• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nylon Bag Degradability

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Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

  • Polyorach, S.;Poungchompu, O.;Wanapat, M.;Kang, S.;Cherdthong, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1273-1279
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle ($410{\pm}10kg$) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

Limits of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes to Improve Digestion and Intake of a Tropical Grass

  • Assoumaya, C.;Boval, M.;Weisbecker, J.L.;Saminadin, G.;Archimede, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.914-919
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    • 2007
  • The effect of the addition of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (mainly xylanase and cellulase activities, 15 ml/15 kg of fresh forage), on intake, total tract digestibility and nylon bag degradability of a chopped fresh Digitaria decumbens grass was studied at 2 stages of regrowth ( 21 and 56-day old grasses). Moreover, comparisons between ground and chopped grass were done using the nylon bag degradability method. DM intake (g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) and organic matter total tract digestibility for control and enzyme treatments respectively were 69.1 vs. 65.9 (p>0.05) and 0.723 vs. 0.727 (p>0.05) with the 21-day old regrowth. Based on the same parameters, values for the 56-day old grass were 58.1 vs. 52.7 (p>0.05) and 0.621 vs. 0.591 (p>0.05). Nylon bag degradation at 24 h of the dry matter for control versus enzyme treatments were 0.653 vs. 0.70 (p<0.05) and 0.644 vs. 0.733 (p<0.0001) for the 21-day old chopped and ground forage respectively, whereas with the 56-day old grass, corresponding values were 0.321 vs. 0.392 (p<0.0001) and 0.463 vs. 0.481 (p>0.05). The positive impact of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on degradability of the young and ground pangola grass may suggest that in some cases, enzyme accessibility to potentially digestible cell wall is a limiting factor in their digestion.

Comparison of Different Alkali Treatment of Bagasse and Rice Straw

  • Suksombat, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1430-1433
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    • 2004
  • A study was conducted to determine the effect of different alkali treatments on changes in chemical composition and on degradability of bagasse and rice straw. This study divided into 2 experiments, the first with bagasse and the second with rice straw. Each experiment comprised 9 treatments which included: untreated control; 3% NaOH; 6% NaOH; 3% urea; 6% urea; 3% NaOH/3% urea; 3% NaOH/6% urea; 6% NaOH/3% urea; 6% NaOH/6% urea. In both experiments, crude protein contents were increased from 2.0 to 12.5 units for bagasse and 3.1 to 13.7 units for rice straw by urea treatments. Ash contents of the treated bagasse and rice straw were increased over the untreated control (1.5-9.7 units for bagasse; 4.2-8.8 units for rice straw). The effects on ether extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of the treated bagasse and rice straw were variable. Nylon bag degradability of dry matter and crude fiber were increased by treatments applying NaOH and NaOH plus urea but not urea alone. In contrast, the egradability of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were reduced compared with the untreated control. From these degradability studies, it can be concluded that the most efficient treatments of bagasse were those treatments with 6% NaOH, followed by treatments with 6% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea and 3% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea, respectively. However, when comparison was made on the cost of chemical used to treat the agricultural by-products, particularly in case of rice straw, 3-6% urea would be appropriate.

Evaluation of Mulberry (Morus alba) as Potential Feed Supplement for Ruminants: The Effect of Plant Maturity on In situ Disappearance and In vitro Intestinal Digestibility of Plant Fractions

  • Saddul, D.;Jelan, Z.A.;Liang, J.B.;Halim, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1569-1574
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    • 2005
  • The in situ nylon bag degradation and in vitro intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), and crude protein (CP) of mulberry (Morus alba) plant fractions was studied at four harvest stages, 3 (W3), 5 (W5), 7 (W7) and 9 (W9) weeks. Degradability of DM and CP of the whole plant and stem fractions declined significantly (p<0.01) with advancing plant maturity in the order W3>W5 and W7>W9 and W3>W5>W7>W9, respectively. The degradation of DM and CP of the leaf fraction was also influenced by plant maturity but no trend was observed. The degradation of DM and CP of the whole plant and leaves increased rapidly during the first 48 and 24 h of incubation, respectively, when maximum degradation was reached. In vitro intestinal digestibility of CP was more influenced by the residence time in the rumen than by plant maturity. This study showed that mulberry is suitable as a supplement, particularly to low-quality roughages, in providing a source of rapidly available nitrogen to the rumen microbes, hence improving the roughage degradability and intake.

