• Title, Summary, Keyword: Older Adults

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The Effect of Future Time Perspective on Recall Memory about Emotional Pictures: The Evidence of Socioemotional Selectivity Theory among Korean Adults (남은 시간 인식이 회상기억에 미치는 영향: 한국인에서의 사회정서적 선택이론 증거)

  • An, Mi So;Ghim, Hei-Rhee
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.83-102
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    • 2018
  • According to socioemotional selectivity theory, if people perceive their time left in life as expanded, they have a future-oriented goal of life, but if perceive as limited the goal of life is changed into the pursuit of present emotional satisfaction. Thus, if we perceive our time left as getting limited as we get older, we pay more attention to the positive stimuli than the negative ones and remember more the positive stimuli in order to maintain the current emotional state as positive. This is known as the positivity effect. This study examined whether the positivity effect is caused by a limited future time perspective. The participants were presented with scenarios for hypothetical situations in which the future time was expanded or limited, and were encouraged to immerse in the virtual situation by talking about what they would like to do and whom they wanted to spend time with. Then the participants were presented with 48 positive, negative, and neutral emotional pictures and were asked to recall after 10 minutes delay. 75 university students and 65 elderly participated in the study. In the control condition where the future time perspective was not manipulated, the elderly showed the positivity effect but the youth showed the bias toward negative pictures. The elderly in the expanded time condition recalled positive pictures less and negative pictures more than the elderly in the control condition. On the other hand, the youth in the limited time condition recalled less the negative pictures than the youth in the control condition. These results demonstrated that the elderly did not show the positive bias when the future time perspective was expanded, and that the youth showed the positive bias when the future time perspective was limited. These results show that the positivity effect is related with the limited future time perspective.

Clincal Manifestations of Patients Dying of Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia (중증 원외폐렴으로 사망한 환자의 임상적 분석)

  • Choi, Won-Il;Sohn, Jeong-Ho;Kwun, Oh-Yong;Heo, Jeong-Sook;Whang, Jae-Seok;Han, Seong-Beom;Jeon, Young-June
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.537-545
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    • 1994
  • Background: In 1987, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) subjected an extensive list of patient variables to statistical analysis in a prospective study of prognosis in 453 adults with community-acquired pneumonia and, subsequently published guidelines for management of severe community acquired pneumonia. It was hoped that those at risk of dying from community acquired pneumonia could be easily identified and treated appropriately, thereby reducing mortality. To date, severe community acquired pneumonia has not been well studied in Korea. Therefore, we studied retrospectively 10 patients dying of severe community acquired pneumonia in Dongsan Hospital to see clinical manifestations of dying of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: Between July 1987 and july 1993, 498 patients were admitted to Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital with community acquired pneumonia, and 77 of them received intensive care. Of the 77 patients, 10 patients died. We reviewed medical records of these patients. Results: 1) The mean age of the patients was 56.2 years(range, 25 to 75 years). There were 7 men and 3 women. Seven patients(70%) were older than 60years of age. 2) The clinical features on admission were as follows: tachypnca, hypoxemia, mental change, cyanosis, leukopenia, leukocytosis, azotemia, hypotension, hypoalbuminemia in order of frequency. Three patients had one abnormal physical finding, 3 patients had 2, 2 patients had 3, and 2 patients had none of these abnormal physical findings. All patients had at least one of the abnormal laboratory findings. 3) A potential bacterial pathogen was isolated in sputum culture from 2 patients. One was E.coli, the other Enterobacter species. Sputum stain were positive in eight cases (G(+)cocci in six, G(+) cocci and G(-)bacilli in two). 4) Features of respiratory failure were the main reasons for ICU transfer, but two patients were transferred only following a cardiac or respiratory arrest in the general ward. 5) The mean of 2.7 different antibiotics were given to the patients. The aminoglycoside and first generation cephalosporin were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, followed by the third generation cephalosporin and vancomycin. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics combination was a 1st generation cephalosporin plus an aminoglycoside. 6) Seven patients death(70%) occured after admission within the first five days, and a mean duration of hospitaliztion was 11.2 days. Conclusion: As the results show most death occured within the first five days after admission and aged patients; consequently, an aggressive intensive treatment should be provided early to the patients with severe community acquired pneumonia, and we should pay more attention to the aged patients.

