• Title, Summary, Keyword: Occupational Dose

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INSTORE : A PC-Based Database Program for Occupational Radiation Exposure of a Nuclear Power Plant

  • Cho, Yeong-Ho;Kang, Chang-Sun;Mun, Ju-Hyung;Kim, Hak-Su
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.308-317
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    • 1998
  • Ensuring occupational radiation exposure(ORE) as low as is reasonably achievable(ALARA) has been one of very important requirements in a nuclear power plant. It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose has incurred from maintenance jobs in the outage period. To reduce occupational dose effectively, the high-dose jobs in the outage period should be identified with their dose reduction potentials and methods. In this study, a PC-based ORE database program, INSTORE, is developed to evaluate ORE doses in individual jobs, and the ORE data of Kori Units 3 and 4 are assembled to the database. Based on customary job classification, radiation work is classified into 26 main jobs which comprise 61 detailed jobs, and occupational doses are assessed according to each detailed job. As a result, high-dose jobs are identified with dose reduction priority in terms of collective ORE dose. It is recommended that adeqaute dose reduction methods for these jobs should be prepared to improve their working conditions and procedures.

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Occupational Exposure to Knee Loading and the Risk of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

  • Verbeek, Jos;Mischke, Christina;Robinson, Rachel;Ijaz, Sharea;Kuijer, Paul;Kievit, Arthur;Ojajarvi, Anneli;Neuvonen, Kaisa
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.130-142
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    • 2017
  • Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is considered to be related to knee straining activities at work. The objective of this review is to assess the exposure dose-response relation between kneeling or squatting, lifting, and climbing stairs at work, and knee osteoarthritis. Methods: We included cohort and case-control studies. For each study that reported enough data, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) per 5,000 hours of cumulative kneeling and per 100,000 kg of cumulative lifting. We pooled these incremental ORs in a random effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 15 studies (2 cohort and 13 case-control studies) of which nine assessed risks in more than two exposure categories. We considered all but one study at high risk of bias. The incremental OR per 5,000 hours of kneeling was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.17-1.35, 5 studies, moderate quality evidence) for a log-linear exposure dose-response model. For lifting, there was no exposure dose-response per 100,000 kg of lifetime lifting (OR 1.00, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01). For climbing, an exposure dose-response could not be calculated. Conclusion: There is moderate quality evidence that longer cumulative exposure to kneeling or squatting at work leads to a higher risk of osteoarthritis of the knee. For other exposure, there was no exposure dose-response or there were insufficient data to establish this. More reliable exposure measurements would increase the quality of the evidence.

In vivo micronucleus test of 4-butylaniline and N-butylaniline to classify a chemical's mutagenicity according to the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS)

  • Kim, Soo-Jin;Shin, Seo-ho;Kim, Hyun-ock;Rim, Kyung-Taek
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.355-359
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    • 2019
  • In vivo micronucleus tests were performed to investigate the mutagenic potential of 4-butylaniline and N-butylaniline, which are used in dye intermediates and organic intermediates respectively. Groups of 5 male ICR mice were treated with vehicle or 4-butylaniline for 2 consecutive days by oral gavage at concentrations of 0 (control), 64, 160, 400, and 1000 mg/kg. Statistically significant and dose-dependent increases were found for micronuclei frequencies in male mice (p <0.05). These results suggest that 4-butylaniline can induce genetic effects in the micronuclei of male mouse bone marrow cells. Based on the positive results obtained in cytogenetic analyses of somatic cells in vivo, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals Category 2 was assigned. N-butylaniline was administered for 2 consecutive days by oral gavage to male ICR mice at dose of 0 (control), 64, 160, 400, and 800 mg/kg. N-butylaniline tested negative for micronuclei induction in mice, although N-butylaniline was associated with micronucleus induction at the highest dose. Based on the negative results obtained for cytogenetic analyses of somatic cells in vivo, "Not Classified" was assigned.

