• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Requirement

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A Nutrition Intakes Survey of Urban Slum and Rural Areas (한국의 도시빈곤지역과 농촌의 영양섭취 설태)

  • Jung, Hae-Kyung;Kim, Sook-He
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 1982
  • The study deals with the empirical research on the condition of nutrient intake of low income class which be represented by urban slum and rural area, with the analysis of the factors which might influence on the prevalent condition of nutrient- intake. The method of the research was based on the spot-survey with questionaires. The result is that the levels of nutrient-intake are below the standard requirement level of nutrients in both of urban slum and rural area. The level of nutrient intake in urban slum lies in approximately 50% of the standard requirement level and 80% of the standard requirement level in rural area. The extent of malnutrition was explained in terms of the amount of calorie, protein, calcium and iron. More than half of the population in the community are below the standard requirement level of the nutrient- intake. The problem of malnutrition was serious in urban slum than in rural areas, which made a good contrast with the result of Peru study. Deficiency in calcium was most serious. The factor analysis of the prevalent condition of malnutrition in low class suggests that 1) The function of local market in supplying food is not so effective in the sense that the quality of the foods purchased id the local market is poor. 2) Low level of knowledge, the consequent ignorance and the indifference to the nutrition and the low income led to malnutrition. The level of income and the education were significantly correlated to the nutrient-intake.

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Effect of Levels of Nutrient on the Growing Performance and Nutrient Intake of Holstein as Influenced by Source of Roughage (조사료 급여원과 영양수준이 홀스타인 육성우의 성장 및 양분 섭취량에 미치는 효과)

  • Sang Gi Yun;Hyeun Shup Kim;Woo Sung Kang;Jong Hwangbo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 1993
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the body weight gain, days required to be grown from 100 to 400kg body weight and nutrient intake of thirty growing Holstein heifers fed three different levels of nutrient (80, 100 and 120% of NRC requirement) by two different sources of roughage (corn silage and rice straw). The experiment was arranged as a completely random block design with 5 replications. The results obtained are summarized as follows: I. Average daily weight gain of heifers fed corn silage and rice straw was the highest at 200 and 250kg body weight, respectively. 2. As body weight increased, OM, CP and TON requirement increased-especially requirement of those nutrients being the highest at about 250- 300kg body weight. 3. At 250- 300kg body weight, correlations between body weight(X) and OM, CP and TON intake(l) requirement are the following. DMI = 8.0168X - 0.0209 (r=0.7986$^{**}$) CPI = 101428X - 0.0145 (r=0.5787$^{**}$) TDNI = 6.7620X - 0.3702 (r=0.6877$^{**}$)

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Forage Intake and Nutrient Requirements of Fallow Weaner Deer in Southern Australia

  • Ru, Y.J.;Fischer, M.;Glatz, P.C.;Wyatt, S.;Swanson, K.;Falkenberg, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.685-692
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    • 2003
  • Information on nutrient requirements and forage intake of fallow weaner deer is required for the development of feeding strategies during the year. An experiment was conducted in which 60 fallow weaner deer (grazing on medic and ryegrass based pastures) were supplemented with a concentrated diet at three levels. The diet contained 2% minerals, 30% lupin and 68% barley grain. Twelve deer from each treatment were dosed with commercial alkane capsules in May, June, July, September and October to predict nutrient intake. The relationships between body weight gain and intake of metabolisable energy and crude protein were established using a general linear models analysis. Dry matter intake from pastures ranged from 0.137 kg to 0.304 kg in May and June and increased to 1.2 kg in October. Nutrient intake from pastures was strongly influenced by amount of supplementary feed and gender. Digestible energy intake from pastures was 1.3, 3.8 and 6.1 MJ/day higher for males than females in July, August and October, respectively. The protein and energy intake was strongly correlated with body weight gain. The energy requirement for maintenance were 7.3, 8.2, 10.2, 10.2 and 10.7 MJ DE/day and the DE required for each kg body weight gain were 19, 18, 29, 34 and 49 MJ in May, June, August and October, respectively. The protein requirement for maintenance was 12.2, 12.6, 15.0, 11.4 and $8.5g/W^{0.75}$ in May, June, July, August and October, respectively. The nutrient requirement defined from this study can be used to assist farmers to explore the possible pasture and stock management practices under southern Australian conditions. However, further research is required to develop rapid and cheap methods for estimating dry matter intake, nutritive value of pastures and to quantify the potential growth rate of fallow deer in southern Australia.

