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The Influence of Office Indoor Air Qualitys on the Dry Eye Symptom of Contact Lens Wearers (사무실 실내공기질과 콘택트렌즈 착용여부가 안구 건조증에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dea Jong;Park, Moon Chan;Lee, Se Hoon;Kim, Hyun Uk;Lee, Wha Ja;Cha, Jung Won
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the influence of indoor air qualities of an office environment on dry eye syndrome for wearing contact lens and non-wearing contact lens. Methods: To study the effects of indoor air qualities on dry eye syndrome for seventy-one subjects, $CO_2$, temperature, humidity, TSP, PM10, HCHO were measured. Each subject was tested by a McMonnie's dry eye syndrome questionnaire, a Schirmer Tear Test-I (S.T.T-I), a Schirmer Tear Test-II with anesthetics (S.T.T-II), and Tear film break-up time (T.B.U.T) in the their offices. Results: There was significant relation between the indoor air quality and dry eye syndrome for wearing contact lens and non-wearing when TSP was over $200{\mu}g/m^3$, PM10 was higher than $86.7{\mu}g/m^3$ and Formaldehyde was over $0.4{\sim}1.0{\mu}g/m^3$. However, there was no significant effect on dry eye syndrome with $CO_2$ (p=.0146), temperature (p=0.074) and humidity (p=0.053). Conclusions: It was indicated that $CO_2$, temperature and humidity were no effect on dry eye syndrome in the office environment. However TSP, PM10, formaldehyde, and wearing contact lens were effect on dry eye syndrome. Therefore, the entire management of wearing contact lens and the individual evaluation of the indoor air quality are required.

Difference in Health-related Quality of Life among Social Classes and Related Factors in Korea (우리나라 사회계층별 건강관련 삶의 질의 차이와 관련요인)

  • Lim, Gyeong-Tae;Kwon, In-Sun;Kim, Soon-Young;Cho, Young-Chae;Nam, Hea-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2189-2198
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to measure the difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among social classes and explore the factors that may explain it. Study subjects were 7,992 Korean adults aged 20-69 from the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data. We described mean value of EQ-5D index as a HRQOL by class and performed hierarchical multiple regression analysis to find the factors. The result was as follows. In the distribution of EQ-5D index level among social classes, new middle class (class II) had the highest score (0.966 in men and 0.955 in women); upper and middle-upper class (class I) 0.965 in men and 0.936 in women; working class (class IV) 0.958 in men and 0.936 in women; old middle class (class III) 0.955 in men and 0.932 in women; low class (class VI) 0.941 in men and 0.908 in women; and rural self-management class (class V) the lowest score (0.918 in men and 0.866 in women). In men, chronic disease, job stress, education and income level were found to make the difference in the health-related quality of life among social classes; in women, those factors and health behavior explained the difference. In conclusion, the lower social class has lower HRQOL. Except for education and income level, chronic disease may be the major factor to explain the difference in the health-related quality of life among social classes.

Measure of economic literacy of college students -Focused on D college in Daegu city- (대학생의 경제이해력 측정 -대구 D대학을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyung;Park, Su-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea society of information convergence
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.3-24
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this paper was to find out how the economic experiences of college students would affect their economic literacy via a survey with 494 D college students in Daegu city. First, economic literacy based on the general societal characteristics indicates 48.33 with females and 46.76 with males on average respectively, which shows a low score by and large. In the program divisions of college, nursing students showed the highest economic literacy, 58.67, followed by students in humanity and society, 53.56 students in engineering, 49.00 students in public health, 45.78 and students in art and physical education, 39.64. Levels of education of college students' father also affected economic Literacy of college students. College students whose father has a middle school diploma or lower revealed the highest economic literacy, 50.11. A second place is those whose father has a high school diploma, 49.57. The lowest score was recorded by those whose father has a graduate school degree. Even among the college students, those who just graduated from high school exhibited the highest economic literacy, 49.35, whereas those with a graduate school degree showed the lowest, 40.00 on average. In the economic literacy by financial empirical characteristics, college students who answered that they had an experience of opening a bankbook came up with 48.47, and those who answered that they had never opened a bankbook demonstrated a very low score of 30.20 on average. In the economic literacy by economic life variable, college students who never receive pocket money showed the highest score of 50.88, and those who get some pocket money whenever they need exhibited the lowest score of 44.23 on average. In the economic literacy by economic education variable, college students who answered that they had taken an economic education showed a score of 50.09. On the other hand, those who answered that they had never taken an economic education exhibited a score of 45.23 on average. College students who said that economic education is necessary showed a score of 50.24 in the economic literacy, whereas those who said that economic education is not necessary exhibited a score of 45.23 on average.

