• Title, Summary, Keyword: Oral contraceptive

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Clinical use of oral contraceptives (경구피임약의 다양한 적응증)

  • Kim, Jeong Sook;Cho, Sihyun
    • Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    • v.60 no.8
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    • pp.687-693
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    • 2017
  • Since first introduction of oral contraceptive pills in 1960, with increased women's right of sexual decision, oral contraceptives had been used widely around the globe as a highly effective and safe contraceptive method. The physiological mechanisms of oral contraceptives were a reduced maturation of ovarian follicles and blocked ovulation to fertile women. Also, oral pills induce uterine endometrial decidualization, thickening of cervical mucus, disturbance of intrauterine sperm movement and embryo implantation. However, in addition to providing effective reversible contraception to fertile women, oral contraceptive pills offer various non-contraceptive benefits to numerous conditions. In this review, we summarize the list of currently available oral contraceptive pills in Korea and discuss non-contraceptive indications of oral contraceptives pills.

Relationship between the oral contraceptive pill and periodontal disease in Korean women: The 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data analysis phase3(2012) (경구피임약을 복용하는 한국여성과 치주질환의 관련성 연구: 제5기 3차년도(2012) 국민건강영양조사 자료 분석)

  • Lee, Jong-Hwa;Yoo, Jin-Yeong;Jung, Gi-Ok;Park, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.795-804
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the oral contraceptive pill and periodontal disease in Korean women aged from 19 to 50 years old. Methods: This study selected 1,579 women of childbearing age from 19 to 50 years old from the 5th National Health and Nutrition Survey data analysis(phase 3, 2012) taking the oral examination. The questionnaire consisted of socioeconomic demographic characteristics, health behavior, use of oral contraceptive pills, and periodontal disease. Socioeconomic demographic characteristics included age, marital status, education, monthly income, and vocation. The health behavior included obesity, stress, smoking, subjective oral health status, use of dental floss, tooth brushing, and diabetes mellitus by fasting blood sugar level. Use of oral contraceptive pills was recorded by monthly use and duration. The periodontal disease was documented by yes or no and selected as dependent variable by logistic regression analysis. Results: After revising the taking period of oral contraceptive pill for this study, there was the correlation between the prevalence of periodontal disease and odds ratio(95% CI) 1.288(1.027-1.617). Conclusions: This study will contribute to the direction of policy for an oral contraceptive pill and provide the basic data for counseling for the oral health and the side effects of oral contraceptive pills.

The Effect of Combined Oral Contraceptive Steroids on Serum Levels of Lipids (복합경구피임제 복용이 혈청 지질함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.H.;Kim, W.J.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1981
  • Increased incidence of myocardial infarction, arteriosclerosis and hypertension in oral contraceptive steroids users has been recognized as serious problem. Evidence have been accumulated that oral contraceptive steroids cause an increase in serum lipid levels, mainly triglyceride as well as an increase in serum cholesterol concentration in some women. Effect of oral contraceptives on serum lipids have been predominantly confirmed in Europian and American women. It should be emphasized that effects of contraceptives may he influenced by differences in nutrition, climate, socioeconomic status and race. The present study was, therefore, attempted to determine the effect of oral contraceptive steroids on serum lipid levels in Korean women and also to demonstrate whether the duration of pill treatment may affect serum lipid levels. Ten women, who had never taken contraceptive steroids, served as a control. One hundred women on combined oral contraceptive steroids were grouped according to the duration of pill use: duration of less than one year(14 women), 1-2 years(12 women), 2-5 years(29 women), 5-10 years(33 women) and more than 10 years(13 women). Serum levels of cholesterol, phosholipid and triglyceride were measured by enzymatic method, Fiske-SubbaRow method and Sugiura method respectively. The results obtained are as follows; 1) Oral contraceptive steroids increased serum cholesterol concentration by 4.8% as compared with cholesterol value of control group. But this increase was not statistically significant. 2) As compared with control value, concentration of serum phospholipid in pill-treated women decreased by 14.3%, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). 3) Concentration of serum triglyceride in pill-treated women increased by 10.6% over control value, but this increase was not statistically significant. 4) Duration of pill-treatment did not affect serum concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride. From the results mentioned above, it may be concluded that combined oral contraceptive steroids, at least used for subjects involved in this study, decreased serum phospholipid significantly, thereby influencing serum lipid concentration.

