• Title, Summary, Keyword: ORAC value

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Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Pileus and Stipe from White Beech Mushrooms (Hypsizygus marmoreus) (부위별 흰색 느티만가닥버섯 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Su Cheol;Kwon, Hyun Sook;Kim, Chul Hwan;Kim, Hye Soo;Lee, Chang Yun;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.928-935
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    • 2016
  • Hypsizygus marmoreus (white cultivar), also called white beech mushrooms, are edible mushrooms commercially cultivated in Korea and Japan. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of H. marmoreus. H. marmoreus fruit bodies were divided into pileus and stipe. The pileus and stipe were extracted into water and 80% ethanol and their antioxidant activities were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was highest in the water extract (pileus 1137.39±0.38 mg of GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g, stipe 700.86±0.06 mg of GAE/100 g) compared to the ethanol extract (pileus 923.47±0.18 mg of GAE/ 100 g, stipe 324.05±0.03 mg of GAE/100 g). Ethanol extracts from pileus showed better scavenging ability on DPPH (47.32±0.23% at 10 mg/ml) and ABTS (57.33±0.10% at 10 mg/ml) than the stipe and water extract groups. Water extract from pileus were more effective in reducing power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value than stipe and ethanol extract. The toxicity of water and ethanol extracts was investigated using WST-1 (Water Soluble Tetrazolium salt) assay on the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Overall, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of extracts from H. marmoreus increased in a dose dependent manner while pileus was showed better total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities than stipe.

Antioxidant Activities of Burdock Root (Arctium lappa L.) with Various Heat Treatment Conditions (다양한 열처리 조건에 따른 우엉뿌리의 항산화 활성)

  • Park, Mi-Young;Park, Ye-Oak;Park, Young-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 2018
  • This study examined the changes in antioxidant activity and contents of phenolic compounds inblanched, steamed, and autoclaved burdock root (BR). The total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents of raw and cooked BR were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity of BR was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The main phenolic compounds in BR were quantified by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Both blanching and steaming treatments significantly increased the antioxidant activities of BR in all groups (5 min, 15 min, and 30 min), whereas in autoclaving treatment, the 30 min treatment only showed an increase in the antioxidant activities of BR. The 30 min blanched BR exhibited the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and possessed the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid phenolic contents. The 15 min-steamed BR showed the highest ORAC value. The main phenolic compound of the 15 min-steamed BR was CGA (chlorogenic acid). These results suggest that heat cooking methods, such as blanching and steaming, improve the antioxidant activity of BR by increasing the concentration of phenolic compounds.

Antioxidant Effects of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Rats

  • Ko, Sang-Heui;Park, Jae-Hee;Kim, So-Yun;Lee, Seon Woo;Chun, Soon-Sil;Park, Eunju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2014
  • Increased consumption of fresh vegetables that are high in polyphenols has been associated with a reduced risk of oxidative stress-induced disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of spinach in vitro and in vivo in hyperlipidemic rats. For measurement of in vitro antioxidant activity, spinach was subjected to hot water extraction (WE) or ethanol extraction (EE) and examined for total polyphenol content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and antigenotoxic activity. The in vivo antioxidant activity of spinach was assessed using blood and liver lipid profiles and antioxidant status in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 6 weeks. The TPC of WE and EE were shown as $1.5{\pm}0.0$ and $0.5{\pm}0.0mg$ GAE/g, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ORAC value, CAA, and antigenotoxic activity for all extracts tested. HFCD-fed rats displayed hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by a significant rise in blood and liver lipid profiles, an increase in plasma conjugated diene concentration, an increase in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and a significant decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity compared with rats fed normal diet. However, administration of 5% spinach showed a beneficial effect in HFCD rats, as indicated by decreased liver TBARS level and DNA damage in leukocyte and increased plasma conjugated dienes and Mn-SOD activity. Thus, the antioxidant activity of spinach may be an effective way to ameliorate high fat and cholesterol diet-induced oxidative stress.

Study on the Antioxidant and Human Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitory Activities of Mushroom Ramaria formosa Extracts (붉은싸리버섯 추출물의 항산화 및 Human Neutrophil Elastase 저해활성)