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Experimental life history of Echinostoma hortense (호르린스극구흡충의 실험실 내 생활사에 대한 연구)

  • 이순형;황순옥
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1991
  • The complete life cycle of Echinostoma hertense has been maintained in the laboratory, using Lymnaea persia snails and Rana nigromaculata tadpoles as the first and second intermediate hosts. ICR mice was used as the definitive host. Within the egg of 5. hotense, the miracidium was fully matured in 13 days of incubation at $29~30^{\circ}C$. The miracidium was $93.8{\times}53.6{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ in average size, covered with numerous cilia of $7~11{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ length. The epidermal plates were arranged in 6-8-4-2 formula. The first generation rediae ($1.19{\times}0.27{\;}mm$ in average size) were observed in 14 days after miracidial challenge to the snails, and the second generation rediae ($1.40{\times}0.26{\;}mm$ in average size) in 30 days. The average sixte of the cercaria was $295.5{\times}145.0{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$. Their head crown was poorly developed, and collar spines were not yet observed. After a cercarial challenge to the tadpoles, all of the tadpoles became infected and the average worm recovery rate was 88.5%. The majority of the metacercariae (75.5%) were recovered from the muscle of the tadpole's posterior body and the rest (24.3%) from their gills. The metacercariae from the tadpoles were elliptical, and $167.7{\times}129.9{\;}{\mu\textrm{m}}$ in average size. The recovery rate of adults from the mice was difFerent by the age of the metacercariae grown in the tadpoles. The metacercariae younger than 5 hrs could not infect mice whereas those older than 6 hrs could infect mice. The recovery rate became higher as the metacercaria matured, with the peak recovery rate of 90.0 % at the metacercarial age of 9 days. Thereafter the recovery rate decreased to 55.0% at the age of 50 days. As shown by the above results, the whole life cycle of E. hcrtense has been completed in the laboratory. At least 55~58 days were required to maintain one egg-to-egg cycle of E. hortense.

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A Study on the causes of farmer's disease and greenhouse disease in a rural area of Kyungnam province (경남 일부지역의 농부증 및 하우스증 발생에 미치는 요인분석)

  • Hong, Dae-Yong;Kim, Jang-Rak;Lee, Myung-Soon;Kang, Kyung-Hee;Ha, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.173-193
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to elucidate the causes of farmer's disease and greenhouse disease in the rural area of Kyungnam province during 1996. 2,171 (69.1%) of the 3,140 adults above 20 years old who had lived in the selected 20 villages in Uiryong County of Kyungnam Province were selected in order to over both residents who live in the green house distracts and conventional rural area. The results were as follows: 1. Among the subjects, the male was 42.2% and female was 57.6%. The average age for the male was 52.3, 55.6 for the female. 2. The proportion of the farmers in the subjects was 81.5%. Among these 78.0% were engaged in the greenhouse farming. 3. Among the eight symptoms of Nofusho(japanese farmer's comples), lumbago was the most frequently complained and followed by shoulder stiffness and parenthesis of hand or foot. 4. The total score of farmer's disease was evidently higher in the female and the older the score was clearly bigger. 5. The prevalence of Nofusho(Japanese farmer's comples)was 26.8% and 43.15% was for the suspected Nofusho. In the male, the prevalence of Nofusho was 13.6% and 40.9% for the suspected Nofusho and in the female 36.5% and 44.7% were shown, comparatively. 6. According to the multiple classification analysis, sex, age, and occupation were selected as significant variables to explain the total score of Nofusho. 7. The correlations between the total score of Nofusho and the number of sick day, working years, and age were significant, comparatively. 8. According to the multiple classification analysis corolling interaction between independent variables, age was the only variable which was significant in the male and age, pesticide work in the female. 9. The score of greenhouse disease was highest in the group who engaged in greenhouse farming and conventional farming(2.76 for male, 3.77 for female) followed by the group who engaged only in greening house farming(2.66 for male, 3.49 for female) and by the group who engaged only in conventional farming(2.27 for male, 3.05 for female) 10. According to the multiple classification analysis with the total score of greenhouse disease as dependent variable, corolling interaction between independent variables, age and pesticide work were revealed as significant variables in the male, while, pesticide work and farming type were significant in the female. According to the above results, the following could be suggested. Because lumbago, shoulder stiffness, paresthesia of hand and foot were the most frequently complained symptoms in the respondent, the development of farming tool to reduce the body burden and periodical physical exercise and rest is highly recommended. It is revealed that both in the farmer' disease and greenhouse disease the score was higher in the female than in the male. So the reasonables measures is recommended to reduce the working hours of the female. Pesticide work was revealed as the significant variable in the female in farmer's disease and both in the male and the female in greenhouse disease. So the development of the safe method of pesticide spraying including safety education should be introduced. Particularly the female should be excluded in pesticide spraying.

