Park, Hung-Ho;Song, Mi-Sook;Sung, Young-Hee;Sim, Won-Hee
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: The objective of our study was to figure out costs of nursing services in general nursing units based on the PCS in order to determine an appropriate nursing fee schedule. Method: The data were collected from 8 hospitals from September 9 to October 8, 2002. The costs of nursing services in general nursing units was analyzed by nursing hours based on the nursing intensity. The inpatient in the general nursing units were classified by Park's PCS tool(2000). Results: The distribution of patients by PCS ranged from class I to Class III in general nursing units. The higher PCS in general nursing units consumed more nursing hours. As a result, the higher nursing intensity, the more the daily average nursing costs in general nursing units. Conclusion: We found that the higher PCS, the more the daily average nursing costs in general nursing units. In conclusion, our study provides the evidence to refine the current nursing fee schedule that it does not differentiated from the volume of nursing services based on the nursing hours.
Purpose: The objective of our study was to figure out costs of nursing services in ICU based on the PCS in order to determine an appropriate nursing fee schedule. Method: Data was collected from 2 hospitals from April 15-16 to April 22-23, 2003. The costs of nursing services in the ICU were analyzed by nursing time based on the nursing intensity. The inpatients in the ICU were classified by a PCS tool developed by the Korean Clinical Nurses Association(2000). Results: The distribution of patients by PCS in the ICU ranged from class IV to Class VI. The higher PCS in ICU consumed more nursing time. As a result, the higher nursing intensity, the more the daily average nursing costs in the ICU. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence to refine the current nursing fee schedule that does not differentiate from the volume of nursing services based on nursing time. We strongly recommend that the current reimbursement system for nursing services should be applied not only to the general nursing units but also to the ICU or other special nursing units.
Park, Jung-Ho;Song, Mi-Sook;Sung, Young-Hee;Cho, Jung-Sook;Sim, Won-Hee
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
A cost analysis for hospitalized patients was performed based on the RBRVS in order to determine an appropriate nursing fee schedule. The study was conducted through three phases as follows: 1) Nursing activities provided for the inpatients currently in Korea were identified and classified using a taxonomy which was developed by our research team through the Delphi process. 2) The resource-based relative points for every nursing activity according to nursing time, mental effort and judgement, technical skill, physical effort and stress were determined through a survey of 300 clinical RNs working at 5 tertiary hospitals from May 25 to July 25. 1998. 3) The nursing cost of every nursing activity for hospitalized patients was estimated based on the RBRVS. As a result, 136 nursing activities were identified and classified by nursing processes and nursing domains. However, our classification system of nursing activities should continue to be refined, and all nursing practices should be standardized. The nursing activities were given resource-based relative points ranging from 100 to 400 points, then each nursing activity was assigned a value for the RBRVS, which was determined by the exponential function of 2resource-based relative point/100. Thus, a value of 2 was calculated for 100 points, 4 for 200 points, 8 for 300 points, and 16 for 400 points. Meanwhile, the unit cost of nursing was calculated as 170 Won. The nursing cost of 136 nursing activities was estimated using the RBRVS as shown in
. A proper nursing fee schedule for a new reimbursement system based upon the results of the above study should be prepared in the near future.
