• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nutrient Digestibility

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Evaluation of fat sources (lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride) in weaned pigs: Apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities

  • Cho, Jin-Ho;Chen, Ying Jie;Yoo, Jong-Sang;Kim, Wan-Tae;Chung, Il-Byung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.130-133
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride on apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities in nursery pigs. Twenty [(Landrace$\times$Yorkshire)$\times$ Duroc] barrows were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet: soy oil), 2) LO (lecithin 0.5%), 3) MO (mono-glyceride 0.5%), 4) MG (mono-glyceride 1.0%) and 5) MDG (mono-diglyceride 1.0%). In apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) digestibilities of MDG treatments were higher than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). In nitrogen (N) digestibility, LO treatment showed the lowest compared to others (p<0.05). The digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, DM digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). GE digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO, MO and MG treatments (p<0.05). N digestibility of MDG treatment was greater than LO treatment (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, mono-diglyceride can increase apparent total tract nutrient and apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of DM, GE, N and crude fat.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY CELLULOSE AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN CHICKENS

  • Siri, S.;Tobioka, H.;Tasaki, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 1994
  • Effects of dietary cellulose and protein levels on nutrient utilization in chickens were investigated. Four experimental diets containing 5% (low cellulose) or 20% (high cellulose) cellulose in combination with 10% (low protein) or 20% (high protein) protein of 70 g/day were alternatively forced-fed to eight colostomized White Leghorn cockerels once a day to make $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. The digestibilities of DM and energy decreased with the increase in cellulose level, but not affected by dietary protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose protein level. Ether extract digestibility was higher in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets. The digestibility of nitrogen free extract had the same trend with the digestibility of DM and energy. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber was not so much different among the diets, but the NDF digestibility was lower in the high cellulose diets than in the low cellulose diets, due to the low hemicellulose digestibility. The true digestibility of protein was influenced by both of the dietary protein and cellulose levels, and their interaction was found. The dietary protein level affected the biological value of protein but the dietary cellulose level did not, and consequently the biological value of protein in the low protein diets was lower than in the high protein diets.

In vitro Nutrient Digestibility, Gas Production and Tannin Metabolites of Acacia nilotica Pods in Goats

  • Barman, K.;Rai, S.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2008
  • Six total mixed rations (TMR) containing 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12% tannin (TMR I-VI), using Accacia nilotica pods as a source of tannin, were used to study the effect of Acacia tannin on in vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production in goats. This study also investigated the degraded products of Acacia nilotica tannin in goat rumen liquor. Degraded products of tannins were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different hours of incubation. In vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) were similar in TMR II, and I, but declined (p<0.05) thereafter to a stable pattern until the concentration of tannin was raised to 10%. In vitro crude protein digestibility (IVCPD) decreased (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the total mixed rations. Crude protein digestibility was much more affected than digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was also reduced (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the TMR during the first 24 h of incubation and tended to increase (p>0.05) during 24-48 h of incubation. Gallic acid, phloroglucinol, resorcinol and catechin were identified at different hours of incubation. Phloroglucinol and catechin were the major end products of tannin degradation while gallate and resorcinol were produced in traces. It is inferred that in vitro nutrient digestibility was reduced by metabolites of Acacia nilotica tannins and ruminal microbes of goat were capable of withstanding up to 4% tannin of Acacia nilotica pods in the TMR without affecting in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Effects of Eco-friendly Multi-enzyme on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Nutrient Digestibility of weaned Pigs (친환경 복합효소제 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장, 장내 형태학, 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Ki;Cho, Myung-Woo;Kim, Jun-Su;Jang, Ki-Beom;Kim, Sheen-A;Mun, Da-Ye;Kim, Byeong-Hyeon;Kim, Young-Hwa;Park, Jun-Cheol;Choe, Jee-Hwan;Song, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-enzyme on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (Multi; mixture of ${\beta}-mannanase$, xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Measurements were growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs. There were no significant differences on growth performance during overall experimental period. No differences were found for the morphology of ileum and nutrient digestibility between CON and Multi groups. Therefore, the results in the current study indicated that multi-enzyme supplementation in diets had no effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs

