• Title, Summary, Keyword: Obesity-related genes

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Current Trends in Nutrigenomics (영양유전체학(Nutrigenomics)의 최근 경향)

  • Choi, Bong-Hyuk;Kim, Jong-Bae;Do, Myoung-Sool
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.1642-1654
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    • 2005
  • With the decoding of human genome in 2004 and the recent development in nutritional science there has been an integration of molecular biology and nutrition. As a consequenc a now word ' molecular nutrition ' has been formed and recently the word 'nutrigenomics' is coined and widely being used. The field of science that showed the most positive result from grafting the science of nutrition and nutrigenomics is obesity. In 1994, Jeffrey Friedman from Rockeffeler University announced that ob gene and obesity has a close relationship and since then there's been a huge research done on genes related to obesity from the molecular nutrition's Point of view. Even now there are many genes presented which are supposed to be related to obesity and big efforts are put into finding what exactly those genes do. Moreover studying only in the context of genes was not enough so functional genomics, which is the study of the functions of cells and the functions and effects between genes and Protein Products, is being studied. This review article discusses the relationship between nutrition and genes and the general idea of nutrigenomics. The article also discusses about the current research status on these subjects.

Salt-sensitive genes and their relation to obesity (소금민감성유전자와 비만)

  • Cheon, Yong-Pil;Lee, Myoungsook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Although it is well known thatmortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases are higher in salt-sensitive subjects than in salt-resistant subjects, their underlying mechanisms related to obesity remain unclear. Here, we focused on salt-sensitive gene variants unrelated to monogenic obesity that interacted with sodium intake in humans. Methods: This review was written based on the modified $3^rd$ step of Khans' systematic review. Instead of the literature, subject genes were based on candidate genes screened from our preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). Finally, literature related to five genes strongly associated with salt sensitivity were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of obesity. Results: Salt sensitivity is a measure of how blood pressure responds to salt intake, and people are either salt-sensitive or salt-resistant. Otherwise, dietary sodium restriction may not be beneficial for everyone since salt sensitivity may be associated with inherited susceptibility. According to our previous GWAS studies, 10 candidate genes and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with salt sensitivity were suggested, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ${\alpha}$-adducin1 (ADD1), angiotensinogen (AGT), cytochrome P450 family 11-subfamily ${\beta}$-2 ($CYP11{\beta}$-2), epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), G-protein b3 subunit (GNB3), G protein-coupled receptor kinases type 4 (GRK4 A142V, GRK4 A486V), $11{\beta}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (HSD $11{\beta}$-2), neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down regulated 4 like (NEDD4L),and solute carrier family 12(sodium/chloride transporters)-member 3 (SLC 12A3). We found that polymorphisms of salt-sensitive genes such as ACE, $CYP11{\beta}$-2, GRK4, SLC12A3, and GNB3 may be positively associated with human obesity. Conclusion: Despite gender, ethnic, and age differences in genetics studies, hypertensive obese children and adults who are carriers of specific salt-sensitive genes are recommended to reduce their sodium intake. We believe that our findings can contribute to the prevention of early-onset of chronic diseases in obese children by facilitating personalized diet-management of obesity from childhood to adulthood.

Effects of Mahwangpohang-tang on the Expression of Obesity-Related Genes and Cytokines in Obesity Mice (마황포황탕이 비만생쥐의 비만유전자 및 관련인자에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, In-Sun;Song, Tae-Won;Oh, Min-Suck
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.1055-1061
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the aim was to investigate the effect of Mahwangpohang-tang on the expression of obesity-related genes and cytokines in high fat diet induced obesity mice. In order to investigate the effects of Mahwangpohang-tang(MHPH) on the obesity-related genes and cytokines, C57BL/6 mice were fed with high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups and fed for 13weeks. Body weight change, diet intake change, final increase of body weight, the ratio of the adipocyte in body weight, the expression of leptin gene in primary adipocytes, the expression of UCP-2 in primary adipocytes, the production change of $TNF-\alpha$ and leptin in primary adipocytes, the expression of leptin in adipocytes tissue. The body weight of Mahwangpohang-tang(MHPH) intake mice was significantly lower than high fat diet group. The amount of the adipocyte in body weight was decreased Significantly. In primary adipocytes, leptin gene expression and the expression of UCP-2 did not change significantly. In primary adipocytes, the amount of $TNF-\alpha$ was significantly decreased at dose of $100{\mu}/ml$ density. In adipocytes tissue, the expression of leptin did not change significantly. These results suggest that MHPH may inhibit the expression of obesity-related genes and cytokines in high fat diet induced obesity mice

A literature Review of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Obesity Genes (비만 유전자 단일 염기 다형성 문헌 고찰)

