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Optimization of Mixing Ratio to Improve Antioxidant Activity of Aged Garlic with Pine Needle Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Shin, Eunji;Park, Eunju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 2017
  • Aged garlic has been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological activities, including anti-stress and anti-fatigue properties, and to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system and liver. Pine needles are widely used in folk medicine and as food additives owing to their pharmacological properties such as anti-aging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has long been known that combining certain phytochemicals with other phenols or organic acids can produce synergistic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an optimal formula of aged garlic with added pine needle powder for improved antioxidant activity using the statistical technique of response surface methodology. The antioxidant activities of aged garlic mixed with pine needle powder were confirmed by measuring oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total polyphenol content. An optimized antioxidant formula was identified that contained 5.08 g aged garlic and 1.97 g pine needle powder. The antioxidant activities of the mixture prepared using this optimal formula were significantly higher than the predicted values according to an additive model. Hence, this study confirms that the addition of pine needle powder to aged garlic can improve its antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated an optimal mixing ratio to produce an aged garlic product with improved functionality through the addition of pine needle powder that could be successfully employed by the food industry to prepare functional foods.

Physiological activity of methanol extract and fractions from Citrus grandis Osbeck pericarp (당유자 과피 메탄올 추출물 및 분획물의 생리활성 검정)

  • Ko, Hyun Min;Kim, Ju-Sung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2018
  • Citrus grandis Osbeck pericarp is used as tea, herbal medicine, etc., but is not commercialized in various ways. So, in this study, we identified potential for use of Citrus grandis Osbeck as health functional foods, cosmetics and food preservatives. Methanol extract of Citrus grandis Osbeck pericarp was fractionated with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol, to quantitatively analyze total phenol and flavonoid, and investigate antioxidative and enzyme inhibitory activities. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were highest in ethyl acetate fraction, FRAP and ORAC results also revealed highest activity in proportion to total phenol content. DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that ethyl acetate, butanol and dichloromethane fraction manifested highest activity without significant difference. However, dichloromethane fraction revealed higher TEAC value and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than ethyl acetate fraction, and hexane fraction manifested best results with superoxide radical scavenging activity and ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity. Antimicrobial activity also revealed best effect in dichloromethane and hexane fractions. So, based on the following results, use of dichloromethane fraction as material of natural functional cosmetics, ethyl acetate fraction for health functional foods, and hexane fractions for pharmaceuticals and food preservatives, would be most practical for product development.

Comparison of Effect of Water and Ethanolic Extract from Roots and Leaves of Allium hookeri (물과 주정을 이용한 삼채 뿌리와 잎 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 항염증 효과 비교)

  • Lee, Kwan-Wook;Kim, Yon-Suk;Park, Pyo-Jam;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.1808-1816
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects of water and ethanolic extracts from Allium hookeri roots and leaves. Antioxidant activities of Allium hookeri extracts were determined based on various radical scavenging activities using an ESR spectrophotometer, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. In addition, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of Allium hookeri extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. We also explored the effects of extract from Allium hookeri root on suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ against LPS-induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated superior antioxidant activity for leaf extract of Allium hookeri compared to extract from root of Allium hookeri. On the other hand, root extract of Allium hookeri showed better anti-inflammatory activity compared to leaf extract. Our study suggests that Allium hookeri extract exhibits strong antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects and can be developed as a potential therapeutic candidate for diseases involving oxidative stress and inflammation.

The Effect of Vinegar Fermentation on the Nutritional Quality of Lotus Flower Fermented Product

  • Nam, Mikyung;Chrysta, Maynanda Brigita;Lee, Eunsuk;Choi, Wonsik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2019
  • All the parts of lotus, including the seed, rhizome, leaf, stalk, petal, anther, pericarp, and fruit receptacle, have been used in traditional medicine system as a health beneficial supplement. However the most usually used from lotus plant is only the root. Therefore in this study, it will be discussed more the utilization of other parts of the lotus, namely the flower of lotus. The petals and stamens of lotus actually are also rich in bioactive components such as flavonoids and alkaloids, are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer, skin disease, and also for us as antidotes. One of the biotechnological process that can be used to improve the nutritional content, sensory, and also antioxidant activities is fermentation process. The final product desired from the fermentation process in this study is vinegar. The microbial strain powder used is Uinkin fermented powder with three variations of fermentation. The variations given in this study were initial sugar 32%, 24%, and 14% with the same fermentation temperature, $35^{\circ}C$ for 3 months. The results obtained showed that the pH value and sugar content of products during the fermentation process were decreasing during the fermentation process, with total polyphenol content of $283.7{\pm}97.6mg/100g\;QAE$, and total flavonoid content of $3.3{\pm}0.0mg/100g\;QAE$. For the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the fermentation product also increased in a concentration dependent manner, with ORAC activity of the product showed a high activity of $20.7{\pm}0.41{\mu}M$ TE. Therefore, fermentation process can be the one of method for improving the product. The efficiency of lotus flower vinegar fermentation can be reached with an initial sugar condition of 25% (sample B).

Hyaluronidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Jeju Island Red Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) for Novel Anti-aging Cosmeceuticals

  • Ding, Yuling;Jiratchayamaethasakul, Chanipa;Kim, Eun-A;Kim, Junseong;Heo, Soo-Jin;Lee, Seung-Hong
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.62-72
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    • 2018
  • An active ingredient with hyaluronidase (HAse) inhibitory effect is one of the anti-aging approaches in cosmeceuticals. Here, red sea cucumbers (RSCs), Stichopus japonicus, from Jeju Island were evaluated to examine their HAse inhibitory and antioxidant activity effect. In this study, RSCs were extracted by six enzymatic hydrolysis (Alcalase; Al, Trypsin; Try, Neutrase; Neu, Pepsin; Pep, Alpha-chymotrypsin; Chy and Protamex; Pro). Alcalase hydrolysate (AlH) showed the highest antioxidant capacities for both of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) methods, compared to those of other hydrolysates, at $66.59{\pm}0.78{\mu}M\;TE/mg$ and $135.78{\pm}3.24{\mu}M\;TE/mg$, respectively. Furthermore, AlH performed the highest capacity of HAse inhibitory with $IC_{50}$ value of 3.21 mg/ml. Thus, RSCs hydrolyzed by Al were chosen to determine the cellular antioxidant activity and hyaluronic acid (HA) production effect on Human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The results showed that AlH improved the cell viabilities and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by 2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were significantly decreased. In addition, AlH increased HA amount by regulating HYAL2 and HAS2 expressions in the HaCaT cells. Taken together, AlH of RSCs collected from Jeju Island showed HAse inhibitory and antioxidant activities against skin-aging which shows its potentials can be an optional natural bioactive ingredient for novel cosmeceuticals.

Cytoprotective Effect of a Neutrase Enzymatic Hydrolysate Derived from Korea Pen Shell Atrina pectinata Against Hydrogen Peroxide -Induced Oxidative Damages in Hepatocytes (산화적 손상에 대한 키조개(Atrina pectinata) 효소 가수분해물의 간세포 보호 효과)

  • Han, Eui Jeong;Shin, Eun-Ji;Kim, Kee-Woong;Ahn, Ginnae;Bae, Tae Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Neutrase enzymatic hydrolysate derived from Korea pen shell Atrina pectinata (APN) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. First, we confirmed that APN has antioxidant activities by scavenging 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+) and H2O2 and increasing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value. Also, the treatment of APN increased the cell viability by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in H2O2-stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, APN decreased the sub-G1 DNA contents and the apoptotic body formation increased by H2O2 stimulation. Moreover, APN modulated the protein expression of apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and p53) by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor NFkB and ERK/p38 signaling in H2O2-stimulated hepatocytes. Furthermore, APN led to the activation of Nrf2/HO-1signaling known as antioxidant systems. These results suggest APN protects hepatocytes against oxidative damages caused by H2O2 stimulation.

Antioxidant and Anti-adipogenic Effects of PineXol® (PineXol®의 항산화 및 지방세포 분화 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Young Jun;Han, Ohan Taek;Choi, Hyeon-Son;Lee, Boo Yong;Chung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2013
  • Pine bark extract is made from the bark of Pinus densiflora which naturally contains occurring phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds. PineXol$^{(R)}$ from products of pine bark extract is sold under the brand name. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenol, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ as well as to assess the lipid accumulation during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Our results demonstrate that the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ were $717.40{\pm}6.86$ GAE mg/mL and $54.44{\pm}0.01$ RE mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidative activities of the PineXol$^{(R)}$ were significantly increased in a dose dependent manner on DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) activity, reducing power, nitrite radical scavenging activity and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value. In addition, the PineXol$^{(R)}$ inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exposure to 200 ${\mu}g/mL$, PineXol$^{(R)}$ significantly reduced lipid accumulation (~80%) in 3T3-L1 cells compared to control cells.