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Fulvestrant Does Not Have Antagonistic Effect on 17β-estradiol's Anti-proliferative Action in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cell Line (17β-Estradiol의 CHO 세포 항 증식작용에 대한 fulvestrant의 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun Hee;Park, Hyeong Cheol;Min, Gyesik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2014
  • Estrogen can promote or inhibit cellular proliferation depending on tissue cell types and physiological condition and acts through the signal transduction pathways mediated primarily by estrogen receptors. This study examined the effects of fulvestrant (Ful), a well-known antagonist for the estrogen receptor, on the action of $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E2) with respect to the proliferation and apoptosis of Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells. We used different concentrations of E2, Ful, and E2 plus Ful during different treatment durations. Treatment with 15-40 ${\mu}M$ E2 significantly inhibited proliferation in a time-dependent manner, although it had no influence in concentrations up to 1 ${\mu}M$. Interestingly, Ful at 10-40 ${\mu}M$ also inhibited cellular proliferation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, Ful enhanced rather than decreased the inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation by E2 in combined treatment for 10 days. Thus, Ful does not appear to have an antagonistic effect on estrogen's anti-proliferative action in CHO cells. In TUNEL assays to confirm DNA fragmentation by E2 and/or Ful, CHO cells treated with 20 ${\mu}M$ E2 showed a TUNEL-positive reaction in most DAPI-stained nuclei, and cells treated with either 40 ${\mu}M$ Ful or 40 ${\mu}M$ Ful plus 20 ${\mu}M$ E2 also exhibited a TUNEL-positive reaction but at a lower rate compared to the E2-treated cells. These results indicate that Ful does not have an antagonistic effect on estrogen's anti-proliferative action in CHO cells, suggesting that the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-related mechanism(s) through DNA fragmentation by E2 and Ful may be mediated by different signal transduction pathways.

Factors Related to Psychosocial Stress and Fatigue Symptom Among Nurses Working at Ward and Operating Room in University Hospitals (대학병원 병동 및 수술실 근무 간호사의 사회심리적 스트레스와 피로수준에 관련된 요인)

  • Park, An-Sook;Son, Mi-Kyung;Cho, Young-Chae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.1781-1791
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    • 2013
  • The present study was intended to measure the level of psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom according to the various characteristics such as sociodemographic, health-related, job-related, job stress factors, and psychosocial factors among nurses working at ward and operating room in university hospitals, and to reveal the relation between these factors and psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom. The self-administered questionnaires were given to 220 nurses working at ward, and 147 nurses working at operating room in 4 participating hospitals located in Daejeon City during the period from July 1st to Aug 31st, 2012. As a results, the factors related to the psychosocial stress of nurses working at ward were age, subjective health status, job career, satisfaction of work, fit to the job, job demand, job control, coworker support, self-esteem, locus of control, type A behavior pattern. In operating room, there were age, sleep hours, subjective health status, job career, physical burden of work, satisfaction of work, fit to the job, consider quitting the job, job demand, job control, type A behavior pattern. The factors related to the fatigue symptoms of nurses working at ward were age, leisure time, subjective health status, satisfaction of work, consider quitting the job, job demand, locus of control, type A behavior pattern. In operating room, there were age, subjective health status, physical burden of work, supervisor support, coworker support, locus of control. Based on the study results, we suggest that the factors related to psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom of nurses were different from working station. We need development and application of programs to keep under management psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom.