This study was conducted to develop a model of a fee schedule for nursing services.'Regardless of the demand for skilled and professional nursing service today, the Korean health insurance system does not furnish a chapter for the nursing service fee schedule. A nation-wide survey of hospital nursing service fee schedules was to provide practical and realistic data about how the variety of nursing services are being charged. From September 1990 to April 1991, data from the fee schedule used by twenty hospitals located in eight large cities which are designated large medical regions in the Korea Health Care and Patient Referral System were collected. Nursing services and the fees charged for them were analyzed. The nursing services were subjected to a secondary analysis with referrence to reports on “nursing services to be charged in Korea”. The total number of nursing services recommended by the literatures was 177 : finally 141 types of nursing services were selected by investigator as chargable nursing services. In addition, data on managerial characteristics of the hospitals were collected to discover influential variables for a nursing fee schedule model. Under the assumption that all the managerial characteristics of the hospitals influenced the fee schedule, the following model was tested : Fee of nursing services (C) = f(A₁, A₂, A₃, A₄, A/sub 5/, A/sub 6/, A/sub 7/, A/sub 8/,) When, A₁ = number of nurses A₂ = the first salary of a nurse educated in a four year A₃ = scale of nursing management division A₄ = location of the hospital A/sub 5/ = the type of hospital management (profit / non-profit) A/sub 6/ = number of hospital beds A/sub 7/ = years of hospital operation A/sub 8/ = number and kinds of clinical divisions The results showed that the model should be built as follows : C = f (A₁, A/sub 4/, A/sub 5/) Each nursing service was applied to the fee schedule with consideration for the professional level and time-taken to provide the services. Detailed fee schedules were presented in the related tables. Of the 141 kinds of nursing services, 24.8% were chargeble to the Korea Health Insurance, 32.6％ of the nursing services were being paid directly by the patienty. The rest of nursing services (42.6％) were not being charged to any source. It was recommened that the Korea Health Insurance Reimbursement system should add a classification system for nursing services that can be used in the national health care program. Further study is needed about how to include 32.6% of the nursing services now being paid for directly by the patients in the health insurance system.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: To analyse hospital nurse staffing level of the general nursing unit, ICU, ER and OR in general hospitals. Method: The study sample was 105 acute general hospitals which had reported the bed size and number of nurses by the nursing units. Number of bed per nurse was analysed by the hospital characteristics and the staffing levels of the doctors and the nursing assistant personnels using t-test or ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results: Number of bed per nurse was 3.86 in general nursing units and 0.95 in ICU. Tertiary hospitals employed more nurses in general nursing units and ICU than general hospitals. Hospitals located in Seoul and public hospitals employed more ICU nurses. OR nurse staffing level was higher in academic hospitals. Hospital size was positively correlated with nurse staffing level of the general nursing unit, ICU, ER and OR respectively. Total nurse staffing level of the hospital was positively correlated with doctor and nursing assistant personnels staffing levels. Conclusion : Differentiated nursing fee schedule was needed to implement in ER or OR. Regulation policy should be needed for the hospitals which violated hospital nurse staffing level of the law.
Park, Jung-Ho;Sung, Young-Hee;Kim, Eul-Soon;Park, Kwang-Ok;Park, Jung-Sook;Sung, Il-Soon;Song, Mi-Sook;Cho, Moon-Soo
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: A cost analysis for nursing services in operative nursing unit, emergency nursing unit, and ambulatory nursing unit was performed using patient classification system by nursing intensity in order to determine an appropriate nursing fee schedule. Method: The data were collected from 4 secondary hospitals and 5 tertiary hospitals from November 14th 2000 to January 15th 2001. The study was conducted through four phases as follows: 1) Nursing hours of each nursing service in special nursing units were measured using three kinds of patient classification systems by nursing intensity. 2) The nursing cost of nursing services in operative nursing unit, emergency nursing unit, and ambulatory nursing units was estimated based on patient classification system by nursing intensity. Results: As a result, nursing hours by nursing intensity of each special nursing unit were measured, and every nursing cost by nursing intensity in operation room and emergency room was estimated, meanwhile, the cost of nursing services in ambulatory care units was estimated only per visit as shown in chapter 4. Conclusion: Future research on nursing cost should be extended to other special nursing units such as various intensive nursing care units, delivery room, and so on. In addition, the patient classification system should be refined for its appropriateness to apply all levels of medical institutions.
The current medical payment Insurance Rates in Korea stipulate charges for medical treatment by the doctor, pharmaceutist, medical technician and maternity nurse. But unfortunately didn't specify those charges for nursing done by the professional nurse. Only basic nursing fee is accounted insufficiently in current medical insurance fee schedule. therefore, Being face with covering entire people by medical insurance by 1991, It seems that the problems pertaining to operating the hospital and medical insurance system would be incessantly expanded in that no mention is made of medical charges rendered by major medical producer service in the current system, For that reason, this study made an attempt to clarify the importance the professional nursing puts of the current medical payment. The purpose of this study was to accounting nursing fee which diveded into the current medical fee schedule. (Method) 1. Data collection; Importance and difficulties in nursing activities was conducted in 'S' National University Hospital. Total nursing activities were selected 72 items which included direct care and indirect care. This study was conducted to evaluating the degree of importance and difficulties according to nursing activities through questionnaire to 204 RN. and so relative difficulties (acuity) were computered because the nursing cost level of each nursing service was differently established by the equivalent coefficient according to degree of relative difficulty and time required. 