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A Study of the Use of Oral Contraceptive Among Women Rescinding in the Yonhee Dong Blum Area (연희 영세지역 주민의 먹는 피임약 복용상태에 관한 조사연구)

  • 최인숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.121-134
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    • 1974
  • This study is an attempt to evaluate the use of an oral contraceptive by: 1. Deforming the acceptance rate of the oral contraceptive according to socio-demographic characteristics 5. Estimating the duration of the use of the contraceptive f. Discovering reasons why the contraceptive was discontinued 4. Computing the cumulative continuation and discontinuation rate according to socio-demographic characteristics, history of pregnancies, and attitude of husband at the time of selection of the contraceptive. One hundred sixty-eight women of child bearing age (14-49 years), residing in Yonhee Dong, Seoul, Korea and registered as oral contraceptive accepters at Yonsei Community Health Center, were interviewed during a three week period in 1973. The questionnaire was designed to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the oral contraceptive accepters, the current status of their family planning practice, medical reactions if any, discontinuation practice, and the duration of the use of the contraceptive. The major findings of the study were as follows; 1. The acceptance rate was highest for women between 30 and 34 years of age, the mean age being 34.4 years. 2. Fifty six point five percent of all respondents said that thirty years of age was the ideal age to stop having children. 3. The average number of living children was 3.5 and fifty four point eight percent of respondents felt 2 boys and I girl was the ideal number of children. 4. The average number of pregnancies was 5.2 and the average number of induced abortion was I. 4. 5. Fifty eight point eight percent of the respondents had experience in the use of contraceptive methods in the past. 6. Forty one point seven percent of the respondents replied that they chose the oral contraceptive because, "it was not complicated to use." 7. Sixty four point eight percent of the women said their husband approved of their taking the pill. 8. The cumulative discontinuation rate was sixty point five percent of the total respondents for one year in first segment. 9. Sixty six point nine percent of the respondents had experienced side-effect while using the pill. The side effects for 68.9 percent of these women were castro-intestinal upsets. Twenty point eight percent of the women who had side effects consulted with medical personnel about them. Women who had more education had more side effects. 10. Seventy three point two percent of the women who discontinued the pill did so because of medical reasons. Women who were younger discontinued the pill for personal reasons more-often than older women. Among personal reasons listed for discontinuing the pill was the attitude of the husband. 11. The average duration of continuance of the contraceptive was 5.3 cycles under 29 years of age; 7.4 cycles between 30 and 34 years of age; and 8.4 cycles over 40 years of age. 12. The discontinuation rate was seem to increase sharply in the early cycle and increase more slowly in later cycle. Conclusions and suggestions: Since the attitude of the husband was shown to be important, the current family planning program should be expended to include approach to husband. For women who must use the oral contraceptive, education and support must be enhanced so that the discontinuation rate due to side effects will be decreased.

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Risk of Cancer with Combined Oral Contraceptive Use among Iranian Women

  • Vaisy, Afasaneh;Lotfinejad, Shirin;Zhian, Faegh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5517-5522
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    • 2014
  • Oral contraceptive use is the most common type of contraception. More than 300 million women worldwide take oral contraceptives every day. However, there is a concern about the relationship with the incidence of cancer. This analytical retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of cervical and breast cancers and oral contraceptive use in 128 Iranian patients with cervical cancer, 235 with breast cancer and equal numbers of controls. Data were collected through interviews with an organized set of questions. Details were also extracted from patient files. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and Pearson's correlation analysis. The result revealed correlations between both cervical and breast cancers and history of contraceptive pills use. While cervical cancer significantly correlated with duration of use of pills, breast cancer had significant correlations with the type of oral contraceptive and age at first use. No significant relationships were found between the two types of cancer and age at discontinuation of oral contraceptives, patterns of use, and intervals from the last use. The use of oral contraceptives may triple the incidence of cervical cancer and doubles the incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, performing Pap smears every six months and breast cancer screening are warranted for long-term oral contraceptive users.

Current Status of Contraception

  • Park, Ki-Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 1986
  • During the past decade great advance has been made in contraceptive technology. The development and subsequent modification of oral steroid contraceptive together with the improved design of other contraceptives have tremendously altered the contraceptive practise of complete throughout the world. At the present time one of most complex issue is the population explosion. In Korea the population growth rate is remarkably decreased from 3% in 1960s to 1.7% in 1984. Increasing proportion of women practising family planning and improved contraceptive methods have contributed on remarkable reduction of fertility rate. But still about half of married women not involved in family planning practise. One of the reasons why that so many women haven't participated in family planning should be undesirable side effects or inconvenience of currently available contraceptives. So we need more research to develop newer, safer and more effective contraceptive to solve the problems. According to recent report on the family planning program achievement in Korea, sterilization (male and female) is most popular, leading contraceptive method (330 cases/1000 fertile persons) and the I.U.D. (167.5/1000), condom (132.9/1000) and oral pill (61.1/1000) were followed by in the order of favorite choice of contraceptive (KIPH, Family planning evaluation report, 1984; KIPH Family plan Service Statistics, 1981-1984). In present paper the present status and knowledge of contraceptives will be summarized.