  • Kim, Yunkang;Baek, Jangryeol;Jang, Kibeom;Kim, Junsu;Kim, Sheena;Mun, Daye;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Choe, Jeehwan;Song, Minho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 2017
  • Soybean, one of most widely used swine feed component in the world, contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The digestive system of weaned pigs is not yet fully developed, and thus weaned pigs cannot easily digest diets based on corn and soybean meal. Dietary exogenous enzymes supplementation has been intensively investigated to assist digestion of anti-nutritional factors, such as NSP. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.05% enzyme cocktail (Cocktail; mixture of xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for growth performance for the duration of the experimental period, and morphology of ileum, and nutrient digestibility between CON and Cocktail treatment groups. Therefore, the results from the current study indicated that enzyme cocktail supplementation in diets had no influence on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effects of Chelated Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, and Fecal Noxious Gas Emission in Weanling Pigs

  • Zhang, Zheng Fan;Cho, Jin Ho;Kim, In Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chelated Cu and Zn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and fecal noxious gas emission in weanling pigs. A total of 90 weanling pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of $5.27{\pm}0.04kg$ were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments for 42 d. Pigs were then fed a control diet (CON) or a Zinpro diet (CON + 0.1% chelate copper and zinc). There were nine replicate-pens with five pigs in each pen. During d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 28, the ADFI decreased (p<0.05) and the G/F increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the Zinpro diet compared with those that received the CON diet. During d 28 to 42, the ADFI increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the Zinpro diet relative to those fed the CON diet. Additionally, the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, N, and energy increased (p<0.05) in the Zinpro group when compared to the CON group on d 14 and 28. The lymphocyte percentage was also greater (p<0.05) in the Zinpro group than in the CON group. Overall, dietary supplementation with 0.1% chelate copper and zinc improved the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs.

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrases on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, Keun Hyoung;Cho, Jin Ho;Kim, In Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary carbohydrases on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 90 pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] (initial BW = $56.15{\pm}1.26kg$) were used for a 35 d feeding trial. The dietary treatments included: 1) CON (control diet), 2) MIX (CON + mixture with ${\alpha}$-galactosidase and ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%) and 3) MAN (CON + ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%). There were six replications per treatment with five pigs per pen. The average daily gain (ADG) in MIX was higher than in CON (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted in the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) among dietary treatments (p>0.05). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) and energy (E) in MIX increased (p<0.05) relative to CON and MAN. The ATTD of nitrogen (N) in MIX was higher (p<0.05) than in CON. No differences in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes and IgG concentrations were observed among dietary treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, the addition of the mixture of carbohydrases (${\alpha}$-galactosidase and ${\beta}$-mannanase 0.05%) increased ADG and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs.

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Fresh, Ensiled and Pelleted Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Frond by Goats

  • Dahlan, I.;Islam, M.;Rajion, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1407-1413
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    • 2000
  • Oil palm frond (OPF) is a new non-conventional fibrous feed for ruminants. Evaluation on the nutritive values and digestibility of OPF was carried out using goats. In a completely randomised design, 20 local male goats were assigned to evaluate fresh and different types of processed OPF. A 60 day feeding trial was done to determine the digestible nutrient intake of fresh, ensiled and pelleted OPF and its response on live weight gain of goat. The pelleting of OPF increased (p<0.05) intake compared to fresh or ensiled OPF. The OPF based mixed pellet (50% OPF with 15% palm kernel cake, 6% rice bran, 6% soybean hull, 15% molasses, 2% fishmeal, 4% urea, 1.5% mineral mixture and 0.5% common salt) increased (p<0.05) nutrient intake, digestibility and reduced feed refusals. The mixed pellet also increased digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) at 80% and 63% level respectively than the fresh OPF. The increased digestible nutrient intake on the OPF based mixed pellet, resulted in increased live weight gain of goats. Furthermore, OPF has a good potential as a roughage source when it is used with concentrate supplement. OPF based formulated feed in a pelleted form could be used as a complete feed for intensive production of goat and other ruminants.

