• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nursery Pigs

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Value of spray-dried egg in pig nursery diets

  • Song, Minho;Kim, Sheena;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Kim, Younghoon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2015
  • High-quality protein ingredients have been used in nursery diets, in spite of expensive ingredients, to minimize nutritional deficiency and disease problems. Recent dramatic increases in prices of protein products for nursery diets have exacerbated the challenge. Spray-dried egg may be a part of the solutions. Therefore, this review describes the value of spray-dried egg in nursery diets as a high-quality protein source. Spray-dried egg is egg by-product and is produced by only eggs without shell that are below the USDA Grade B standards. Spray-dried egg is an excellent nutrient source: 1) highly digestible, 2) excellent balance of amino acids, 3) rich content of fat, and 4) high metabolizable energy. These can be attributed to growth of nursery pigs. Beyond the provision of bioavailable nutrients, spray-dried egg also may provide specific physiological benefits. Spray-dried egg contains 1) immunoglobulin antibodies (IgY: IgG in egg yolk) that may attach to intestinal pathogens and excrete them and 2) lysozymes antimicrobial protein that can damage bacteria cell wall. Thereby feeding spray-dried egg may reduce concentration of intestinal pathogen and thus improve potential gut health or enteric disease resistance in nursery pigs. This is important for physiologically immature weaned pigs. Based on these benefits, spray-dried egg is believed to have the same benefits as spray-dried plasma protein and milk products in diets for nursery pigs. Therefore, it is suggested that spray-dried egg has a great potential as a valuable protein source in nursery diets.

Roasting and Extruding Affect Nutrient Utilization from Soybeans in 5 and 10 kg Nursery Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.;Gugle, T.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2000
  • Ninety nursery pigs were used in two metabolism experiments to determine the effects of roasting and extruding on the nutritional value of Williams 82 soybeans with (+K) and without (-K) gene expression for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Treatments for both experiments were: 1) soybean meal; 2) +K roasted; 3) +K extruded; 4) -K roasted; and 5) -K extruded. Diets were the soybean preparations (96.5% of the diet) with only vitamins and minerals added as needed to meet or exceed NRC recommendations. Daily feed allowance was 5% of initial BW given as three equal meals. In Exp. 1, 50 weanling pigs (4.7 kg average BW and 21 d average age) were used. Apparent values for N digestibility (p<0.001), biological value (p<0.09), percentage N retention (p<0.05), GE digestibility (p<0.001) and percentage ME (p<0.001) were greater for pigs fed extruded soybeans than pigs fed roasted soybeans. Also, N digestibility (p<0.05), biological value (p<0.03) and percentage N retention (p<0.04) were greater for pigs fed -K soybeans than those fed +K soybeans. In Exp. 2, 40 pigs (9.7 kg average BW and 35 d average age) were allowed to adjust to the nursery environment before use in the experiment. In general, the pigs in Exp. 2 (i.e., the older pigs) had greater utilization of nutrients from all of the soybean products than the younger pigs used in Exp. 1. Digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed -K soybeans than those fed +K soybeans and extruded soybeans had greater digestibilities of DM, N and GE than roasted soybeans (p<0.001). Also, percentage N retention (p<0.01) and percentage ME (p<0.001) for pigs fed extruded soybeans were greater than for pigs fed roasted soybeans. In conclusion, extruded and -K soybeans were greater nutritional value than roasted and +K soybeans for 4.7 and 9.7 kg nursery pigs.

Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs Fed 30% Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) and the Effects of Pelleting on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility

  • Zhu, Zhengpeng;Hinson, Rodney B.;Ma, Li;Li, Defa;Allee, Gary L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.792-798
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    • 2010
  • Four experiments with 2,020 nursery pigs (Triumph-4${\times}$PIC Camborough 22) were conducted at a commercial research site to evaluate the effects of including 30% distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) in late nursery diets on pig growth performance and to compare the effects of pelleted and meal diets containing 30% DDGS on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (10.54${\pm}$0.16 kg) were allotted to two diets: corn-soybean meal based control diet and a corn-soybean meal diet containing 30% DDGS. In Exp. 2, 337 pigs (16.70${\pm}$0.14 kg) were used to validate Exp. 1 with similar diets. In Exp. 3, 665 pigs (11.77${\pm}$0.12 kg) were allotted to diets containing 30% DDGS, but in different forms: meal or pellet. Fecal samples were collected during the final day of the trials to measure nutrient and energy apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). In Exp. 4, 706 pigs (18.40${\pm}$0.18 kg) were allotted to the same diets as Exp. 3. In Exp. 1 and 2, there was no (p>0.05) effect of DDGS on ADG, ADFI or G:F. In Exp. 3, pelleting improved (p<0.01) ADG (578 vs. 541 g/d) and G:F (714 vs. 674 g/kg), with no difference (p>0.05) in ADFI. The ATTD of most nutrients and energy were improved by pelleting (p<0.05). In Exp. 4, ADG (717 vs. 675 g/d) and G:F (680 vs. 648 g/kg) were improved by pelleting (p<0.01), with no difference (p>0.05) in ADFI. In conclusion, 10-23 kg pigs in late nursery phase can be fed up to 30% DDGS without having a detrimental effect on pig performance, and pelleting the diet will increase nutrient and energy availability.