  • Kim, Kwan-Chul;Kwon, Yong-Beom;Jang, Hae-Dong;Kim, Jae Wha;Jeong, Jae Cheol;Lee, Ik-Soo;Ha, Byung-Jo;Yoo, Ick-Dong
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.269-278
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    • 2016
  • In searching for novel agents for skin anti-aging from natural resources, we found that the extract of the fruiting bodies of Ramaria formosa (R. formosa) had significant antioxidant and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitory activities. R. formosa extract exhibited a considerable DPPH radical scavenging activity with an antioxidant content of 117.0mg/mL (ascorbic acid equivalents) at the concentration of $500{\mu}g/mL$. The capacity of R. formosa extract to scavenge peroxy radicals measured by ORAC assay also showed dose-dependent antioxidant effect with $ORAC_{Roo}$ (trolox equivalents, $1{\mu}M$) values of 0.8, 5.2, and 7.8 at the concentrations of 1, 10, and $20{\mu}g/mL$. The cellular antioxidant capacity of R. formosa extract was investigated by assaying the cellular fluorescence intensity using dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF). The cellular oxidative stress induced by AAPH, $Cu^{2+}$ or $H_2O_2$ in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by more than 30% at $20{\mu}g/mL$ of R. formosa extract. HNE activity was reduced by treatment with R. formosa extract in a dose-dependent manner, and the $ED_{50}$ value for the ethanol extract of R. formosa was $42.9{\mu}g/mL$. R. formosa extract did not exhibited antimicrobial activity against four microorganisms including Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae). Furthermore, the extract did not affect the inflammatory cytokine production of interleukin-10 and interferon-${\gamma}$ in NK92 cells. From the above results, we found that R. formosa extract has considerable antioxidant and elastase inhibitory effects, and does not stimulate immune cells. These findings suggest that R. formosa extract may be used as a bioactive component in cosmetic composition.

Isoflavone, β-Glucan Content and Antioxidant Activity of Defatted Soybean Powder by Bioconversion with Lentinula edodes (표고 균사에 의한 탈지 대두박 생물전환 발효물의 이소플라본, 베타글루칸 함량 및 항산화활성)

  • Jung, Tae-Dong;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Lee, Sang Jong;Heo, In Young;Park, Seon Ju;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Woo, Koan-Sik;Lim, Jae Kag;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the isoflavone content, total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ${\beta}$-glucan content of defatted soybean extracts by bioconversion. Soybean was fermented with Lentinula edodes using submerged liquid fermentation system. Defatted soybean powder prepared by hexane (HDS; hexane defatted soybean) and ethanol (EDS; ethanol defatted soybean). The major components of non-fermented HDS (NFHDS) and EDS (NFEDS) were glucoside, such as daidzin, glycitin and genistin. During the bioconversion processing, isoflavone glucoside converted into aglycone such as daidzein, glycitein and genistein. The highest total isoflavone contents of fermented HDS (FHDS) were $2577.96{\mu}g/mL$, and the lowest total isoflavone contents of NFEDS were $428.27{\mu}g/mL$. The highest total phenol contents of fermented EDS (FEDS) was 42.34 mg GAE/g. DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC value were 31.30 to 59.92% and 247.48 to $786.36{\mu}M\;TE/g$ in non-fermented defatted soybean and fermented soybean, respectively. ${\beta}$-Glucan contents were 0.09 to 0.11% in non-fermented defatted soybean and fermented soybean, respectively. These results indicate that fermented soybean could be used as natural antioxidants for the development of functional foods.

Changes in Lignan Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) by Cultivars (생물전환에 의한 품종별 참깨 발효물의 Lignan 함량과 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Jung, Tae-Dong;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Oh, Ji-Won;Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Lee, Sang Jong;Heo, In Young;Park, Seon Ju;Kim, Sung-Up;Jung, Chan-Sik;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the lignan content, total phenol content, and antioxidant activities [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)] of fermented sesame by cultivars. The results showed that the lignan contents of fermented and non-fermented sesame ranged from 2.35~6.58 mg/g and 2.17 to 6.58 mg/g, respectively. The highest total phenol contents of fermented and non-fermented sesame were 51.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 25.94 mg GAE/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC value ranged from 37.95 to 82.57% and from 172.34 to $1,067.80{\mu}M$ TE/g in non-fermented sesame and fermented sesame, respectively. Fermented sesame had higher lignan content, total phenol content and antioxidant activities. than those of non-fermented sesame. Fermented sesame subjected to bioconversion showed increased lignan content and high antioxidant activity.

Variations in antioxidant activity in Protaetia brevitarsis larvae depending on the feeding source (먹이원에 따른 흰점박이꽃무지(Protaetia brevitarsis) 유충의 항산화활성)