2. Calculation of cost according to nursing activities; After 47 nursing activities were selected in General surgery nursing units, calculation of nursing cost was as follows Cost of Nursing activity = (relative difficulty X Average hourly wage and benefits of nurse) + material cost of nursing -t- Average nursing administration cost So, Calculated cost by nursing activities was compared to current non-insured and insurance rate. 3. Calculation of nursing cost by K - DRG ; Total of 578 patients who were hospitalized in General Surgery units from January to March 1988 ware classified by K - DRG After estimation of total nursing cost based on the K-DRG, verified the appropriateness of basic nursing fee in medical insurance rate (Results) 1. Analysis of degree of importance and difficulties were 4.16 and 3.67 based on 5 point scale. This score were judged that it is worthy specifying the nursing fee 2. The nursing cost of 47 nursing service items in general surgery patients showed that the average cost of nursing activity was \1374.5 and The lowest cost was \217 of 'oral administration nursing' item, The highest cost was \11,025 of 'saline enematill clear' item 3. The result of comparison between the calculated cost by nursing activities against the current non-insured and insurance rate showed that 13 items(27.7%) involved to payment of insurance rate, 9 items(19.1%) involved to non-insured rate, remainder 25 items (53.2%) were not charged anywhere of total 47 nursing activities 4. When calculated cost by nursing activities was 100. current insurance rate was 62.3, non-insured rate was 176.6. Therefore this showed that most of non-insured rate were higher than calculated nursing cost. The insurance rate, however, were lower than it. Reim-bursement was imputed to non-insured patients. So the current rate system became estrainged from cost system. When Remainder 25 items of nursing activities compared' to \1390 of daily basic nursing fee per patient belonged to payment as a insurance fee schedule, basic nursing fee schedule was 1-2% of calculated cost of nursing activities. Therefore it showed that nursing fee was not counted adequately in it. 5. Nursing cost by K-DRG estimated in chart review based on counting number of nursing activities and length of stay The result showed that average amount of total nursing cost was \183828.1 Comparison of nursing cost calculated by K- DRG and basic nursing fee schedule showed that only 12.3% of nursing cost was charged (Conclusion) From the above research result, It is fact that nursing prime cost should be estimated more accurately and included adequately in current medical payment system. The payment system of nursing activities should be introduced not only nursing activities of drug administration and injection fee belonged to insurance fee schedule but also most nursing activities belonged not to mekical fee schedule. Even if introducing payment system of nursing activities, It should be estimated scientific method of Accounting nursing cost So nurses could offer nursing care of good quality, thereby they could make a great contribution not merely to the convalescence of the patient but to the promotion of the people's health.
Park, Jung-Ho;Song, Mi-Sook;Sung, Young-Hee;Ham, Myoung-Lim;Yun, Seon-Ok
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
A cost analysis for hospitalized patients was performed based on the KDRG classification in order to determine an appropriate nursing fee under the PPS(Prospective Payment System). The data was collected from 20 nursing units of three tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals from August 26 to September 15, 1996. The study consisted of 148 inpatients diagnosed for lens procedures(KDRG 03900), tonsillectomy &/or adenoidectomy(KDRG 16100), Cesarean section(KDRG 37000), or vaginal delivery(KDRG 37300) without any complications. The direct or indirect nursing hours of each patients were measured. Then, direct or indirect nursing expenditures of four nursing units, operating room and delivery room were computed. Finally, the resources used including average total nursing hours, average length of stay and average nursing cost of each KDRG were estimated as follows; 1) The average total nursing hours were 640 minutes for lens procedures, 403 minutes for tonsillectomy &/or adenoidectomy, 934 minutes for appendectomy with complicated principal diagnosis, 1,094 minutes for Cesarean section and 631 minutes for vaginal delivery. Significant differences were found in average total nursing hours among hospitals. 2) The average length of stay in lens procedures were 5 days, 4 days for tonsillectomy &/or adenoidectomy, 6 days for appendectomy with complicated principal diagnosis, 8 days for Cesarean section and 3 days for vaginal delivery. All results were within normal determined by the Ministry of Health and Welfare although significant differences existed among hospitals, especially with average length of stay for leng procedures between tertiary hospitals and secondary hospitals which was greater than for those of others. 3) The average nursing cost were 87,146 Won for lens procedures, 69,600 Won for tonsillectomy &/or adenoidectomy, 128,337 Won for appendectomy with complicated principal diagnosis, 151,769 Won for Cesarean section and 85,403 Won for vaginal delivery. These costs were 7.6%, 13.0%, 13.0%, 16.0% and 22.0%, respectively, of the official price fixed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare under the prospective payment system. Research for the analysis of nursing costs according to the severity of illness for those KDRGs shoud be carried out within the period of the PPS pilot project. In addition, a proper nursing fee schedule for a new reimbursement system based upon the result of the above research should be prepared in the near future.
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