Effects of Milk Replacer and Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance of 14-Day-Old Early-Weaned Pigs

  • Heo, K.N.;Odle, J.;Oliver, W.;Kim, J.H.;Han, In K.;Jones, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.908-913
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was conducted in three trials to evaluate optimal ambient temperature for a novel milk replacer feeding system designed for early-weaned pigs, compared to commercial dry diets fed within a conventional hot nursery. A total of 165 PIC genotype pigs were weaned at $13.89{\pm}0.7$ days of age and allotted to one of two dietary treatments in three trials based on weight and litter origin. Each trial consisted of pigs fed dry diets (DD) and pigs fed milk replacer (MR) which was offered in one of 3 different ambient temperatures. Pigs fed milk replacer were housed in a specialized nursery building in which one half of each pen contained an enclosed hover that was thermostatically maintained at $32^{\circ}C$ while the exterior ambient temperature (where milk was fed) was set at either 17 (trial 1), 24 (trial 2) or $32^{\circ}C$ (trial 3). Pigs fed dry diets with the conventional nursery were maintained at $30^{\circ}C$ for each trial. From d 21 to d 49, all pigs were fed DD within a standardized hot nursery environment. During the first week (d 14-21), pigs fed MR showed increased ADG from 214% to 228% over control pigs fed DD (p<0.001), regardless of ambient temperature. As ambient temperature was increased from 17 to 24 to $32^{\circ}C$, ADG of MR-fed pigs was increased by 214%, 220% and 228% over those of pigs fed DD, respectively. ADFIs of MR-fed pigs at $17^{\circ}C$, $24^{\circ}C$, and $32^{\circ}C$ compared with pigs fed DD were increased by 108%, 139% and 164% from d 14 to d 21, respectively. Fed efficiency (G/F) of MR-fed pigs at $17^{\circ}C$, $24^{\circ}C$, and $32^{\circ}C$ compared with pigs fed DD were 199%, 162% and 139% of those of pigs fed DD, respectively. As ambient temperature increased, diarrhea scores showed a slight tendency to increase. The advantage of MR feeding was greater when the ambient temperature was higher, but G/F was impaired with increased ambient temperature. We conclude that ambient temperature within the specialized nursery influenced behavior, MR feed intake, and probably piglet energy expenditure. There were no differences between MR-fed and DD-fed pigs for ADG, ADFI and G/F in the subsequent growth period (d 21 to d 49, p>0.05). Maximal advantage of MR feeding was obtained at the intermediate ($24^{\circ}C$) ambient temperature during the overall period (p<0.05). Results from this experiment indicate that a milk replacer feeding system utilized in the early postweaning period can maximize pig growth performance, and that ADG, ADFI and G/F were affected by different ambient temperatures within MR-fed pigs. The high or low temperatures could not support the maximal growth of pigs fed MR.

Effects of varying nursery phase-feeding programs on growth performance of pigs during the nursery and subsequent grow-finish phases