Estimation of Ruminal Degradation and Intestinal Availability of Crude Protein in the Animal-Origin Feedstuffs Using Mobile Nylon Bag Technique

  • Lee, S.C.;Moon, Y.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.210-214
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    • 1997
  • Ruminal degradation characteristics and intestinal availability of crude protein (CP) in four animal-origin feeds (fish meal, meat meal, viscera meal, feather meal) were estimated by mobile nylon bag technique. Three ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein dairy cows (average body wt. 550kg) fed a diet containing 40% concentrate and 60% orchard grass hay on a dry matter (DM) basis. Assuming that the outflow rate of diet in rumen is 5% per hour (k =0.05), contents of quickly degradable CP (QDP), slowly degradable CP (SDP), and undegradable CP (UDP) in the rumen were 27.6%, 9.4%, 63.0% for fish meal, 34.3% 28.1%, 37,6% for meat meal, 43.9%, 12.5%, 43.6% for viscera meal, and 14.4%, 15.8%, 69.8% for feather meal, respectively. Intestinal CP degradability was 51.0% for fish meal, 27.2% for meat meal, 37.9% for viscera meal and 56.2% for feather meal. Available UDP in the intestinal tract was contained 288 g, 217 g, 246 g and 423 g per kilogram DM of diet in fish meal, meat meal, viscera meal and feather meal, respectively.

Ruminal Degradability of Tropical Feeds and Their Potential Use in Ruminant Diets

  • Chanjula, P.;Wanapat, M.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Uriyapongson, S.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to determine the degradability of cassava chip (CC), cassava waste (CW), yellow sweet potato (YP), white sweet potato (WP), purple sweet potato (PP), corn meal (CM), and rice bran (RB) using in situ technique. Two ruminally fistulated steers with an average weight of $303{\pm}10kg$ were used to determine in situ degradabilities of DM and OM. Seven feed sources were weighted in nylon bags ($38{\mu}m$ pore size) and incubated ruminally for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) of DM of energy sources ranked from the highest to the lowest; CC, YP, WP, PP, RB, CW, and CM (99.3, 92.5; 97.6, 87.9; 97.5, 87.9; 97.2, 87.8; 87.5, 63.6; 78.6, 63.0 and 81.7; 59.3, respectively) and for OM asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) were similar to those of degradation of DM (99.4, 93.4; 98.8, 89.8; 98.5, 89.4; 98.4, 88.1; 92.4, 65.8; 85.1, 66.9 and 83.6, 63.3, respectively). It was concluded that disappearance characteristic of CC was the highest and it may potentially facilitate the achievement of optimal ruminal availability of energy: protein especially with NPN for microbial protein synthesis.

DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME TROPICAL FEEDS IN THE RUMEN

  • Navaratne, H.V.R.G.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 1988
  • The rumen degradability of rice straw (untreated, urea-sprayed, urea-treated), grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum clandestinum) and rice bran was compared. The mean in vivo organic matter digestibility of the untreated (US), urea-supplemented (SS) and urea-ammonia treated (TS) rice straw were 50.9, 53.9 and 57.4%, respectively. Rice bran contained extremely high levels of acid-insoluble ash (25.2% DM), and its OMD was 36.1%. Grasses had OMD values around 66%. Degradability measurements were performed with buffaloes using the nylon bag technique. The organic matter (OM) disappearance data were fitted to an model which was used to describe degradation pattern. The mean potentially degradable fraction for US, SS and TS was 61.5, 61.9 and 69.4%, respectively. Urea-ammonia treatment increased both the amount of OM degraded and the rate at which it was degraded in the rumen. Both grasses had similar values for degradable fraction (around 65%) and for rate constant for degradation (0.04). Rice bran contained high proportions of readily soluble material (23.9%), but the degradable OM fraction was only 13.2%. The low quality of rice bran is attributed to the contamination of rice hulls during processing.