Effects of Levels of Feed Intake and Inclusion of Corn on Rumen Environment, Nutrient Digestibility, Methane Emission and Energy and Protein Utilization by Goats Fed Alfalfa Pellets

  • Islam, M.;Abe, H.;Terada, F.;Iwasaki, K.;Tano, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.948-956
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    • 2000
  • The effect of high and low level of feed intakes on nutrient digestibility, nutrient losses through methane, energy and protein utilization by goats fed on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) pellets based diets was investigated in this study. Twelve castrated Japanese goats were employed in two subsequent digestion and metabolism trials. The goats were divided into three groups, offered three diets. Diet 1 consisted of 100% alfalfa pellet, Diet 2 was 70% alfalfa pellet and 30% corn, and Diet 3 was 40% alfalfa pellet and 60% corn. The two intake levels were high (1.6 times) and low (0.9 times) the maintenance requirement of total digestible nutrients (TON). Rumen ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) level of Diet 1 was lower (p<0.001) compared to Diets 2 and 3, but the values were always above the critical level (I50 mg/liter), The pH values of rumen liquor ranged from 6.02 to 7.30. Apparent digestibility of nutrient components did not show differences (p>0.05) between the two intake levels but inclusion of corn significantly altered the nutrient digestibility. Diet 3 had highest (p<0.001) dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE) and nitrogen fee extract (NFE) digestibility followed by the Diet 2 and Diet 1. The crude protein (CP) digestibility values among the three diets were in a narrow range (70.1 to 70.8%). Crude fiber (CF) digestibility for Diet 3 was slight higher (p>0.05) than that for other two diets. When alfalfa was replaced by corn, there were highly significant (p<0.001) increases in DM, OM, EE and NFE apparent digestibility and a slight increase in the CF digestibility (p>0.05). There were no differences (p>0.05) in energy losses as methane ($CH_4$) and heat production among the diets but energy loss through urine was higher for the Diet 1. The total energy loss as $CH_4$ and heat production were higher for the high intake level but the energy loss as $CH_4$ per gram DM intake were same (0.305 kcal/g) between the high and low intake level. Retained energy (RE) was higher for Diet 3 and Diet 2. Nitrogen (N) losses through feces and urine were higher (p<0.001) for Diet 1. Consequently, N retention was lower (p>0.05) for Diet 1 and higher in Diets 3 and 2. It is concluded that inclusion of corn with alfalfa increased the metabolizable energy (ME) and RE, and retained N through reducing the energy and N losses. The high level of intake reduced the rate of nutrient losses through feces and urine.

Effects of non-genetically and genetically modified organism (maize-soybean) diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass weight, and meat quality of broiler chicken

  • Zhang, Song;Ao, Xiang;Kim, In Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.849-855
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to compare growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of broilers fed a genetically modified organism (GMO) diet or a non-GMO diet. Methods: A total of 840 broilers with an initial body weight of 43.03 g per chick were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 2 dietary treatments lasted for 32 days (15 broilers per pen with 28 replicates per treatment): i) Trt 1, GMO maize-soybean meal based diet; ii) Trt 2, non-GMO maize soybean meal based diet. Both diets were maize-soybean meal diets. The GMO qualitative analysis, proximate analysis and amino acid analysis of the feed ingredient samples were carried out. Diets were formulated based on a nutrient matrix derived from analysis results. Growth performance was measured on day 0, 7, 17, and 32. And all other response criteria were measured on day 32. Results: The analysis results showed that the total Lys, Met, Thr of non-GMO grains were lower than that of GMO grains, the protein content of GMO soybean meal was higher than that of non-GMO soybean meal. Feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) were greater (p<0.05) in broilers provided with non-GMO diet than that of the GMO group from d 17 to 32. A decrease in FCR was observed in birds fed the GMO diet through the entire experiment (p<0.05). No significant impacts on blood profile, meat quality and nutrient digestibility were found in response to dietary treatments throughout the experimental period (p>0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that non-GMO diet showed a negative effect on growth performance but nutrient digestibility, blood profile, carcass weight and meat quality were not affected by non-GMO diets.