Dietary Self-selection and Nutrient Feeding Systems for Egg-type Growing Pullets and Layers (난용계의 선택채식과 영양소 공급체계)

  • 이규호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 1994
  • From the observations of dietary self-selection by growing pullets, step-up protein or reverse protein and single-stage low protein pullet feeding systems were developed. They offered another pullet feeding concept that appears to control the body weight effectively and to reduce the consumption of feed and nutrients without impairment of subsequent laying performance. It is obvious from the feed and nutrient consumption pattern of layers fed diets for self-selection of energy, protein and calcium that they have a daily cyclic requirement rather than a constant requirement for nutrients. It seems that a practical self-selective feeding system is needed to meet the daily cyclic requirement for nutrients without consuming an excess of energy and protein at certain times of the day as compared to the complete or single diet where layers have to consume extra energy and protein in the afternoon when they have a specific appetite mainly for calcium.

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Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

The Nutrition Requirements and Foraging Behaviour of Ostriches

  • Miao, Z.H.;Glatz, P.C.;Ru, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.773-788
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    • 2003
  • Ostrich farming is a developing industry in most countries in the world, with farm profitability being largely dependent on the quality of the products, especially skins and meat. To produce quality products, it is essential to ensure that nutrient supply matches the nutrient requirements of ostriches during their growth. To achieve this, information on feed utilisation efficiency and nutrient requirements of ostriches at different maturity stages is required. In South Africa, a number of experiments were carried out to assess the nutritive value of feed and to define the nutrient requirement of ostriches. These data were derived from limited number of birds and the direct application of the results to ostrich farming in Australia and other countries is questionable due to the difference in environment and feed resources. Initially ostrich farmers used data from poultry as a guideline for feed formulation, but in recent years more data has become available for ostriches. Ostriches have a better feed utilisation efficiency and a larger capacity of using high fibre feeds such as pastures than poultry. This review revealed that there are a number of areas there further nutritional research and development is required to ensure the ostriches are provided suitable diets to maximise farm profitability. These include the assessment of the nutritive value of feed ingredients for ostrich chicks and adult birds, the determination of nutrient requirements of ostriches under different farming systems, the development of ostrich diet for producing specific product, and grazing management strategies of ostriches in a crop-pasture rotation system.

Nutrient Consumption of Children from Lunch at Child Day Care Centers and Kindergartens (어린이집과 유치원 아동의 점심 급식을 통한 영양 섭취 평가)

  • Bae, Jeong-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.707-718
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    • 2019
  • This study assessed the nutrient consumption of children from lunch at day care centers and kindergartens. A total of 184 lunch plates were selected in two child day care centers and two kindergartens in Seoul. Weights of the menus in planned meals were measured and amount of served and consumed lunches were calculated using a digital photography technique. Nutrients of the planned, served, and consumed lunches were assessed using CAN-Pro 4.0 and the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) was calculated for each meal. Compared with the estimated energy requirement for lunch for 3-5 year old children, the planned meals of the child day care centers and kindergartens contributed 42.8% and 98.8% of the daily energy requirements, respectively. At a child day care center, a served meal provided more nutrients than a planned meal since some children requested more servings after eating the served meals. This showed that the planned meal did not meet children's needs as well as the nutrient requirements. At the other child care center, children were served less than the planned meal by 6.8%, which resulted in serving less energy, calcium, potassium, and vitamin C than the required nutrients for lunch. Kindergarten A served meals with the energy requirement for lunch of 101.8%, but Kindergarten B served a meal with the energy requirement of 83.5%. Since the served portions were too small to meet nutrient requirements of the children, they consumed almost all the food served, and their nutrient consumption was similar to the nutrients served. Even though they consumed all the food served, their nutrient consumption did not meet their nutritional requirements. When assessed by INQ, the quality of the meal was good; children could consume enough nutrients when served proper quantity. Teachers who are responsible for serving meals need to be educated on proper portion sizes and how to encourage children to practice healthy eating. To promote healthy eating among children, parents need to provide children with messages consistent with what they have learned at institutions and to be a good role model in daily dietary life.