Relationship between handwashing practices and infectious diseases in Korean students (한국 학생의 손씻기 실천과 감염병 이환과의 관련성)

  • Zhang, Dong-Fang;Lee, Moo-Sik;Hong, SuJin;Yang, Nam-Young;Hwang, Hae-Jung;Kim, Byung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Kim, Eun-Young;Park, Yun-Jin;Lim, Go-Un;Kim, Young-Tek
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.206-220
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between practice and infectious diseases in elementary, middle and high school students. Methods: In 16 metropolitan cities and province of the Korea, the students who from fourth grade of elementary school to third grade of high school were surveyed by personal interviews and an web-based online survey from 5 to 25 September, 2014. We analyzed data with chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results: Common cold, diarrhea, and eye infections were more prevalent among students in higher grade than lower grade. In particular, common cold was more prevalent among girls than boys, using hand sanitizer than washing with soaps, and students who wash the dorsal side of hand than not wash the dorsal side of hand. Conclusions: Higher-grade students showed low status of hand washing practice. Hand washing was determined as the fact which influences to increase the prevention of communicable disease such as common cold. Considering the fact that youth groups have higher risk of being infected due to their group life, schools are recommended to provide adequate educations regarding proper hand washing practice with soap.

Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Endangered Land Snail Satsuma myomphala Based on Metallothionein Gene. (Metallothionein 유전자를 기초로 한 멸종위기 육상 달팽이 Satsuma myomphala (거제외줄달팽이) 의 분자계통학적 연구)

  • Sang, Min Kyu;Kang, Se Won;Hwang, Hee-Ju;Chung, Jong Min;Song, Dae Kwon;Min, Hye Rin;Park, Jie Eun;Ha, Hee Cheol;Lee, Hyun Jun;Hong, Chan Eui;Ahn, Young Mo;Park, So Young;Park, Young-Su;Park, Hong Seog;Han, Yeon Soo;Lee, Jun Sang;Lee, Yong Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2016
  • Metallothionein (MT) family of metal-binding proteins are involved in maintaining homeostasis and heavy metal poisoning. Recently, MT has been considered as a biomarker that can identify a particular species, very similar to the use of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Satsuma myomphala species of land snails have been reported from North-East Asia, including South Korea and Japan. In particular, the land snail species have been known from only a limited area of Geoje Island, Gyeongsangnam-do province of South Korea. Genetic studies of S. myomphala has been limited with only 6 nucleotide, 2 protein registered on the NCBI server. For elucidating the genetic information of S. myomphala, we conducted RNA sequencing analysis using Illumina HiSeq 2500 next-generation platform. We screened the MT gene from the RNA-Seq database to confirm the molecular phylogenetic relationship. After sequencing, the de novo analysis and clustering generated 103,774 unigenes. After annotation against PANM database using BLAST program, we obtained MT sequence of 74 amino acid residues containing the coding region of 222 bp. Based on this sequence, we found about 53 sequences using the BLAST program in NCBI nr database. Using ClustalX alignment, Maximum-Likehood Tree of MEGA program, we confirmed the molecular phylogenetic relationships that showed similarity with mollusks such as Helix pomatia and H. aspersa, Megathura crenulata.

Related Factors to Handwashing with Soap in Korean Adults (우리나라 성인의 비누로 손씻기 실천 관련요인)

  • Lee, Youn-Hee;Lee, Moo-Sik;Hong, SuJin;Yang, Nam-Young;Hwang, Hae-Jung;Kim, Byung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Kim, Eun-Young;Park, Yun-Jin;Lim, Go-Un;Kim, Young-Tek
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the prevalence and factors relating to handwashing with soap among Korean adults. Methods: Study subjects consist of 755 adults who have been contacted in September 2013 via telephone surveys. The data collected has been analyzed using descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and a logistic regression analysis. A primary purpose is to understand the prevalence of handwashing with soap more than 8 times daily and for 30 seconds per wash among adults. Independent variables include socioeconomic levels, the participants' perception and knowledge of handwashing and their educational experiences relating to handwashing. Results: The overall percentile of people who wash their hands with soap 8 time per day for 30 seconds or more per wash was 16.0%, which is 121 people out of 755 study subjects. In univariate analysis, age, education levels, monthly average income, handwashing habits, perceptions relate to the importance of handwashing, self-assessment of handwashing, environment of public toilet, and the completion of handwashing education shows significant result. Significant differences also appear (p<0.05) in logistic regression analysis on binary variables. There is a strong correlation between daily frequency of handwashing and willingness to wash hands while outside. For example, people who wash their hands very often while outside are 2.24 times (95% C.I. 1.29-3.87) more likely to practice handwashing with soap 8 times per day for 30 seconds or more per wash than those people who only intermittently wash their hands while outside. Furthermore, people with general unwillingness to wash their hands while outside are 4.61 times (95% C.I. 1.22-3.28) less likely to practice handwashing with soap 8 times per day for 30 seconds or more per wash than those with general willingness. Conclusions: This study has been carried out to identify the decision factors in practicing handwashing with soap for Korean adults. In univariate analysis, age, education level, monthly average income, handwashing habits, handwashing self-assessment, public toilet environment, completion of handwashing education and so forth have been identified to be the decision factors. This study result shows that the overall level of cleanliness of public toilet perceives to be poor and it suggests that the environment of public toilet needs to be enhanced. As the handwashing habits and handwashing-self assessment have been identified to be the significant decision factors for handwashing, there search and approach in these factors need to be developed further.