Effects of Heat Treatment of Three Animal by-products on Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Intestinal Availability of Crude Protein (동물성 부산물 사료 세 종류에 대한 열처리가 조단백질의 반추위내 분해특성 및 하부장기내 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Y.H.;Lee, S.C.;Kim, B.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2002
  • In order to investigate the effects of heat treatment of three animal by-products(feather meal, tallow meal, viscera meal) on in situ ruminal degradation characteristics and gastrointestinal availability of dietary crude protein(CP), three ruminally and duodenally cannulated dry Holstein cows were employed. Cows were fed a diet containing 60% concentrate and 40% orchard grass hay, and had free access to water and mineral block. Experimental feeds were processed for 4 hr at 149$^{\circ}C$ in a forced-air oven, and were passed through a 1-mm screen. Degradation kinetics of feed protein in the rumen were fitted to an exponential type model, and intestinal availability was estimated by the mobile nylon bag technique. Effective CP degradabilities in the rumen for feather meal, tallow meal and viscera meal were 30.2%, 75.0% and 56.4% at 5% passage rate per hour(k=0.05), respectively. In addition, heat treatment increased effective ruminal CP degradability on feather meal and viscera meal treatments, whereas decreased in tallow meal treatment(P$<$0.05). Gastrointestinal CP disappearances of feather meal, tallow meal and viscera meal were 56.2%, 18.6%, and 37.9%, respectively. In addition, heat treatment decreased the gastrointestinal CP disappearance on feather meal and viscera meal treatment, but increased in tallow meal treatment(P$<$0.05). Intestinal availability of rumen undegradable protein(A-UDP) was 80.4% for feather meal, 83.8% for tallow meal and 86.9% for viscera meal. In addition, heat treatment increased A-UDP on feather meal and tallow meal treatment, 94.0% and 91.3%, respectively, but decreased on viscera meal treatment, 76.5%(P$<$0.05).

THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON THE RUMINAL DEGRADATION AND SUBSEQUENT INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF CEREAL STRAW

  • Wanapat, M.;Varvikko, T.;Vanhatalo, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 1990
  • An experiment was conducted with three ruminally and intestinally cannulated non-lactating cows of Finnish Ayrshire breed, to assess the ruminal degradation characteristics of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and rice (Oryza sativa) straw by the nylon bag technique, and the subsequent post-ruminal degradation of their rumen-undegraded residues by using the mobile bag technique, respectively. The straw samples were untreated or treated with aqueous $NH_3$ or with urea solution in cold or hot water. The untreated straw samples were milled or chopped, and the treated straw samples were chopped. The constant values a, b, and c were computed according to the exponential equation, where a = intercept of degradation curve at time 0, b = potentially degradable material, c = rate of degradation of band (a+b) = maximum potential degradability (asymptote). It was found that nitrogen contents of chemically treated straw were markedly increased by both $NH_3$ and urea treatments. Milling the samples attributed to a remarkable loss at 0 h incubation time as compared to chopping of the respective samples. However, chemical treatment markedly improved the b value and the subsequent (a+b) values for dry matter, organic matter, neutral-detergent fiber, and acid-detergent fiber of the samples. Furthermore, temperature of the water used in the urea solutions was considered essential, since urea in hot water rather than in cold water seemed to enhance the overall degradability. The disappearance of rumen-incubated straw residues from the mobile bags ranged from 4.5 to 9.6% for the parameters measured. On average, the OM disappearance from bags was clearly higher for the residues of urea treated straw compared to those of ammonia treated straw, but the disappearance of NDF tended, however, to be higher on the ammonia treatment.

Evaluation of non-conventional feeds for ruminants using in situ nylon bag and the mobile bag technique (In situ 나일론백 그리고 모바일백 방법을 이용한 국내 부존사료자원의 반추가축용 사료 가치 평가)

  • Baek, Youl-Chang;Choi, Hyuck
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, digestibility, and energy value of 15 non-conventional feeds produced in South Korea as ruminant feeds. Three Hanwoo steers (body weight, $520{\pm}20.20kg$) fitted with a permanent rumen cannula and duodenal cannula were housed individually in tie-stall barns, followed by a 14-day adaptation period and 3-day experimental period. Chemical composition analysis, in situ nylon bag, and mobile bag technique were used as experiments. As a result of the chemical composition analysis offeeds, crude protein (CP) contentsofmalt meal, perilla meal, soy sauce cake, and soymilk residue were greater than 30%. As a result of the degradability characteristics analysis of feeds using an in situ nylon bag, rumen undegraded protein (RUP) contents of beet pulp, brewer's grain, coffee meal, malt meal, milo bran, perilla meal, ramen residue, and soymilk residue were greater than 50%. Analysis of total digestible nutrient (TDN) values of feeds using an in situ mobile bag showed that TDN values of beet pulp, brewer's grain, makgeolli residue, milo bran, perilla meal, ramen residue, rice bran, soy sauce cake, soybean curd cake, soymilk residue, and wheat bran weregreater than 50%. In summary, these non-conventional feeds have high potential value as good feed resources to replace formulated feeds or roughage. Therefore, the chemical composition, digestibility, and energy value of non-conventional feeds obtained from this study can be used as base data for the manufacture of ruminant total mixed ration (TMR) with improved feed efficiency, reduced feed costs, and reduction of environmental pollution.