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The Changes in Polysomnographic Sleep Variables by Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep (주기성 사지운동증에 따른 수면다원검사 상 수면 변수들의 변화)

  • Choi, Jongbae;Choi, Jae-Won;Lee, Yu-Jin;Koo, Jae-Woo;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) has been debated with regard to its clinical significance and diagnostic criteria. The current diagnostic criterion for PLMD in adults has been changed from periodic limb movement index (PLMI) > 5/hour to PLMI > 15/hour by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in polysomnographic sleep variables according to PLMI and to determine the relevance of the diagnostic criterion for PLMD. Methods: Out of 4195 subjects who underwent standard polysomnography, we selected 666 subjects (370 males and 296 females, aged $47.1{\pm}14.8$) who were older than 17 years and were not diagnosed with primary insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or REM sleep behavior disorder. Subjects were divided into three groups according to PLMI severity: group 1 ($PLMI{\leq}5$), group 2 (5 < $PLMI{\leq}15$), and group 3 (PLMI > 15). Demographic and polysomnographic sleep variables and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were compared among the three groups. Results: There were significant differences among the three groups in age and gender. Sleep efficiency (SE) and stage 3 sleep percentage in group 1 were significantly higher than those in groups 2 and 3. The wake after sleep onset (WASO) score in group 1 was significantly lower than those in groups 2 and 3. However, there were no significant differences in SE, stage 3 sleep percentage, or WASO between groups 2 and 3. Sleep latency (SL) in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 3, but there was no difference in SL between group 2 and group 3. ESS score in group 1 was significantly higher than that in group 3, but there was no difference between group 2 and group 3. Partial correlation analysis adjusted by age showed that PLMI was significantly related to SE and WASO. Conclusion: This study suggests that PLMI influences polysomnographic sleep variables. In addition, we found the individuals who did not have PLMD but had PLMI > 5 were not different in polysomnographic sleep variables from the individuals who had PLMD according to the current criterion. These results raise questions about the relevance of the current diagnostic criterion of PLMD.

Comparison of Oral Health Status according to Glycated Hemoglobin A1c (당화혈색소에 따른 구강건강상태 비교)

  • Ju, On-Ju;Lee, Hye-Kyung;Jung, Jin-Ah
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.290-297
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to compare dental health status of South Korean adults, according to the control protocol of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). From the measurements of HbA1c levels of 4,991 individuals over the age of 19 who participated in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the following conclusions were obtained. Glycated hemoglobin was 7.2% in the HbA1c ${\geq}6.6$ diabetic group and 5.9% in women and 8.5% in men. The ratio in the glucose non-control group was higher in the older age group, the lower average monthly household income group, and the lower education level group. Both the tissue health index and functioning teeth index indices were slightly higher in both men and women in the glucose control group. The tissue health index was higher in the younger age group, in the higher average monthly household income group, and in the higher education level group. The missing teeth (MT) index was greater among women (3.775 pieces) than among men (2.317 pieces) in the glucose non-control group. Higher age correlated with a greater number of MT, while higher income and education levels correlated with a lower number of MT. In conclusion, we will continue to provide counseling and education on oral health problems, thereby widening the awareness of the importance of oral health care and providing a variety of media and education methods related to medical and oral health that can manage diabetic patients according to the level of HbA1c It should be developed.

Changes in Psoas Major and Quadriceps Cross Sectional Area in Elderly People after 12 Weeks of Exercise (고령자를 대상으로 12주간 운동이 대요근 및 대퇴부 근황단면적에 미치는 영향)