The impact college students' sexual assault awareness has on the sexual assault experience :Mediating effects of the sexual violence allowance scale (대학생의 성폭력 인식도가 성폭력 피해경험에 미치는 영향 : 성폭력 허용도의 매개효과)

  • Kang, cha-sun;Jung, Min;Yoem, Soon-Joung;Park, Jeong-hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.551-560
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the parameters in relation to college students' awareness of sexual assault and sexual violence experience. The subjects were 408 male and female college students attending four universities located in Jeju island. Sexual assault awareness measures, sexual violence experience scale, and the scale of sexual violence allowance scale were used in the questionnaires. First, correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between sexual violence awareness and sexual violence. Also, sexual violence awareness and sexual violence allowance scale showed a considerable negative correlation. This suggests that the higher the sexual assault awareness, the lower the sexual damage and sexual violence allowance scale. Second, after analyzing the division of the subject into research model and competition model to verify the mediation effect in relationship of the sexual violence awareness and sexual violence experience, it was clear that sexual awareness does not have a direct effect on the experience of sexual damage. It rather mediated the sexual violence allowance scale. Therefore, the research model, which is the full mediation model, was selected. In other words, sexual assault awareness appeared to fully mediate the relationship between sexual assault awareness and sexual assault experience. This means that sexual assault perception has an indirect influence through sexual assault allowance rather than a direct effect on the sexual assault experience. Thus, the more well established that sexual assault awareness is, the lower the sexual assault allowance scale. Finally, the lowered sexual assault allowance scale could reduce the sexual assault harm. To improve the sexual assault recognition, a systematic sexual violence prevention education should be conducted. Sexual assault prevention education would allow students in dating relationships to become mature in their human rights and maintain the proper emotional relationship and enable a reduction in the harm sexual assault as a result of giving them the consideration. Finally, this study had a limitation in selecting the subjects as the college students living in Jeju. Therefore, in order to compensate for this limitation, follow-up studies should be carried out on with a sample of generalized and various research subjects.

Effects of Polygoni multiflori radix Liquors on the Memory Impairment of Rat (하수오 침출술이 흰쥐의 기억력 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, Hyun-Joo;Shin, Seung-Ryeul;Hwang, Su-Jung;Lee, Kyung Eun;Jang, Jung-Hyeon;Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.128-142
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of memory impairment in rats fed alcohol liquid diets. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. While the control(C) group received a diet containing 12% of the daily calories with isocarbohydrate, the other groups received a diet containing 12% of the daily total calories with 36% Soju (A), 25% Cynanchi wilfordii radix liquors (WA), and 25% Polygoni multiflori radix liquors (RA) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, ADH activity in the brain tissue of the Group A was found to be significantly lower than Group C but significantly higher than both Groups WA and RA(p<0.05). ADLH activity was revealed to be the highest in the Group WA (p<0.05). The concentration of acetaldehyde, a highly toxic metabolite, was the highest in the Group A, but its concentration decreased significantly if fed a liquid diet containing WA. The concentration of acetylcholine, which has a high correlation with memory impairment, was significantly lower in Group A, although Group RA group was the highest compared to the other groups (p<0.05). AChE activity of the Group A was higher than Group C but lower in Groups WA and RA (p<0.05).