  • Kim, Sung-Soo;Song, Hee-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.139-160
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    • 2004
  • The obesity is detrimental to the health of people living in affluent societies. Individual differences in energy metabolism are caused primarily by single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs), some of which promote the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common multifactorial genetic syndrome, which is determined by several different genes and environmental factors. In this review, five major conclusions are reached: (1)To be clinically significant, SNPs must be relevant, prevalent, modifiable, and measurable. (2)Differences in SNPs may have been caused by famine, ultraviolet light, alcohol, climate, agricultural revolution. livestock, lactase persistence, and westernized lifestyle. (3)Candidate obesity genes of calorie intake restriction are SIM 1, MC3R, MC4R, AGRP, CART, CCK, CNTFR, DRD2, Ghrelin, 5-HT receptor, NPY, PON and those of energy metabolism are LEP, LEPR, UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, B2AR, B3AR, PGC-1, Androgen receptor and those of fat mobilization are AGT, ACE, ADA, APM1, Apolipoproteins, PPAR, FABP, FOXC2, GCGR, $11-{\beta}HSDI$, LDLR, Hormonal sensitive lipase, Perilipin, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $TNF-{\beta}$ (4)Candidate obesity genes in the eastern are NPY, LEP, LEPR, UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, B2AR, B3AR, ACE, APM1, PPAR, and FABP. (5)Candidate obesity genes in type 2 diabetes mellitus are MC3R, MC4R, B2AR, B3AR, ADA, APM1, PPAR, FABP, FOXC2, PC1, PC2, ABCC8, CAPN10, CYP19, CYP7, ENPP1, GCK, GYS1, IGF, IL-6, Insulin receptor, IRS, and LPL. The discovery of SNPs will lead to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and to better diagnostics, treatment, and eventually prevention.

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Effects of ethanol extract of Polygonatum sibiricum rhizome on obesity-related genes (황정 에탄올 추출물의 비만 조절 유전자에 대한 효과)

  • Jeon, Woo-Jin;Lee, Do-Seop;Shon, Suh-Youn;Seo, Yun-Ji;Yeon, Seung-Woo;Kang, Jae-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.384-391
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    • 2016
  • In previous studies, we confirmed that the ethanol extract of Polygonatum sibiricum (ID1216) has anti-obesity effects on high-fat diet-fed mice. To identify the obesity-related genes affected by ID1216, we studied its effects both in vivo and in vitro. In mice, single administration of ID1216 increased the expression of obesity-related genes including sirtuin1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ coactivator $1{\alpha}$ ($PGC1{\alpha}$) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\alpha}$ ($PPAR{\alpha}$) compared to that in mice administered the vehicle; their downstream genes (uncoupling proteins, acyl-CoA oxidase, adipocyte protein 2, and hormone-sensitive lipase) were also increased by ID1216. In fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, ID1216 showed the same effects on anti-obesity genes as those in the animal model. Based on these results, we propose that ID1216 has anti-obesity effects by regulating the $SIRT1-PGC1{\alpha}-PPAR{\alpha}$ pathway and their downstream genes, thereby controlling energy and lipid metabolisms.

Primary cilia in energy balance signaling and metabolic disorder

  • Lee, Hankyu;Song, Jieun;Jung, Joo Hyun;Ko, Hyuk Wan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.647-654
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    • 2015
  • Energy homeostasis in our body system is maintained by balancing the intake and expenditure of energy. Excessive accumulation of fat by disrupting the balance system causes overweight and obesity, which are increasingly becoming global health concerns. Understanding the pathogenesis of obesity focused on studying the genes related to familial types of obesity. Recently, a rare human genetic disorder, ciliopathy, links the role for genes regulating structure and function of a cellular organelle, the primary cilium, to metabolic disorder, obesity and type II diabetes. Primary cilia are microtubule based hair-like membranous structures, lacking motility and functions such as sensing the environmental cues, and transducing extracellular signals within the cells. Interestingly, the subclass of ciliopathies, such as Bardet-Biedle and Alström syndrome, manifest obesity and type II diabetes in human and mouse model systems. Moreover, studies on genetic mouse model system indicate that more ciliary genes affect energy homeostasis through multiple regulatory steps such as central and peripheral actions of leptin and insulin. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in primary cilia and metabolic disorders, and propose the possible interaction between primary cilia and the leptin and insulin signal pathways which might enhance our understanding of the unambiguous link of a cell's antenna to obesity and type II diabetes.

Anti-obese related pharmacological effects of standard potato protein extracts on the 45%Kcal high fat diet supplied mice

