The study was intended to investigate how dentists in private dental clinic thought on the present claim and review of dental insurance to reflect it in future establishing dental insurance policies. 1,465 dentists who were running own dental clinic in Pusan Metropolitan City and the south part of Kyungsang province were surveyed in February, 2004. A total of 406 copies of finished questionnaire were finally retrieved and analyzed. The findings are as follows. 1. About insurance claim affairs : Most of the subject of insurance claim was by dentist himself or dental hygienist(nurse). Agency claiming was carried under 20% of total insurance claim. 2. The degree of attendance on insurance lecture : The degree of attendance on insurance lecture was relatively low. 3. Filing a protest against insurance claim : Filing a protest against insurance claim was reavealed about half-and-half for "have been" or "have not been". 4. Private clinic dentist,s opinion about the regulations affecting review of dental insurance : Private clinic dentists opinion about current guide for insurance review of dental fee was“the guidance is difficult and unfair cutback of claim fee may be carried”. 5. The affairs about health insurance review agency : About 70% of private clinic dentists have dissatisfaction on health insurance review agency. 6. Standpoint of private clinic dentists about issuance of receipt for dental fee : About 70% of private clinic dentist have an difficulty in issuance of receipt for dental fee. 7. The affairs about change insurance noncoverage treatment to insurance coverage treatment : Most of private clinic dentists hoped that insurance coverage about full mouth scaling, pit and fissure sealant, fluoride application. But they do not hoped that insurance coverage about geriatric denture, prothodontic treatment except precious metal, photopolymerization resin treatment.
Purpose: This study was conducted to provide basic data for developing an effective strategy for cancer pain management by comparing the levels of barriers to pain management of metastatic or advanced cancer patient and their nurses. Methods: The subject of this study were 155 patients who were treated for metastatic or advanced cancer at one of three hospitals in Seoul from January 2004 to January 2005, and 153 nurses who take care of those patients. The levels of barriers to pain management were measured using a tool developed by Gunnarsdottir et al. (2002), 27 questions on a six point scale. The levels of stresses were measured using a tool modified from a stress response measurement reported by Goh Gyung-bong et al. (2000), 27 questions on a five point scale. The levels of barriers in cancer patients were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA, while the data obtained from patients and nurses were compared by t-test. Results: Higher levels of barriers to pain management were found in three groups: 'less than middle school,' 'not treated with anti-cancer chemotherapy,' and 'ECOG of 2.' The level (2.55) of barriers to pain management in the patient group was higher than that (1.76) of the nurse group. Both of the two groups had high levels of barriers in two variables: 'There is a danger of becoming addicted to pain medicine.' and 'Using pain medicine blocks your ability to know if you have any new pain.' There was not a significant difference in the levels of stresses between the two groups. Conclusion: It was found that, for effective cancer pain management practices, it would be necessary to provide cancer patients and their nurses with education and training about pain management and related barriers.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the knowledge and needs of hospice for inpatients' family. Methods: This study was carried out with 277 inpatients' families at J General Hospital located in J city, Korea during the period from March to May, 2004. The data were collected through a self-reporting questionnaire constructed by the authors. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and $x^2-test$ with SPSSWIN 10.0. Results: 83.8% of the respondents heard about hospice mostly through mass communication. 76.9% of the respondents recognized hospice to be helpful and to provide comfort during the remainder of life and to confront the moment of death. Most of the respondents responded positively to the necessity of hospice service, and would receive hospice if necessary. 76.5% of them would consider arranging preparation for death if he/she were to be diagnosed with a terminal illness. 63.9% of the respondents wanted only to be with their family members, 31.4% wanted both the family and hospice members at the moment of death. They named the best helper among the hospice members to be the nurse. 81.6% of the respondents wanted a hospice institution to be established, 23.8% of them report that the most adequate hospice management institution would be the hospice ward in hospital. Conclusion: Consequently, most respondents wanted hospice services. So Korean society is in need of developing adequate teaching and care programs for hospice according to local needs.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
This study analyzed the distribution, structure and environmental condition of the vegetation of the Chionanthus retusus Lindly et Paxton community at the Wansanchielbong in the Jeonju city to offer basic data for sustainable conservation and ecological management system. And the results are as follows; 1. The average pH of soil at the community was pH 5.69 and it was slightly higher than the average of forest soil pH of Korea. But if the degree of pH will be down, it will be needed some more fertilization of Calcium. 2. The total average for contents of organism was 4.98%. And the nitrate - nitrogen content(mg/kg) of A, B, C, D quadrat was 20.29%, 28.87%, 7.65%, and 23.3% respectively. And there were good condition except quadrat C which was contaminated by amount of earth and sand. 3. The flora of the Chionanthus retusus Lindly et Paxton community was listed as 60 taxa; 37 families, 50 genera, 47 species, 10 varieties and 3 forms. The average appearance species of each Quadrat were A sector 30, B sector 26, C sector 19 and D 19 taxa respectively. 4. Surveyed woody plants in the community were as follows : Chionanthus retusus, Zelkova serrata, Quercus variabilis, Cornus walteri, Robinia pseudo-acacia and those were mixed status. And Chionanthus retusus, Zelkova serrata, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Albizzia julibrisin, Cudrania tricuspidata, Symplocos chinensis for. pilosa were mixed in mid layer trees. Herbaceous plants were founded such as Chionanthus retusus, Zelkova serrata, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Grewia parviflora, Rosa multiflora, Trachelospermum asiaticum was dominant with 35~64% in the ground cover, and Commelina communis, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Dryopteris bissetiana, Lilium lancifolium were founded also. 5. The importance values of Chionanthus retusus was 40.2% in the quadrat A1, 50.2% at quadrat A, 50.0% B1, 45.2% B2, 22.4% C1, 73.6% C2, 33.2% D1 and the total average of I.V. was 44.9%. 