• Title, Summary, Keyword: Operation Audit

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A Study on the Analysis and Efficiency of Police Budget (경찰의 예산분석 및 효율화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Seung;Kim, Chang-Yun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.38
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    • pp.7-32
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    • 2014
  • This study is aimed to analyze problems of police budgetary execution and to suggest better ways for establishing effective budget implementation as well as legitimacy of securing budget in the field of police work. For this purpose, this paper analyzed the annual reports on police budgetary execution, from 2009 to 2012, conducted by National Assembly Budget Office. In result, most parts of the police budgetary execution were not satisfied with the audit standard, and especially in terms of management of budgetary execution, it showed 40% in inappropriateness. In addition, excessive and underestimate appropriation in the police budgetary execution, which happened frequently in other offices, was recorded on the second place. 10% of the amount of budget was executed for ordinance violence. Given results analyzed from each division, Transportation Division occupied 40% of the amount of related problems and all of types in the field did not meet the audit standard, thus it is required to manage budgetary execution effectively. In terms of Public Safety Division, the problem was related to budgetary allocation prior to execution, such as overlap in other works, excessive and underestimate appropriation, and inappropriate business plans. Director General for Planning and Coordination did not meet the standard of law system maintenance, Given the light of the result of analyzing programs, traffic safety and securing communication was the most problematic and support for police administration, crime prevention and protecting the disadvantaged, educating professional police officers, and establishment of policing infrastructure were required to be reformed in sequence. In order to resolve these problems, it is demanded to check budgetary execution and the process in business plans on a regular basis. Additionally, in case of using budget in inappropriate parts, tough penality including reduction of budget in related to the local police should be implemented to increase the importance of budgetary execution. Moreover, because of the fact that a part of problem of budgetary execution was originally caused by the budgetary allocation, it is advised to allocate police budget using the budget proposal of National Finance Act and Ministry of Strategy and Finance.

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A Study on Air Operator Certification and Safety Oversight Audit Program in light of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (시카고협약체계에서의 항공안전평가제도에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Koo-Hee;Park, Won-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.115-157
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    • 2013
  • Some contracting States of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (commonly known as the Chicago Convention) issue FAOC(Foreign AOC and/or Operations Specifications) and conduct various safety audits for the foreign operators. These FAOC and safety audits on the foreign operators are being expanded to other parts of the world. While this trend is the strengthening measure of aviation safety resulting in the reduction of aircraft accident, it is the source of concern from the legal as well as economic perspectives. FAOC of the USA doubly burdens the other contracting States to the Chicago Convention because it is the requirement other than that prescribed by the Chicago Convention of which provisions are faithfully observed by almost all the contracting States. The Chicago Convention in its Article 33 stipulates that each contracting State recognize the validity of the certificates of airworthiness and licenses issued by other contracting States as long as they meet the minimum standards of the ICAO. Consequently, it is submitted that the unilateral action of the USA, China, Mongolia, Australia, and the Philippines issuing the FOAC to the aircraft of other States is against the Convention. It is worry some that this breach of international law is likely to be followed by the European Union which is believed to be in preparation for its own unilateral application. The ICAO established by the Chicago Convention to be in charge of safe and orderly development of the international civil aviation has been in hard work to both upgrade and emphasize the safe operation of aircraft. As the result of these endeavors, it prepared a new Annex 19 to the Chicago Convention with the title of "Safety Management" and with the applicable date 14 November 2013. It is this Annex and other ICAO documents relevant to the safety that the contracting States to the Chicago Convention have to observe. Otherwise, it is the economical burden due to probable delay in issuing the FOAC and bureaucracies combined with many different paperworks and regulations depending on where the aircraft is flown. It is exactly to avoid this type of confusion and waste that the Chicago Convention aimed at when it was adopted in 1944. The State of the operator shall establish a system for both the certification and the continued surveillance of the operator in accordance with ICAO SARPs to ensure that the required standards of operations are maintained. Certainly the operator shall meet and maintain the requirements established by the States in which it operate. The authority of a State stops where the authority of another State intervenes or where the former has yielded its power by an international agreement for the sake of international cooperation. Hence, it is not within the realm of the State to issue FAOC towards foreign operators for the reason that these foreign operators are flying in and out of the State. Furthermore, there are other safety audits such as ICAO USOAP, IATA IOSA, FAA IASA, and EU SAFA that assure the safe operation of the aircraft, but within the limit of their power and in compliance with the ICAO SARPs. If the safety level of any operator is not satisfactory, the operator could be banned to operate in the contracting States with watchful eyes until the ICAO SARPs are met. This time-honoured practice has been applied without any serious problems. Besides, we have the new Annex 19 to strengthen and upgrade with easy reference for contracting States. We don't have no reason to introduce additional burden to the States by unilateral actions of some States. These actions have to be corrected. On the other hand, when it comes to the carriage of the Personal or Pilot Log Book, the Korean regulation requiring it is in contrast with other relevant provisions of USA, USOAP, IOSA, and SAFA. The Chicago Convention requires in its Articles 29 and 34 only the carriage of the Journey Log Book and some other certificates, but do not mention the Personal Log Book at all. Paragraph 5.1.1.1 of Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention even makes it clear that the carriage in the aircraft of the Personal Log Book is not required on international flights. The unique Korean regulation in this regards giving the unnecessary burden to the national flag air carriers has to be lifted at once.