Effect of Fermented Herbal Mixture against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 and PC12 Cells (HepG2 및 PC12 세포에서 혼합 한약재 발효물의 산화적 스트레스 억제 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Yunjeong;Kim, Nan-Seul;Shon, Myung-Soo;Kim, Gyo-Nam;Hwang, Yong-Il;Park, Eunju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1057-1064
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fermented herbal mixtures (FHMs) in HepG2 and PC12 cells. Two different types of fermented herbal mixtures consisted of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Ganoderma lucidum, Acanthopanax senticosus, Schisandra chinensis, Hovenia dulcis thumb, and Lycii fructus. FHM-A and FHM-B were separately fermented with Prunellae Spica, Portulaca oleracea (FHM-A) and Acorus gramineus, Pycnostelma paniculatum (FHM-B). Total phenolic content of FHM-B was higher than that of FHM-A. ORAC values in both FHM-A and FHM-B increased in a dose-dependent manner, and antioxidant activities against peroxyl radicals were higher in FHM-A than FHM-B. Both FHM-A and FHM-B effectively ameliorated AAPH- and ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. They also suppressed lipid formation induced by ethanol treatment. In addition, FHM-A and FHM-B prevented $H_2O_2$-induced PC12 cell death. FHM-B showed a relatively stronger protective effect than that of FMB-A. Taken together, these findings show that a fermented herbal mixture could be used in healthy and functional food design for oxidative stress-related diseases.

Assessment of Validation Method for Bioactive Contents of Fermented Soybean Extracts by Bioconversion and Their Antioxidant Activities (생물전환된 품종별 대두 발효물의 주요 지표성분 함량 및 분석법 검증과 항산화 활성 평가)

  • Jung, Tae-Dong;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Oh, Ji-Won;Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Lee, Sang Jong;Heo, In Young;Park, Seon Ju;Kim, Hyun Tae;Kang, Beom Kyu;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.680-689
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    • 2016
  • The present study evaluated the validation method for isoflavone contents of fermented soybean extracts by bioconversion as well as their antioxidant activities. Our results show that the total isoflavone contents of non-fermented and fermented soybean extract ranged between 119.8 to $637.7{\mu}g/g$ and between 567.3 to $2,074.6{\mu}g/g$, respectively. Moreover, fermented soybean extracts had higher contents of isoflavone aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, and genistein than non-fermented soybean extracts as well as lower contents of isoflavone glucosides such as daidzin, glycitin, and genistin. FRAP and ORAC values ranged between 0.15 to 0.22 and between 195.24 to $753.79{\mu}M$ Trolox equivalents/g in non-fermented and fermented soybean extracts, respectively. These results indicate that fermented soybean extracts had higher total isoflavone contents and antioxidant activities than non-fermented soybean extracts. Bioconversion process in this study may have the potential to produce isoflavone-enriched natural antioxidant agents with high added value from soybean matrices.

Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of white beech mushroom (Hypsizygus marmoreus) extracts (흰색 느티만가닥버섯 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 tyrosinase 저해 효과)

  • Kim, Su Cheol;Kim, Hye Soo;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effect and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of white beech mushroom (Hypsizygus marmoreus) extracts. The white beech mushroom was extracted into hot water and methanol. Total polyphenol content was highest in the hot water extract ($8.4{\pm}3.27mg\;GAE/g$) compared to the methanol extract ($7.3{\pm}2.85mg\;GAE/g$). The flavonoids contents in hot water and methanol extracts were $3.8{\pm}3.81ug/mg$ and $2.5{\pm}1.95ug/mg$, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of extract was increased in a dose dependent manner and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of extract (hot water extract, 69.72%; methanol extract, 52.67% at 40 mg/ml) was lower than those of positive control 2% arbutin (96%). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the hot water and methanol extract was 80% and 74%, respectively. Hot water extract ($63.34{\pm}1.00uM\;TE/g$) were more effective in ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value than methanol extract ($46.33{\pm}0.48uM\;TE/g$). The toxicity of hot water and methanol extracts was investigated using WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulphonate) assay on the B16BL6 melanoma cells.