6. The average height of surveyed Chionanthus retusus was 5.7m and the average DBH was 12.4cm. The number of trees higher than 2m were 107 and the number of trees lower than 2m were 63. The total numbers of Chionanthus retusus were 170. 7. The age of surveyed Chionanthus retusus were analyzed 42 thru 87 years old and that of Zelkova serrata were 42, Quercus variabilis were 60, Quercus aliena were 48, Robinia pseudo-acacia were 40. 8. The number of trees with DBH 40 through 50cm were 6, and that of 30~39cm were 3, and that of 20~29cm were 16, so the total number that was over 20cm was 25. And there were 70 trees under 10cm of DBH and 63 seedlings. It will be very important data to conserve the habitat that the structure and environmental condition of the Chionanthus retusus Lindly et Paxton community at the Wansanchielbong was stable, and sustainable monitoring will be needed. Now that community is nurse forest of Jeonju City but more positive preservation plan will be needed and assigning monument of city or province also be necessary.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study was carried out to grasp the job stress and intention to change their jobs of nurses at general hospitals by their socio-demographic, job-related and health-related behavior characteristics and especially to investigate their relationship to the job stress and intention to change their jobs. The subjects were 355 nurses working at three university hospitals located in Daejeon City, and data were collected by a survey using self-administered questionnaires structured from April 1 to May 31, 2012. As a results, the average point of the nurses' intention to change jobs by the causes for job stress was significantly higher in the boss group with low support than in that with high support while it was higher in colleague group with low support than in that with high support. To look into the correlation between the points of intention to change their jobs and the causes for job stress, their intention to change their jobs showed a significant negative correlation to the boss's support and colleagues' support while there was no significant relationship with job demands and job autonomy. As a result of hierarchical multiple regression, age, drinking coffee, department, job satisfaction, the boss's support and colleagues' support were selected as significant related variables affecting the nurses' intention to change their jobs and these variables' descriptive power was 29.4%. Viewed from the above results, it is suggested that the nurses' job stress and intention to change their jobs has a significant relationship with various variables such as socio-demographic, health-related behavior and job-related characteristics. In addition, there were a significant positive correlation between the causes for the job stress cause and intention to change their jobs, and among the causes for the job stress, support by their boss or colleagues turned out to be those affecting their intention to change their jobs. Thus, it is considered that it is necessary to minimize the nurses' job stress and at the same time to seek for specific measures for preventing their turnover.
Kim, Soo-Ryeon;Kim, Su-Hyun;Kim, Cho-Rong;Park, Jee-Won;Hwang, Soo-Jeong
Journal of dental hygiene science
Fluoride use is the best and widespread method for dental caries prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate experience and recognition of fluoride for caries prevention focusing on majors in one university. Four hundred twenty-four university students were selected by convenience sampling with informed consent and answered the questionnaire by self recording type. The subjects except dental hygiene students knew about purpose of fluoride use (84.6%), over the count fluoride rinse (63.2%), fluoride toothpaste (61.5%), professional fluoride application (56.4%) and water fluoridation (43.6%). They experienced over the count fluoride rinse (67.5%), school fluoride rinse (45.3%), professional fluoride application (30.8%), fluoride toothpaste (28.2%) and water fluoridation (12.0%). The main information paths about fluoride were university lectures among dental hygiene students and internet and mass media, followed by nurse-teachers among non dental hygiene students. The ratios of intention to use fluoride were: 67.8% in dental hygiene, 34.9% in health, 51.4% in non-health in case of professional fluoride application for oneself, 93.1% in dental hygiene, 48.0% in health, 50.4% in non-health in case of professional fluoride application for their children, 79.0% in dental hygiene, 51.3% in health, 55.8% in non-health in case of water fluoridation. The subjects to experience and recognize fluoride for caries prevention had more positive intention to use fluoride. The answers of students majoring in health or medical care were not different from non-health, except dental hygiene. Dental professionals should try to let the public know about fluoride use for caries prevention through mass media and internet as well as individual education in dental clinics.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This research aims to provide basic materials for assisting DNR patient cares by understanding ICU nurses' awareness and ethical attitude regarding DNR. A total of 154 results were analyzed which were collected from Aug. 1st to Sep. 5th in 2014 by surveying nurses working in ICU (from 1 advanced general hospital in G metropolitan city and other general hospitals of more than 700 beds in Cheolla provinces). (1) For the decision attitudes of DNR, there were both consent and objection. Consent for the patient's opinion of rejecting further treatment and life extension despite of bad prognosis. And objection for no conducting DNR in the case of the patient's wish, treatment requested by the guardian, and CPR for the patient who has no chance. (2) Objection for artificial respirator and other treatment requested by the patient's family and the entrance of guardians into ICU. Consent for the passive use of artificial respirator by the doctor and the decrease of basic care to stabilize patients physically and mentally. No specific opinion for treatment not following aseptic techniques. Objection for frequent reports to primary care physician requested by the family. (3) Acknowledging less interest by the doctor, while supporting the health care team in the case of the guardian's complaint, objection for the DNR decision mede by the primary care physician. Objection for the DNR decision by the guideline. Objection or neutrality for straightforward explanation to the patient of bad prognosis. Objection for straightforward explanation of the patient's status (even near to death) to the patient him/herself or the guardian. In conclusion, the subject of DNR is the patient and the patient's opinion should be fully reflected. The conflict arising from the scope of medical practice and decision processes should be minimized. The standard and guideline for DNR decision is required for the ethical decision making for the patient along with agreements based on full explanations.