Lysine Requirement of Piglets

  • Jin, C.F.;Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Kwon, K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 1998
  • The experiment was conducted with 120 barrows weaned at 21 days of age to estimate their lysine requirement weaned at 21 days of age when other important amino acids were fortified to get optimal ratio to lysine. The treatments were 1.15% (control), 1.25%, 1.35%, 1.45%, 1.55%, 1.65% total lysine in the diet. Based on the growth performance total lysine requirement of 21-day old pigs appears to be 1.45%. The lowest digestibilities of dry matter and crude fat were found in pigs fed 1.15% total lysine diet and the highest were found in pigs fed 1.65% total lysine diet with no significant differences among treatments. Nitrogen digestibility increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.35% (p < 0.05) and remained relatively constant beyond 1.35%. However, the best nitrogen digestibility was observed in pigs fed 1.45% total dietary lysine. Gross energy, crude ash and phosphorus digestibilities did not differ due to the increase in total lysine level. The amounts of excreted dry matter and nitrogen differed significantly by the increase in lysine level up to 1.35% (p < 0.05), while phosphorus excretion was not influenced by the lysine level. Dry matter and nitrogen excretion were reduced by 13.6% and 18.4%, respectively, when 1.45% lysine was offered to the pigs compared to the those fed on 1.15% lysine diet. The amino acid digestibilities increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.45% (p < 0.05), and remained constant beyond 1.45%. The lysine requirement for the pigs weighing 6 to 14 kg seems to be higher than the previous estimates and in order to reduce pollutant excretion the accurate nutrient requirement should be set and applied to the animal.

A Study on the Development of Regional Livestock Industry Based on Sustainable Agriculture in Korea (친환경농업을 위한 지역축산발전 방향에 관한 연구)

  • Sim, Jae-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.339-355
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    • 2005
  • Nutrient balance is important to develop environmentally friendly agriculture. Phosphorus surplus in nutrient balance was more serious than that of nitrogen. Nitrogen and phosphorus exceeded twice the requirement at 30 cities/counties and 32 among 165, respectively. Given livestock waste and optimal nutrient balance, the proper number of animal feeding was 1.68LU/ha. Considering livestock waste only, the optimal number of livestock feeding was 3,918,000LU (heads) and, including fertilizer that would be 2,288,000LU. It is recommended to introduce the regional control system to regulate nutrient input and output, and the trading system of livestock feeding rights to control that.

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Nutrition requirements in child and adolescent athletes (소아청소년의 스포츠 영양)

  • Park, Jae Ock
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.12
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    • pp.1327-1336
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    • 2009
  • Increasing numbers of children and adolescents prefer undertaking physical exercise to overcome overweight or obesity. Children and adolescents are in the growth stage and require adequate nutrient supply. More calories and nutrients are required especially when they are engaged in physical exercise. Exercise is the only means to increase lean body mass and decrease body fat, but adequate nutrient supply is also essential. Lack of adequate nutrient supply causes muscle mass loss, menstruation irregularity, reduced bone density, fatigue, or frequent injury in children undertaking physical exercise. Here, I have introduced some guidelines on the nutrient requirement for child and adolescent athletes.