  • Kim, Hye Soo;Park, Hyun-Young;Kwon, Hyun-Sook;Lee, Sang-Ho;Ha, Jun;Lee, Sang-Won;Cho, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of Protaetia brevitarsis larvae fed on fermented oak sawdust (FOS) or spent mushroom substrates (SMS, Pleurotus eryngii). Total polyphenol content was 32% higher in extracts of larvae fed on SMS (P. eryngii) (75.33±0.43 mg GAE/g) than in extracts of larvae fed on FOS (57.02±1.73 mg GAE/g). The flavonoid content of extracts of larvae grown on FOS and SMS (P. eryngii) was 24.6±0.28 mg/g and 25.4±0.75 mg/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased in an extract concentration-dependent manner, and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the extract of larvae produced on SMS (P. eryngii) was higher than that of the larvae produced on FOS. The reducing power of the larval extracts produced on FOS and SMS (P. eryngii) increased in an extract concentration-dependent manner, but there was no significant difference between them. The extract of larvae fed on SMS (P. eryngii) (66.55±0.99 uM TE/g) had a higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) than extracts of larvae grown on FOS (76.32±0.48 uM TE/g). The effect of larval extracts on cell proliferation was investigated using a WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate) assay on RAW 264.7 cells. When cells were treated with larval extracts produced on FOS and SMS (P. eryngii) at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 40, and 64 mg/ml, RAW 264.7 cells proliferated at 90% or more. Therefore, larval extracts produced on FOS and SMS (P. eryngii) were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells.

Nutritional components and antioxidant activities of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner flower and its wine (연화 및 연화주의 영양성분 및 항산화활성)

  • Kwak, Woo-Sun;Lee, Sun-Kyu;Lee, Ki-Jin;Kim, Kye-Hoon;Kim, Hey-Ran;Lee, Hyo-Ku;Oh, Ji-Won;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the nutritional components and antioxidant activities of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner flower (lotus flower, LF) and its wine (lotus flower wine, LF wine). The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and carbohydrate contents of the LF were 85.90, 1.91, 0.30, 1.04, and 10.85%, respectively, and of the LF wine, 92.87, 1.70, 0.30, 0.15, and 5.17%, respectively. The total amino acids in the LF and the LF wine were 2,168 and 6,341 mg/kg, respectively. Palmitic acid (38.63%) was a major fatty acid in the crude fat of the LF, and oleic acid (76.24%) was a major fatty acid in the crude fat of the LF wine. The levels of potassium in the LF ($390.91{\pm}9.60mg/100g$) and the LF wine ($27.40{\pm}1.86mg/100g$) were higher than those of the other minerals. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of both the lotus flower water extract (LFW) and the lotus flower ethanol extract (LFE) were higher than those of the LF wine. In addition, the highest antioxidant activities and ORAC values were obtained from the LFW and the LFE. In conclusion, we found that the LF and the LF wine have potential as natural antioxidants due to their higher bioactive compound contents such as their total phenol and flavonoid contents.

Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Effects of Shiitake Mushrooms Affected by Different Drying Methods (건조 방법에 따른 표고버섯의 항산화능과 항유전독성 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Chu, Won-Mi;Park, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.1041-1048
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    • 2012
  • Shiitake mushroom (SM; Lentinus edodes) are cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries including Vietnam, China, Japan, Korea, and Thailand. In Asia, SM are mainly dried and used as flavoring. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of SM created with different drying processes, such as oven-dried and sun-dried, on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects. Raw and dried SM were extracted with acetone, ethanol, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant effects of SM were evaluated by determining total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), an ORAC assay, and a cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) assay. The inhibitory effect of SM on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes was evaluated by a Comet assay. The total phenolic content of raw SM extracted with methanol and of that extracted with water were significantly higher than the dried SM. Among the water extracts, the $IC_{50}$ for DPPH RSA of raw and sun-dried SM were significantly higher than that of oven-dried SM. Sun-dried SM showed the most potent ORAC value at 50 g/mL. The CAC against $AAPH^-$ induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, and $H_2O_2$ induced DNA damage were effectively protected against by all SM extracts. These results suggest that unprocessed SM are the best antioxidants, and that the sun-dried method would be the best option to use in terms of antioxidant activity and the antigenotoxic effect.

Optimization of Mixing Ratio to Improve Antioxidant Activity of Aged Garlic with Pine Needle Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Shin, Eunji;Park, Eunju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 2017
  • Aged garlic has been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological activities, including anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, and to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system and liver. Pine needles are widely used in folk medicine and as food additives owing to their pharmacological properties such as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has long been known that combining certain phytochemicals with other phenols or organic acids can produce synergistic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an optimal formula of aged garlic with added pine needle powder for improved antioxidant activity using the statistical technique of response surface methodology. The antioxidant activities of aged garlic mixed with pine needle powder were confirmed by measuring oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total polyphenol content. An optimized antioxidant formula was identified that contained 5.08 g aged garlic and 1.97 g pine needle powder. The antioxidant activities of the mixture prepared using this optimal formula were significantly higher than the predicted values according to an additive model. Hence, this study confirms that the addition of pine needle powder to aged garlic can improve its antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated an optimal mixing ratio to produce an aged garlic product with improved functionality through the addition of pine needle powder that could be successfully employed by the food industry to prepare functional foods.