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A Study on the Design of the Grid-Cell Assessment System for the Optimal Location of Offshore Wind Farms (해상풍력발전단지의 최적 위치 선정을 위한 Grid-cell 평가 시스템 개념 설계)

  • Lee, Bo-Kyeong;Cho, Ik-Soon;Kim, Dae-Hae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.848-857
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    • 2018
  • Recently, around the world, active development of new renewable energy sources including solar power, waves, and fuel cells, etc. has taken place. Particularly, floating offshore wind farms have been developed for saving costs through large scale production, using high-quality wind power and minimizing noise damage in the ocean area. The development of floating wind farms requires an evaluation of the Maritime Safety Audit Scheme under the Maritime Safety Act in Korea. Floating wind farms shall be assessed by applying the line and area concept for systematic development, management and utilization of specified sea water. The development of appropriate evaluation methods and standards is also required. In this study, proper standards for marine traffic surveys and assessments were established and a systemic treatment was studied for assessing marine spatial area. First, a marine traffic data collector using AIS or radar was designed to conduct marine traffic surveys. In addition, assessment methods were proposed such as historical tracks, traffic density and marine traffic pattern analysis applying the line and area concept. Marine traffic density can be evaluated by spatial and temporal means, with an adjusted grid-cell scale. Marine traffic pattern analysis was proposed for assessing ship movement patterns for transit or work in sea areas. Finally, conceptual design of a Marine Traffic and Safety Assessment Solution (MaTSAS) was competed that can be analyzed automatically to collect and assess the marine traffic data. It could be possible to minimize inaccurate estimation due to human errors such as data omission or misprints through automated and systematic collection, analysis and retrieval of marine traffic data. This study could provides reliable assessment results, reflecting the line and area concept, according to sea area usage.

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of IT based Ship Energy Saving System-(1) : Ship Handling Simulator Test Results (IT 기반의 선박에너지절감시스템 성능평가 방법-(1) : 육상시험 수행 결과)

  • Yoo, Yun-Ja
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.465-472
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    • 2015
  • SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan) guidelines for a ship's GHG reduction include a machinery modification of hull, an installation of energy efficiency enhanced attachment in hardware methods. It is also possible to bring a ship energy efficiency improvement by fuel-efficient operations or in other software methods. Hardware modification or installation on ship can bring financial burdens to a ship company compared to its improvement expectation. On the other hand, Software based energy-saving technology can be applicable on various ship types, and it is also expected high efficiency of ship energy use compared to hardware based technology in perspective of the investment costs and efficiency. In this paper, it is described that the ship handling simulator based evaluation was carried out using representative ship model of bulk, container and VLCC. Simulation environments were separated into 6 conditions according to the sea-state and weather condition, and the operation results were compared with those before and after energy saving system applied The container ship showed the largest FOC save rate after energy saving system applied although the others also showed energy save rate after using the system.