  • Lee, Chai Hyun;Jung, Dae-Yun;Park, Man Jong;Lee, C. Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.7
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    • pp.24.1-24.6
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated the effects of varying durations of nursery diets differing in percentages of milk products on growth performance of pigs during the nursery phase (NP) and subsequent grow-finish phase (GFP) to find the feasibility of reducing the use of nursery diets containing costly milk products. A total of 204 21-d-old weanling female and castrated male pigs were subjected to one of three nursery phase feeding programs differing in durations on the NP 1 and 2 and GFP diets containing 20%, 7%, and 0% lacrosse and 35%, 8%, and 0% dried whey, respectively, in 6 pens (experimental units) for 33 d: HIGH (NP 1, 2 and 3 diets for 7, 14, and 12 d), MEDIUM (NP 2 and 3 for 14 and 19 d), and LOW (NP 2 and 3 and GFP 1 for 7, 14, and 12 d). Subsequently, 84 randomly selected pigs [14 pigs (replicates)/pen] were fed the GFP 1, 2 and 3 diets during d 54-96, 96-135, and 135-182 of age, respectively. The final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) of nursery pigs did not differ among the HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW groups (14.8, 13.3, and 13.7 kg in BW and 273, 225, and 237 g in ADG, respectively). The average daily feed intake during the nursery phase was greater (p < 0.01) in the HIGH group than in the MEDIUM and LOW groups, whereas the gain:feed ratio did not differ across the treatments. The BW on d 182 and ADG during d 54-182 were greater in the HIGH and MEDIUM groups vs. the LOW group (110.0, 107.6, and 99.6 kg in BW, respectively; p < 0.01). The backfat thickness and carcass grade at slaughter on d 183 did not differ across the treatments. In conclusion, the MEDIUM program may be inferior to the commonly used HIGH program in supporting nursery pig growth. Nevertheless, the former appears to be more efficient than the latter in production cost per market pig whereas the LOW program is thought to be inefficient because of its negative effect on post-nursery pig growth.

The Pros and Cons of SEW System - Review -

  • Maxwell, C.V.;Sohn, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 1999
  • Early-weaning at an age of less than 21 days and removal of pigs to a second isolated site, which is commonly referred to as segregated early weaning (SEW), has been shown to substantially reduce disease transfer from the dam. This strategy has been successful in reducing the number of pathogens, but has not been successful in eliminating all pathogens. Although SEW has failed in most instances to totally eliminate pathogens, performance as measured by gain and efficiency through the nursery phase has been shown to be enhanced. In addition, SEW pigs have been shown to perform well on less complex nursery diets. Pigs which are continued on a similar isolation regime to market weight have been shown to have a remarkable improvement in feed intake, gain and efficiency. However, pigs which are co-mingled with conventional pigs after the nursery phase have either no improvement in performance or reduced performance. Backfat and carcass lean yield have been shown to be enhanced by SEW in high lean gain pigs, but not in lower lean gain pigs. Exposure of pigs to antigens which activate the immune system and increase the level of immunological stress has been suggested as the mechanism involved in depressing growth and performance of pigs.

Use of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid in Swine Diet: Effect on Growth Performance, Behavioral Characteristics and Hematological/Immune Status in Nursery Pigs

  • Mateo, R.D.;Morrow, J.L.;Dailey, J.W.;Ji, F.;Kim, Sung Woo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2006
  • Certain amino acids are essential precursors of a variety of important biomolecules in addition to their major function as protein building blocks. ${\delta}$-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized from the condensed form of succinyl-CoA with glycine after decarboxylation catalyzed by ALA synthase. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of ALA supplementation on growth performance, behavioral characteristics and hematological/immune status in nursery pigs. A total of 144 pigs weaned at 21 d of age were allotted to three dietary treatments representing (-) control (w/o antibiotics; NC), (+) control (w/carbadox at 50 mg/kg; PC), and the treatment group with ALA supplementation (0.05%; TA). Each treatment had 6 pens (replicates) with 8 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed phase 1 (21.9% CP, 1.40% Lys) and 2 (20.6% CP, 1.15% Lys) experimental diets for 3 and 2 wks, respectively. Feed intake and weight gain were measured weekly during phase 1 and at the end of phase 2. At the end of phase 2, blood samples were taken and analyzed using an automated hematology analyzer. Skin color and activity of pigs (48 h) from all pens in each treatment were measured at the second week of phase 2. Growth performance was not affected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of ALA during the 5 wk nursery period. Pigs in the TA (6.46) and PC (6.68) had a higher (p<0.05) number of red blood cells ($10^6cell/{\mu}L$) than pigs in the NC (6.15). Pigs in PC (12.16) had a higher (p<0.05) hemoglobin level (g/dL) than pigs in the NC group (11.29) and the TA group (11.47). Pigs in the TA and PC had darker (p<0.05) and less (p<0.05) yellow skin color than pigs in the NC. Pigs in the PC tended (p = 0.081) to be less active than pigs in the other groups. There were no differences in behavioral characteristics between the NC and the TA. The data suggest that ALA supplementation has no adverse effects on growth performance of nursery pigs. Moreover, ALA supplementation increased red blood cell counts which may be beneficial to pigs.