  • Tachi, Toshiki;Oguri, Kazuo;Torii, Suguru;Kobayashi, Kando;Fujii, Katsunori;Kim, Jun-Dong;Nho, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 12-weeks of movement training would increase the psoas major cross-sectional area (CSA) in senior men and women. Fifty eight men and women aged 65 to 80 years old ($69.6{\pm}3.7$, 30 male, 28 female) were divided into a control (n=19) and exercise group (n=39). Subjects were assessed before and after the training program for stature, body mass, and magnetic resonance imaging of the psoas major and the quadriceps muscle. The experimental group performed exercises using machines designed to improve the movement of the hip at a frequency of twice every week, with a total of 23 trainings in 12-weeks. Magnetic resonance images of both thighs and the abdomen and psoas major were obtained, aimed at 50% of the length of the greater trochanter and the lower edge of the femur and between the fourth (L4) and fifth (L5) lumbars. A 9.4% increase in the psoas major CSA in the training group was observed. In the male and female breakdown, a 11.5% and 8.4% change was observed in males and females, respectively. In the quadriceps, there was no significant statistical improvement in either males or females. Furthermore, in the control group, there was no significant change seen in either the psoas major or the quadriceps. As a result of conducting training that enables upkeep of posture and smooth linkage of the lumbar spine, the pelvis and thighbone, the psoas major CSA of older adults were improved in a short period of time. For this reason, the possibility of improving the psoas CSA, which decreases remarkably with increased age, by improving the linkage of the body trunk is also suggested.

A study on OHIP-14 and EQ-5D of residents in some rural areas (일부 농촌지역 주민들의 OHIP-14와 EQ-5D에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Gyeong;Park, Jeong-Hee;Park, Jeong-Ran;Park, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.197-211
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : OHIP-14 and EQ-5D were used, targeting the residents of farming communities to identify the elements that influence oral cavity's health and quality of life due to health and to identify the importance of oral cavity's health in order to increase health of adults' oral cavity and quality of life via improved health. Methods : This research was conducted from July 17th, 2010 to August 16th, 2010 targeting 600 residents in Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, aging over 40. The data has been analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and hierarchical multiple regression through SPSS Win Program 18.0 version. Results : 1. OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on general characteristics showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on the following cases: women (p=0.004, p<0.001), older (p<0.001, p<0.001), lower scholastic ability (p<0.001, p<0.001), lower average of average spending money (p<0.001, p<0.001), higher number of chronic disease (p<0.001, p<0.001), less drinking (p=0.012, p=0.008), lower perceived oral health and health status (p<0.001, p<0.001) and non smoking showed only EQ-5D (p<0.001). 2. OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on oral health behavior showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on the following cases: no periodic oral check-up (p<0.001, p<0.001), less experience of oral health education (p<0.001, p<0.001), horizontal tooth-brushing method(p<0.001, p<0.001) and lower frequency of tooth-brushing showed only OHIP-14 (p=0.042). OHIP-14 and EQ-5D based on oral health status and subjective oral symptom showed lower oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life on following cases: number of existing tooth less than 20 (p<0.001, p<0.001), the number of missing teeth more than 9 (p<0.001, p=0.044), DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filling Teeth) index more than 18 (p<0.001, p<0.001), wears denture (p<0.001, p<0.001), edentulous (p<0.001, p=0.002), have xerostomia (p<0.001, p<0.001) and have chewing discomfort (p<0.001, p<0.001). 3. Factors affecting OHIP-14 were gender, age, perceived oral health status, perceived health status, number of existing teeth, dental status, xerostomia and chewing discomfort, and the of reliability (how well it explains) the final model was 48.7%. EQ-5D showed relevance on gender, age, presence of chronic disease, perceived health status, xerostomia, chewing discomfort and oral health-related quality of life, and the reliability of the final model was 42.9%. Conclusions : In order to improve the quality of life of ruralists, oral health needs to be improved or remained by increasing the rate of possession of the existing teeth and preventing the loss of teeth. In order to do so, improvement of accessibility of dental clinic, change of direction from treatment-centered to prevention-centered health care system, development of oral health education program and various oral health care policies which would vitalize continuous oral health care system are considered to be necessary.

Sleep Habits and Sleep Disorders among the Elderly Between 65-84 years Who are Living in a Part of Pusan (부산광역시 일지역 65-84세 노인 인구에서의 수면습관 및 수면장애에 대한 조사)