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Oral Contraceptive Use and Breast Cancer in Korean Women (한국여성의 경구 피임약 이용과 유방암)

  • Choi, Bo-Ram;Kwon, Moon-Hee;Bang, Mi-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.221-229
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate in Korea. We investigated the association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer in Korean women. Using the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 8,495 women aged over 30 years are analyzed. Furthermore, the data used in this study is obtained using a complex sampling method in order that it is generalized. The previous studies in Korea, were not statistically significant due to the relatively short duration during which oral contraceptives had been available. However, the longer duration of oral contraceptive use exhibits tendency to increase the risk of breast cancer. Women using oral contraceptives, particularly for more than two years have an increased occurrence of breast cancer compared with women who do not use oral contraceptives. This result reflects the late introduction of oral contraceptives in Korea compared with developed countries. The recent increase in interest about the use of oral contraceptives has been increasing for a variety of reasons. Therefore, it is necessary for continuous and specific clinical studies to examine the connections between the first use of oral contraceptives, oral contraceptives use duration, adverse effects of oral contraceptives and breast cancer in order to develop strategies for preventing breast cancer.

The Awareness of Contraception and Experience of Oral Contraceptives among North Korean Defector Women in Republic of Korea (북한이탈여성의 피임인식 및 경구피임제 복용실태에 대한 연구)

  • Han, Sohui;Kim, Kwang Joon;Bang, Joon Seok
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study attempts to gauge the necessity of contraceptive education for women defecting from North Korea (NKDWs). Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with six NKDWs who had lived in the Republic of Korea (ROK) for more than three years, to understand the subjects' perceptions, experiences, and opinions regarding contraception. Thematic analyses were performed using qualitative data provided in the survey results. Results: Before their defections from North Korea, none of the NKDWs had received any sex education. Loop is the only contraceptive method available to married women in ROK. After defection, NKDWs were provided information about contraceptive options available in China, but they could not fully understand this information. Furthermore, the information they received was not accurate. Thus, NKDWs had a high need for contraceptive sex education. As per our survey, their preferred education method was at least 3 lessons plus 1 : 1 counseling, as necessary. Conclusion: This study indicates that a necessity exists for development of a sex education program for NKDWs to enhance their contraceptive knowledge. Thus, government and health managers have a role to play in developing such a program.

Relationship Between Oral Contraceptive Use and Periodontal Disease in Korean Women (제4기 국민건강영양조사 자료에 근거한 한국 여성의 경구피임약 복용과 치주질환의 관련성)

  • Kim, Ki-Rim;Noh, Hie-Jin
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to evaluate the influence of oral contraceptive(OC) on periodontal disease. Research data was used the results derived from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES), and 1,101 Korean women, aged 19 to 50 years with non-pregnant and premenopausal, were selected. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between OC use and periodontal disease, according to factors of demographic and socioeconomic, oral health behavior, OC use period, and periodontal status. In the results, OC use was statistically related with age, marital status and smoking. No significant differences were found in between the gingival condition and current OC use. The prevalence of periodontal disease increased with age, but did not have significant correlations with period of OC usage, smoking and oral health behavior. Final analysis was indicated that OC use is not associated with periodontal disease, regardless of adjustment for confounding variables.

Common risk factors for postoperative pain following the extraction of wisdom teeth

  • Rakhshan, Vahid
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2015
  • The extraction of third molars is a common task carried out at dental/surgery clinics. Postoperative pain is one of the two most common complications of this surgery, along with dry socket. Knowledge of the frequent risk factors of this complication is useful in determining high-risk patients, planning treatment, and preparing the patients mentally. Since the risk factors for postoperative pain have never been summarized before while the risk factors for dry socket have been highly debated, this report summarizes the literature regarding the common predictors of postextraction pain. Except for surgical difficulty and the surgeon's experience, the influences of other risk factors (age, gender and oral contraceptive use) were rather inconclusive. The case of a female gender or oral contraceptive effect might mainly be associated with estrogen levels (when it comes to dry socket), which can differ considerably from case to case. Improvement in and unification of statistical and diagnostic methods seem necessary. In addition, each risk factor was actually a combination of various independent variables, which should instead be targeted in more comprehensive studies.