Effects of Processing and Genetics on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum in Chicks and Pigs - Review -

  • Kim, I.H.;Cao, H.;Hancock, J.D.;Park, J.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2000
  • Differences in the physical structure and chemical composition of sorghums result in different nutritional values. Sorghums with high in vitro nutrient digestibility tend to have greater ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilies. Soft endosperm can improve growth and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs and broiler chicks. However, finishing pigs respond less to endosperm hardness. Chicks benefit from waxy sorghums, but responses of swine to waxy sorghum remain controversial. Reduction of particle size benefits nursery pigs more than finishing pigs, while age of chicks affects the coarseness preference. Nutritional benefits of thermal processing in sorghum remain unclear in chicks and pigs. Although experiments have demonstrated increased efficiency with processed sorghum, processing provided only an immediate solution to the problem of reduced utilization. Long-term, solutions will be genetic improvement of physical and on chemical characteristic.

Investigation of seroepidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection and establishment of on-farm eradication protocol (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 감염의 혈청역학적조사 및 농장에서의 근절방안 설정)

  • Seok, Ho-bong;Joo, Han-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1218-1223
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    • 1999
  • The purposes of this study are to examine seroprevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs of different age groups, and retrospectively determine if nursery depopulation (ND) could influence the seroprevalence of M hyopneumoniae infection in nurseries. Sera of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks old pigs from 7 farms were first selected from a serum bank to examine serologic profiles for M hyopneumoniae infections. Availability of representative sera in the serum bank was a major criterion for farm selection. The sera were tested for M hyopneumoniae antibodies by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Tween-20 extracted antigen. Serum samples were also selected from 15 of 34 swine farms that previously participated in a ND study. In order to evaluate M hyopneumoniae infection following ND, ELISA was performed with sera of 8~10 weeks old nursery pigs collected prior to and after ND for up to 12 months from the 15 farms. Serological profiles showed positive ELISA titers for 2 of 7 farms at 8 weeks, 4 of 7 farms at 12 weeks, 6 of 7 farms at 16 weeks, 6 of 6 farms at 20 weeks of age. Prior to ND, 11 of the 15 farms had positive titers in sera of 8~10 weeks old pigs. Sera of 8~10 weeks old pigs collected from 7 of the 11 farms (63.6%) were ELISA antibody negative for up to 12 months following ND. In conclusion, seroconversion to M hyopneumoniae was detected commonly between 10~16 weeks of age, indicating the occurrence of natural infection during the nursery age. The ND appeared to be an effective method to prevent M hyopneumoniae infection within the nursery pig in some farms.

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Corn Particle Size Affects Nutritional Value of Simple and Complex Diets for Nursery Pigs and Broiler Chicks

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hong, J.W.;Cabrera, M.R.;Hines, R.H.;Behnke, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.872-877
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of reducing particle size of corn from 1,000 to 500 ${\mu}m$ in simple and complex diets for nursery pigs and broiler chicks. In Exp 1., 192 nursery pigs were used in a 24 d growth assay. Treatments were: 1) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 2) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 3) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet; and 4) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet. Overall, pigs fed complex diets had 9% greater ADG (p<0.005) and 5% greater gain/feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed simple diets. Also, pigs fed the 500 ${\mu}m$ treatments had 3% better overall gain/feed than those fed the 1,000 ${\mu}m$ treatments (p<0.007). At d 9, apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater for complex diets and diets with smaller particle size (p<0.02). At d 23, there were no differences in nutrient digestibility resulting from diet complexity, but pigs fed diets with corn ground to 500 ${\mu}m$ had greater digestibility of DM (p<0.02) and GE (p<0.003) than pigs fed diets with corn ground to 1,000 ${\mu}m$. A second experiment was designed to determine if four days old broiler chicks were an acceptable model for predicting the effects of feed processing procedures on nursery pigs. Chicks fed complex diets had 3% greater gain/feed than chicks fed simple diets (p<0.001). Rate of gain and feed intake were improved by 3 and 2%, respectively, for chicks fed crumbled diets (p<0.03). However, there were several significant interactions among the main effects. For instance, crumbling did not affect gain/feed in chicks fed complex diets, but rate of gain and feed intake were increased by 7 and 6%, respectively, when simple diets were crumbled (diet complexity${\times}$diet form, p<0.001). Also, gain/feed of chicks was improved by 3% when particle size was reduced in meal diets, but not affected in chicks fed crumbles (diet form${\times}$particle size, p<0.005). Thus, our data suggested that reduction of particle size of corn was important for simple and complex diets and that a complex diet with 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn gave no better performance than a simple diet with 500 ${\mu}m$ corn.