  • Yang, Chang-Kook;Yoo, Seung-Yoon;Joo, Young-Hee;Hahn, Hong-Moo
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.66-76
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    • 1997
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to analyse sleep habits and sleep disorders in the elderly population ased 65-84 years. Methods : Epidemiological survey was performed at home by means of semi structured interviews in the city of Pusan, Korea. Subjects were randomly selected. The questionnaire consisted of 128 items including demographic findings, sleep habits, sleep disorders, somatic illnesses, and psychological distresses. Results : (1) The mean retiring time was 10.28 h (SD 1.30 h) and the mean wake-up time was 5.24 h (SD 1.33 h). The mean duration of sleep was 5.63 h (SD 1.80 h). The mean sleep onset time was 44.51 min. The mean frequency of daytime napping was 2.49 (SD 3.23). The subjects reported they woke up an average of 2.05 (SD 1.59) times per night. All of the above results were not related to age or gender. However, the mean frequency of difficulty in initiating/maintaining sleep was 2.2 times for men and 3.2 times for women (p<0.05). (2) The prevalence of insomnia was 57.7% and was not related to age or gender. Difficulty in initiating sleep was the most commonly reported insomnia complaint(52.4%). Early morning awakening was reported by 50.0% of patients and difficulty in maintaining sleep was reported by 45.1% of them. Worrying in bed and physical pain were strong contributing factor to insomnia. Conclusions : The results of our study showed several characteristics of sleep habits in the elderly. Sleep disorder in old age is not inevitable or trivial. Since sleep disturbance in older adults is common and distressing, it has implications for general health and well-being. Active concern and therapeutic intervention for the sleep habits and sleep disorders in the elderly are needed.

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Investigation of Requirement and Demand toward for Functional Traditional Hangwa(Korean Cookies) of Tradition (기능성 전통 한과류 요구도 및 수요도 조사)

  • Bok, Hye-Ja;Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.692-701
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted with 150 adults of 20 years or older, all of whom lived in Seoul. The awareness of traditional Hangwa (Korean cookies) was shown to be relatively low, with 2.9 points on average, and the intake of traditional Hangwa for a month was 2.1 times. For the reason that traditional Hangwa couldn't become popular, and the opinion that the reason was because the price is expensive was the highest, at 3.8. The next highest reasons given were because it is difficult to buy, and because it is inconvenient to eat, at 3.0. The traditional Hangwa was shown to enjoy positive awareness as opposed to negative awareness, while the manufacturing sanitation was also recognized to be relatively clean, with 2.6 points assigned to the opinion that it doesn't taste good, and 2.7 points assigned to the opinion that the manufacturing sanitation is unclean. With regard to the excellence of traditional Hangwa, the response that 'our tradition can be handed down' was the most often encountered, with a score of 3.9. The traditional Hangwa was appraised as excellent, with 3.6 points assigned to the opinion 'it suits our body because it is made with our agricultural products' and 3.4% for each opinion 'safe ingredients are used' and 'all ingredients are good for health'. With regard to the level of agreement for the development of functional traditional Hangwa, the positive group was higher than 25.3% of the negative group, with 27.3% for 'agree very much' and 22.0% for 'agree'. When converted into a 5-point scale for the development of functional traditional Hangwa, the group that was positive toward its development was high, with 3.4 points on average. All categories of excellence awareness were correlated with the level of agreement for the development of a functional food product (p<0.001). Consumer awareness toward the addition of traditional Hangwa functionality was generally positive, with 3.3 points or higher on average, and awareness of the aging suppression and diabetes control effects of Hangwa was also high, with 3.5 points. Next were Hangwa for diet, Hangwa for blood pressure control, Hangwa for mineral supple-mentation and vitamin additive-type Hangwa, with 3.4 for each, and Hangwa for health preservation, with 3.3 in order. With regard to the degree of interest toward functional traditional Hangwa for the treatment of diseases, obese patients cited aging suppression, at 3.2, and vitamin additive Hangwa, at 3.0, while Hangwa for dieting was assigned 2.8 points. Patients with high blood pressure, blood circulation, and diabetes were all shown as having a high degree of interest in all items, while evidencing particular interest toward Hangwa for diabetes control and Hangwa for blood pressure control. With regard to intention to purchase while developing functional traditional Hangwa, the group asserting intention to purchase was higher than 60% for all items except for Hangwa for diabetes control (58.7%). The Hangwa for aging suppression was highest, at 68.6%, and shown as having intention to purchase during development in the order of vitamin additive Hangwa at 68.0%, Hangwa for mineral supplementation at 64.6%, each of Hangwa for health preservation and Hangwa for blood pressure control at 62.7%, Hangwa for diet at 62.6% and Hangwa for diabetes control at 58.7%. The considerations during the development of functional traditional Hangwa were in the following order: storage at 4.1 points, taste and level of function at 3.9 points, size at 3.5 points, and packing at 3.4 points.

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