  • Kang, Su-Jin;Song, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Chun, Yoon-Seok;Han, Chang-Hyun;Lee, Young-Joon;Ku, Sae-Kwang
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.77-107
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : In present study, therefore, possible beneficial pharmacological activities of standard potato protein extracts (SPE) were observed on the mild diabetic obese mice. Methods : After end of 12 weeks of continuous oral administrations of three different dosages of SPE 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, or metformin 250 mg/kg, analyzed the hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, nephroprotective and anti-obesity effects, separately. In addition, liver antioxidant defense systems were additionally measured with lipid metabolism-related genes expressions and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities for action mechanism. Results : All of diabetes and related complications including obesity were significantly inhibited by treatment of SPE 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, dose-dependently, and they also dramatically normalized the hepatic lipid peroxidation and depletion of liver endogenous antioxidant defense system, the changes of the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities, also changes of the lipid metabolism-related genes expressions including hepatic $AMPK{\alpha}1$ and $AMPK{\alpha}2$ mRNA expressions, dose-dependently. Especially, SPE 200 mg/kg constantly showed favorable inhibitory activities against type II diabetes and related complications as comparable to those of metformin 250 mg/kg in HFD mice, respectively. Conclusions : The present work demonstrated that SPE 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg showed favorable anti-diabetic and related complications including obesity refinement activities in HFD mice, through AMPK upregulation mediated hepatic glucose enzyme activity and lipid metabolism-related genes expression, antioxidant defense system and pancreatic lipid digestion enzyme modulatory activities.

Inhibitory Effects of Bojungchiseub-tang on Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (보중치습탕이 3T3-L1 지방전구세포의 분화 및 지방생성 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo Jung;Kim, Won Il;Kang, Kyung Hwa
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 2014
  • Bojungchiseub-tang (BJCST) has been used in symptoms and signs of edema, dampness-phlegm, kidney failure, and so on. BJCST is also expected to have strong anti-obesity activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects and mechanism of BJCST on transcription factors and adipogenic genes of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to understand its inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. Our results showed that BJCST significantly inhibited differentiation and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of the effects of BJCST on lowering lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we examined whether BJCST modulate the expressions of transcription factors to induce adipogenesis and adipogenic genes related to regulate accumulation of lipids. As a result, the expression of steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)1, cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$ ($C/EBP{\alpha}$), $C/EBP{\beta}$, $C/EBP{\delta}$, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$) genes, which induce the adipose differentiation, liver X receptor $(LXR){\alpha}$ and fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes, which induce lipogenesis and adipose-specific aP2, Adipsin, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), CD36, TGF-${\beta}$, leptin and adiponectin genes, which compose fat formation were decreased. BJCST also reduced the expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and uncoupling protein (UCP) genes related to lipid oxidation. In conclusion, BJCST could regulate transcript factor related to induction of adipose differentiation and inhibited the accumulation of lipids and expression of adipogenic genes.

Anti-Obesity Effects of Mixture of Atractylodes macrocephala and Amomum villosum Extracts (사인과 백출 추출 혼합물의 항비만 효과)

  • Kim, Ha Rim;Choi, Bong Keun;Jung, Hyun Jong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.282-287
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of various mixtures of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) and Amomum villosum (AV) water extracts on high-fat diet (HFD) induced mouse model. We classified five groups as follows; control, HFD, HFD + AM extracts : AV extracts (100mg/kg) (1:1), HFD + AM extracts : AV extracts (100mg/kg) (2:1), HFD + AM extracts : AV extracts (100mg/kg) (3:1). Oral administration of various mixtures of AM and AV extracts for 6 weeks inhibited HFD-induced increases of body, liver and epididymal fat weights. Also, lipid profiles including LDL cholesterol were improved by various mixtures of AM and AV extracts treatment compared with HFD-fed group. Lipogenesis-related genes such as acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in liver changed in a favorable way for lipid biosynthesis by HFD compared to control, but various mixtures of AM and AV extracts-treated groups did not. Our results show that various mixtures of AM and AV extracts can prevent HFD-induced obesity in mice and suggests that the mechanisms are involved in expressions and modifications of lipogenesis-related genes such as ACC and FAS in liver.

Effects of Mahuang-Chuanwu(Mahwang-Cheonoh) Pharmacopuncture Solution on Adipocyte Differentiation and Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (마황천오 약침액이 3T3-L1 지방세포 분화 및 유전자발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.168-178
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : Mahuang-Chuanwu(Mahwang-Cheonoh) Pharmacopuncture(MCP) has been used to treat obesity in Clinical Korean Medicine. MCP solution(MCPS) is also expected to have strong anti-obesity activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis. Methods : In the present study, we examined the effects of MCPS on differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of the effects of MCPS on lowering lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we examined whether MCPS modulates the expressions of transcription factors to induce lipogenesis and adipogenic genes related to regulate the accumulation of lipids. Results : Our results showed that MCPS significantly inhibited differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. MCPS suppressed the mRNA expressions of cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine(CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$($C/EBP{\alpha}$), C/EBP ${\beta}$, $C/EBP{\delta}$, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$($PPAR{\gamma}$) genes related to the induction of adipose differentiation. MCPS inhibited the mRNA expressions of adipose-specific aP2, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase(LPL), CD36, TGF-${\beta}$, and leptin genes related to the fat formation. MCPS downregulated the mRNA expressions of liver X receptor(LXR) ${\alpha}$ and fatty acid synthase(FAS) genes related to the induction of lipogenesis. In addition, MCPS reduced the production of adipocyte-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions : MCPS could regulate the accumulation of lipids and expression of adipogenic genes via inhibition of transcript factors related to induction of adipose differentiation.