A Study on Differentiation and Improvement in Arbitration Systems in Construction Disputes (건설분쟁 중재제도의 차별화 및 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Jae
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.239-282
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    • 2019
  • The importance of ADR(Alternative Dispute Resolution), which has the advantage of expertise, speed and neutrality due to the increase of arbitration cases due to domestic and foreign construction disputes, has emerged. Therefore, in order for the nation's arbitration system and the arbitration Organization to jump into the ranks of advanced international mediators, it is necessary to research the characteristics and advantages of these arbitration Organization through a study of prior domestic and foreign research and operation of international arbitration Organization. As a problem, First, education for the efficient promotion of arbitrators (compulsory education, maintenance education, specialized education, seminars, etc.). second, The effectiveness of arbitration in resolving construction disputes (hearing methods, composition of the tribunal, and speed). third, The issue of flexibility and diversity of arbitration solutions (the real problem of methodologies such as mediation and arbitration) needs to be drawn on the Arbitration laws and practical problems, such as laws, rules and guidelines. Therefore, Identify the problems presented in the preceding literature and diagnosis of the defects and problems of the KCAB by drawing features and benefits from the arbitration system operated by the international arbitration Institution. As an improvement, the results of an empirical analysis are derived for "arbitrator" simultaneously through a recognition survey. As a method of improvement, First, as an optimal combination of arbitration hearing and judgment in the settlement of construction disputes,(to improve speed). (1) A plan to improve the composition of the audit department according to the complexity, specificity, and magnification of the arbitration cases - (1)Methods to cope with the increased role of the non-lawyer(Specialist, technical expert). (2)Securing technical mediators for each specialized expert according to the large and special corporation arbitration cases. (2) Improving the method of writing by area of the arbitration guidelines, second, Introduction of the intensive hearing system for psychological efficiency and the institutional improvement plan (1) Problems of optimizing the arbitration decision hearing procedure and resolution of arbitration, and (2) Problems of the management of technical arbitrators of arbitration tribunals. (1)A plan to expand hearing work of technical arbitrator(Review on the introduction of the Assistant System as a member of the arbitration tribunals). (2)Improved use of alternative appraisers by tribunals(cost analysis and utilization of the specialized institution for calculating construction costs), Direct management of technical arbitrators : A Study on the Improvement of the Assessment Reliability of the Appraisal and the Appraisal Period. third, Improvement of expert committee system and new method, (1) Creating a non-executive technical committee : Special technology affairs, etc.(Major, supports pre-qualification of special events and coordinating work between parties). (2) Expanding the standing committee.(Added expert technicians : important, special, large affairs / pre-consultations, pre-coordination and mediation-arbitration). This has been shown to be an improvement. In addition, institutional differentiation to enhance the flexibility and diversity of arbitration. In addition, as an institutional differentiation to enhance the flexibility and diversity of arbitration, First, The options for "Med-Arb", "Arb-Med" and "Arb-Med-Arb" are selected. second, By revising the Agreement Act [Article 28, 2 (Agreement on Dispute Resolution)], which is to be amended by the National Parties, the revision of the arbitration settlement clause under the Act, to expand the method to resolve arbitration. third, 2017.6.28. Measures to strengthen the status role and activities of expert technical arbitrators under enforcement, such as the Act on Promotion of Interestments Industry and the Information of Enforcement Decree. Fourth, a measure to increase the role of expert technical Arbitrators by enacting laws on the promotion of the arbitration industry is needed. Especially, the establishment of the Act on Promotion of Intermediation Industry should be established as an international arbitration agency for the arbitration system. Therefore, it proposes a study of improvement and differentiation measures in the details and a policy, legal and institutional improvement and legislation.