This research was conducted in order to examine the effect of tooth brushing room M elementary school in Changwon-city and to provide foundation data for effective project operation afterwards. The subjects were 347 students at the M elementary school where the tooth brushing room was being taught. The control group is 289 students at J elementary school where the tooth brushing room was not being taught. Research and analysis were carried out with structured survey and examination of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index, decayed, missing, filled tooth surface (DMFS) index and O'leary index. The data was analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 19.0 program and the result is as follows: Depends on the tooth brushing room there was difference in statistical significance in filling teeth, sealant tooth surface, filling tooth surface, missing tooth surface, DMFS, O'leary index between the subject and control group. The less the frequency of brushing, the higher the DMFT index. Negative correlation was statistically significant. With incorrect brushing method, the less the frequency, the higher the DMFS index, Negative correlation was statistically significant. When the tooth brushing room was being implemented, O'leary index became low, negative correlation was statistically significant. As a result, in order to continue the effective operation of tooth brushing room, constant supervision and monitoring on students should be acutely needed by a principal, a school nurse and teachers in charge. Also together with a systemized cooperation between a health center and a nearby university's related majors departments, the research proposes to execute constant oral health education and to expand the implementation project of the tooth brushing room at nearby elementary schools.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
The present study was intended to measure the level of psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom according to the various characteristics such as sociodemographic, health-related, job-related, job stress factors, and psychosocial factors among nurses working at ward and operating room in university hospitals, and to reveal the relation between these factors and psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom. The self-administered questionnaires were given to 220 nurses working at ward, and 147 nurses working at operating room in 4 participating hospitals located in Daejeon City during the period from July 1st to Aug 31st, 2012. As a results, the factors related to the psychosocial stress of nurses working at ward were age, subjective health status, job career, satisfaction of work, fit to the job, job demand, job control, coworker support, self-esteem, locus of control, type A behavior pattern. In operating room, there were age, sleep hours, subjective health status, job career, physical burden of work, satisfaction of work, fit to the job, consider quitting the job, job demand, job control, type A behavior pattern. The factors related to the fatigue symptoms of nurses working at ward were age, leisure time, subjective health status, satisfaction of work, consider quitting the job, job demand, locus of control, type A behavior pattern. In operating room, there were age, subjective health status, physical burden of work, supervisor support, coworker support, locus of control. Based on the study results, we suggest that the factors related to psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom of nurses were different from working station. We need development and application of programs to keep under management psychosocial stress and fatigue symptom.
Kang, Hyun Mi;Park, Ki Cheol;Lee, Kyung-Yil;Park, Joonhong;Park, Sun Hee;Lee, Dong-Gun;Kim, Jong-Hyun
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak at a newborn nursery and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: During the outbreak, from August to September 2017, MRSA isolates collected from neonates and medical staff underwent genotyping and screened for virulence factors. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested. Results: During the study period, 41 neonates were admitted at the nursery (n=27) and NICU (n=14). Of these, 7 had MRSA infections (skin infection [n=6] and sepsis [n=1]) and 4 were colonized with MRSA. Associated medical staff (n=32) were screened; three were nasal MRSA carriers. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type II, sequence type (ST) 89, spa type t375 was found to be the skin infection outbreak causing strain, with multi-drug resistance including low-level mupirocin resistance. SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, and a novel spa type designated t17879, was the cause of MRSA sepsis. Many different types of MRSA were colonized on the neonates; however, SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, spa type t664 was colonized in both neonates and a NICU nurse. All MRSA isolates from colonized infants were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene. Conclusions: The strain causing an outbreak of skin infections had multi-drug resistance. Also, MRSA colonized in the neonates were found to carry the PVL toxin gene. Because different strains are present during an outbreak, molecular epidemiologic studies are important to identify the outbreak strain and colonized strains which aid in effective control and prevention of future MRSA outbreaks.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.