Occupational Radiation Exposure of Emergency Medical Technicians in Emergency Medical Centers in Korea (우리나라 응급의료센터 응급구조사의 직업적 방사선 노출)

  • Lee, Hyeongyeong;Park, Jeongim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate the occupational radiation exposures of emergency medical technicians(EMTs) in emergency medical centers in Korea. The results will provide a basis for developing prevention programs to minimize adverse health effects relating to radiation exposure among emergency medical technicians working in this area. Methods: Radiation exposure doses were measured for twenty-two EMTs working in six emergency medical centers. Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters(TLD) were placed on three representative body parts, including chest, neck, and a finger. Measurements were conducted over the entire working hours of the participants for foor weeks. Dosimeters were analyzed according to a standard method by a KFDA-designated lab. Detection rate, annual radiation exposure dose, and relative levels to dose limit were derived based on the measured doses from the dosimeters. SPSS/Win 18.0 software(IBM, US) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Detection rates were 45.5%, 36.4%, and 45.5% for the dosimeters sampled from chest, neck, and a finger, respectively. The average annual doses were $2.39{\pm}3.44mSv/year$(range 0.38-10.0 mSv/year) for the chest, $2.72{\pm}3.05mSv/year$(2.00-11.34) for the neck, and $20.98{\pm}17.57mSv/year$(1.25-53.50) for the hand dose. The average annual eye dose was estimated to $3.61{\pm}2.37mSv/year$(1.50-8.34). The exposure dose levels of EMTs were comparable to those of radiologists, who showed relatively higher radiation dose among health care workers, as reported in another study. Conclusions: EMTs working in emergency medical centers are considered to be at risk of radiation exposure. Although the radiation exposure dose of EMTs does not exceed the dose limit, it is not negligible comparing to other professionals in health care sectors.

The Relationship between Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure in Working Environment

  • Lee Jong-Seong;Kim Eun-A;Lee Yong-Hag;Moon Deog-Hwan;Kim Kwang-Jong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the exposure effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we analyzed the relationship between urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration and PAHs exposure. The study population contained 44 workers in steel-pipe coating and paint manufacture industries. We measured airborne total PAHs as an external dose, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an internal dose of PAHs exposure, and urinary 8-OHdG as an effective dose of oxidative DNA damage. There was significant correlation between the urinary concentration of l-OHP and the environmental concentration of PAHs, pyrene, urinary cotinine, AST, and GGT. The mean of urinary 8-OHdG was $17.07\pm1.706{\mu}g/g$ creatinine in workers exposed to airborne PAHs. There was significant correlation between the urinary concentration of 8-0HdG and the airborne concentration of PAHs. From the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis about 8-OHdG, significant independents was total PAHs. In this study, there were significant correlation between the urinary concentration of 8-OHdG and the airborne concentration of PAHs. The urinary 1-OHP was effective index as a biomarker of airborne PAHs in workplace. But it was influenced by non-occupational PAHs source, smoking and biomarkers of liver function test.

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Exposure Assessment and Management of Ionizing Radiation (전리방사선 노출과 관리)

  • Chung, Eun-Kyo;Kim, Kab-Bae;Song, Se-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: To investigate safety and health management, conditions in factories or facilities handling radiation-generating devices and radioactive isotopes were reviewed in terms of regulations of radiation safety control in Korea. Radiation exposure levels generated at those facilities were directly measured and evaluated for establishing an effective safety and health management plan. Methods: Government organizations with laws and systems of radiation safety and health were investigated and compared. There are three laws governing radiation-related employment such as occupational safety and health acts, nuclear safety acts, and medical service acts. We inspected 12 workplaces as research objects:four workplaces that manufacture and assemble semiconductor devices, three non-destructive inspection workplaces that perform inspections on radiation penetration, and five workplaces in textile and tire manufacturing. Monitoring of radiation exposure was performed through two methods. Spatial and surface monitoring using real-time radiation instruments was performed on each site handling radiation generating devices and radioactive isotopes in order to identify radiation leakage. Results: According to the occupational safety and health act, there is no legal obligation to measure ionizing radiation and set dose limits. This can cause confusion in the application of the laws, because the scopes and contents are different from each other. Surface dose rates in radiation generating devices such as implanters, thickness gages and accelerators, which were registered according to nuclear safety acts, using surveymeters, and seven of 36 facilities(19.4%) exceeded the international standards for surface radiation dose of $10{\mu}Sv/hr$. Conclusions: The results showed that occupational health and safety acts require a separate provision for measuring and assessing the radiation exposure of workers performing radiation work. Like noise, ionizing radiation will also periodically be controlled by including it in the object factors of work-environment measurement.

