine field, inspection field, hygiene management field, pathogenic organ investigation and monitoring field, epidemics prevention promotion/education field). The evaluation indexes that were finally selected were applied to the actual businesses in National Quarantine Station. Next, the minimum evaluation indexes were selected and so the evaluation system on the businesses in National Quarantine Station was more systemized.

The Effects of Yangsimtang on Stress and Immune System (양심탕(養心湯)이 스트레스와 면역기능(免疫機能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Yoon Sang-Hee;Lee Sang-Ryong
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 1996
  • After applying the gravity acceleration stress to a mice, the effect on organ index was examined, and the Con A stimulating proliferation rate of splenocytes, expression of IL-2 receptor and T cell subsets of thymocytes were analyzed and also clearance of C. neoformans was measured. The results were as follows :1. Form finding the organ index after 4 days stress, the indexes of the spleen and thymus were reduced in the res group exposed to the gravity acceleration.2. From finding the proliferation rate by stimulating the splenocytes with Con 4 after 7 days stress, the proliferation rates were all reduced in the stress group, the Yangsimtang group, and the stress and Yangsimtang group. 3. The expression of IL-2 receptor in resting stage was reduced, comparing to the test group, both in the stress group and the Yangsimtang group, however, comparing to the stress group, it was somewhat recovered in the stress and Yangsimtang group.4. To see the IL-2 receptor driven-out after being stimulated by Con-A, the expression of IL-2 receptor was all reduced in the stress group, the Yangsimtang group, and the stress and Yangsimtang group.5. To the rate of T cell subsets of thymus, there's no difference, comparing to the test group, in the Yangsimtang group, however, the rate of $CD4^+CD8^-,\;CD4^-CD8^+,\;and\;CD4^-CD8^-$ cell was significantly reduced in the stress group. And, the $CD4^+CD8^+$ which had been reduced by stress was somewhat recovered in the stress and Yangsimtang group.6. To the effect on the clearance of C, neoformans infection, the numbers of fungi detected at the spleen was, comparing to the test group, increased by 12.6 tines in the Yangsimtang group.

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Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

  • Tufarelli, Vincenzo;Laudadio, Vito
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1471-1478
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    • 2015
  • The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher $L^*$ score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

Beneficial Effect of Anti-obese Herbal Medicine Mixture with Chitosan in High Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats

  • Beik, Kyung-Yeun;Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.290-297
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the dietary effects of chitosan mixture (CM), an herbal medicine mixture with Sukjihwang (HS), and CM containing HS (CHS) on obesity in an induced obese model of rats fed high-fat only (HF), in which supplemented diets of 5% CM (HCM), 5% HS (HHS), or 2.5% CM-2.5% HS (HCH) was tested for 6 weeks. Body weight gains, obesity indexes, and body fat contents in the experimental groups (HCM, HHS, HCH) were decreased compared with HF group. The levels of serum triglyceride, total lipid, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in the experimental groups were markedly decreased, however HDL-cholesterol levels in the experimental groups were slightly increased compared with HF group. In addition, although serum ALT and AST activity, and relative organ weights were lower than those of HF group, serum albumin contents were not significantly different in all experimental groups including the normal control group (NC). In conclusion, there are improved effects on obesity in the obese model of animals with all experimental diets supplementations, and the improvement degrees on obesity depend on the content and compositions of the herbal medicine mixture. Further study is needed on the anti-obesity mechanism of these diets.

The Toxicological Effects of Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang in Pregnant Rats and Fetuses (안존이천탕 추출물이 흰쥐의 모체 및 태자에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bum Hoi
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the adverse effects of Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang during early pregnancy. Following successful mating, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang(AYT) extract by oral administration daily with dose of 150mg (n=10), 300mg(n=10), 450mg(n=10) for 20 days of pregnancy. The rats in Control group(n=10) were orally administrated with Saline. All pregnant rats of Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang-treated and Control groups were sacrificed on day 20 of pregnancy. The pregnancy outcome was determined and the internal and reproductive organs of pregnant rat were observed. The fetuses were examined for the presence of various developmental toxic endpoints and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red S, and observed skeletal malformations. The results obtained in this study represent that there is no significant changes between Control and Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang-treated groups in body weight, organ weight, blood chemistry values, hematological values and pregnancy indexes of pregnant rat. The skeletal malformation of fetus was not observed as well. These results suggest that oral administration of Ahnjon-Yichun-Tang does not produce either maternal or developmental toxicity.

Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats

  • Park, Sook Jahr;Lee, Jong Rok;Jo, Mi Jeong;Park, Sang Mi;Ku, Sae Kwang;Kim, Sang Chan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2013
  • Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously injected with cadmium ($CdCl_2$, 4 mg/kg) to induce acute hepatotoxicity. Cadmium caused the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. In contrast, pretreatment with RGE significantly reduced those serum indexes related with liver damage. In histopathological analysis, RGE decreased the centrilobular necrosis around central veins and the peripheral hemorrhage around portal triads. Moreover, RGE restored the deficit in hepatic glutathione level resulting from cadmium treatment. RGE also inhibited the increase in the expression of Bad, a representative apoptosis marker protein, induced by cadmium treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that RGE can reduce the cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity, partly via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic process.

Effects of the Sarcodon aspratus on the High Level of Blood Lipid and Obesity Induced by High Fat-diet in Rat (능이 버섯이 고지방식이에 의한 고지혈증 비만 쥐에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Jong-Bong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1265-1270
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    • 2009
  • The mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus was tested for its possibility of being a health food against corpulence. The mushroom powder was fed to rats with high-fat diet-induced corpulence for 6 weeks. To measure its effects, various factors such as obesity index, serum lipid, and organ weight were analyzed and compared. The group fed a high-fat diet showed a significant increase in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in serum. However, this increase was not shown in the group fed mushroom powder. The R$\ddot{o}$hrer index (one of many obesity indexes) was higher in the group fed a high-fat diet compared to that of control group. However, there was a significant decrease in the R$\ddot{o}$hrer index in the group fed with mushroom powder. Especially, the increased ratio of liver to body weight was observed in the group fed a high-fat diet compared to the control group. These results suggest that the significant changes in obesity index and organ weight in the group fed with mushroom powder are due to the decreased level of serum triglyceride. Thus, there is a possibility for Sarcodan aspratus to become a heath food that can prevent diseases related to corpulence.