Occupational Radiation Exposure in Korea: 2002 (2002년 국내 방사선 작업종사자의 직업군별 피폭선량)

  • Jeong, Je-Ho;Kwon, Jeong-Wan;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.175-183
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    • 2005
  • Dose distribution of Korean radiation workers classified by occupational categories was analyzed. Statistics of the occupational radiation exposure(ORE) in 2002 of the radiation workers in diagnostic and dental radiology were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Agency(KFDA) who maintains the database for individual radiation dose records. Corresponding statistics for the rest of radiation workers were obtained by processing the individual annual doses provided by the Korea Radioisotope Association(KRIA) after deletion of individual information. The ORE distribution was classified in term of 28 occupational categories, annual individual dose levels, age groups and gender of 52733 radiation workers as of the year of 2002. The total collective dose was 66.4 man-Sv and resulting average individual ORE was 1.26 mSv. Around 80% of the workers were exposed to minimal doses less than 1.2 mSv. However, it appeared that the recorded doses exceeded 20 mSv for 43 workers in the industrial radiography and for 147 workers in the field of radiology. Particularly, recorded doses of 23 workers in radiology exceeded the annual dose limits of 50 mSv, which is extraordinary when the working environment is considered. It is uncertain whether those doses are real or caused by careless placing of dosimeters in the imaging rooms while the X-ray units are in operation. No one in the workforce of 16 operating nuclear power plant units was exposed over 20 mSv in 2002. Number of workers was the largest in their 30's of age and the mean individual dose was the highest in their 20's. Women were around 20% of the radiation workers and their average dose was around one half of that of man workers.

Oxidative DNA damage and its repair enzyme expression induced by welding fume inhalation.

  • Kim, Soo-Jin;Paik, Sang-Gi;Yu, Il-Je;Oky Maeng;Hyun, Jin-Suk;Sung, Jae-Hyuk;Han, Jeong-Hee;Maeng, Seung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.126-126
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    • 2003
  • Welding fume (WF) induces pulmonary disease including pneumoconiosis. To investigate whether reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative DNA damage occurs during welding fume exposure and the upregulation of DNA repair mechanisms is accompanied, SPF SD rats were exposed to welding fumes with the concentrations of 65.6${\pm}$2.9 mg/㎥(low dose) and 116.8${\pm}$3.9 mg/㎥ (high dose) of total suspended particulate for 2 hrs per day in an inhalation chamber for a total of 2hrs, 15 or 30 days.(omitted)

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Toxicity of Methylcyclohexane and Its Effect on the Reproductive System in SD Rats

  • Kim, Hyeon-Yeong;Kang, Min-Gu;Kim, Tae-Gyun;Kang, Chung-Won
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: There is limited data regarding the toxicity of methylcyclohexane, despite its wide use in rubber adhesives, paint diluents, and cleansing agents. This study aimed to verify the toxicity and influence on the reproductive system of methylcyclohexane after its repeated injection in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Methylcyclohexane was injected subcutaneously into male and female SD rats once a day, five times a week, for 13 weeks at different doses (0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) for each group. The toxicity of testing material was verified by observing the change in body and organ weight, hematological change, pathological findings, and effect on the reproductive system at each different concentration. Results: In the 1,000 mg/kg/day group, there were cases of animal deaths. In animals that survived, hematological changes, including a decrease in the red blood cell count, were observed. A considerable weight gain or loss and pathological abnormalities in the liver, kidney, and other organs were found. However, the 10 and 100 mg/kg/day groups did not cause deaths or other specific abnormalities. In terms of reproductive toxicity, there were changes in hormone levels, including a significant decrease in hormones such as estradiol and progesterone (p < 0.001) in male animals. Menstrual cycle change for female animals did not show concentration dependency. Conclusion: When injected repeatedly for 13 weeks, methylcyclohexane proved to be toxic for the liver, heart, and kidney at a high dose. The absolute toxic dose was 1,000 mg/kg/day, while the no observed adverse effect level was less than 100 mg/kg/day. The substance exerted little influence on the reproductive system.

Use of Rank Sum Method in Identifying High Occupational Dose Jobs for ALARA Implementation

  • Cho, Yeong-Ho;Kang, Chang-Sun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.444-451
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    • 1998
  • The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data.

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