Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
As the importance of health and school health grows, the purposes of this research are to investigate the differences between the characteristics and the utilization of the nurse's office of an elementary school in an urban area and the nurse's office of an elementary school in a rural area, and to provide the data for the planning of construction of a nurse's office convenient for students to use after grasping the regional characteristics. The methods of this research include the interview and the survey conducted to the heath teachers after visiting 20 nurse's offices in 13 eups and myeons, and examined and analyzed the differences between the characteristics and the utilization of the nurse's office of elementary schools in an urban area and the nurse's office of an elementary school. The nurse's offices of the elementary schools in Cheongwon, a rural area, are worse in access to health care institutions and in the connection to the placement than those of the elementary schools in urban areas, so most of eups and myeons were not allowed for easy access to medical service. Depending on the bad personal surroundings of each elementary student, mental stress and the lack of heal care of each student should be taken care of along with the educating of the parents and the children. Also because of the difficulties in access to the health care institutions, it is suggested that a lot of support and interest should be provided for the nurse's offices and that a lot of changes with functions should occur to the nurse's offices so that the nurse's office of an elementary school can play the role as a local health care institution. Besides, the health teachers also should be able to provide more professional medical services by taking in-service training courses.
The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
The purpose of this study is to analyze the difference between female nurse and male nurse in female nurse by applying the phenomenological method of Colaizzi which is one of the qualitative research methodology and to analyze the difference between female nurse and male nurse. What is the difference between a male nurse and a female nurse perceived by a female nurse? This study investigated the differences between female nurses and male nurses with research problems. The participants in this study were 13 female nurses who agreed to participate in the study after explaining and understanding the purpose of the study. The recruitment of the subjects was applied by the snowball method. As a result of this study, five categories were found. The categories were different in clinical tasks, the burden of family economic life, differences in interpersonal relationships, differences in nursing organization, and differences in unknown areas. The results of this study can be used as teaching materials and research data to expand the understanding of difference between male nurse and female nurse.
Kim, Yun-Mi;Cho, Sung-Hyun;Jun, Kyung-Ja;Go, Su-Kyung
Health Policy and Management
Nurse staffing level is an important factor that influences the quality of health service and patient outcomes. This study was carried out to examine the current state of acute hospital nurse staffing and find out factors that affect the nurse staffing level. Nurse staffing of individual hospitals was measured using the number of registered nurses per 100 beds. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted using 592 acute care hospitals' data. Regression model included structure factors such as referral level, ownership, medical and general staffing, and financial outcome factors such as occupancy rate, inpatient and outpatient revenues. Market characteristics included strength of competition, supply of nurses, and income and health status level of consumers. The average number of nurses per 100 beds was 28 and showed a great variation according to the referral level. Regression model explained this variation as much as 76.87%. Hospital structure variables which affecting the hospital nurse staffing level positively were ICU bed ratio, the staffing level of specialist, training doctor and employees except doctor and nursing personnel, while the negative factor was nurse aid staffing level. General hospitals employed more nurses than hospitals. Among outcome characteristics, occupancy rate and the amount of health insurance inpatient revenue affected positively on the hospital nurse staffing level. The more supply of the new nurse and the higher consumer income and health status in the medical service markets, the more nurses were employed by the medical institutes. According to the study result, hospitals employed more nurses when they had more financial incentive by increasing nurses. This means appropriate hospital incentive policy and regulation policy, which hospital violate nurse staffing level have to pay penality, should be needed. Clarifying job description between nurses and nurse aids and the reentry program for unemployed experienced nurses will be helpful to increase nurse staffing level.
Park, Suin;Park, Sohee;Lee, Young Joo;Park, Choon-Seon;Jung, Young-Chul;Kim, Sunah
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Purpose: The present study investigated the association between nurse staffing and health outcomes among psychiatric inpatients in Korea by assessing National Health Insurance claims data. Methods: The dataset included 70,136 patients aged 19 years who were inpatients in psychiatric wards for at least two days in 2016 and treated for mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol; schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders; and mood disorders across 453 hospitals. Nurse staffing levels were measured in three ways: registered nurse-to-inpatient ratio, registered nurse-to-adjusted inpatient ratio, and nursing staff-to-adjusted inpatient ratio. Patient outcomes included length of stay, readmission within 30 days, psychiatric emergency treatment, use of injected psycholeptics for chemical restraint, and hypnotics use. Relationships between nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes were analyzed considering both patient and system characteristics using multilevel modeling. Results: Multilevel analyses revealed that more inpatients per registered nurse, adjusted inpatients per registered nurse, and adjusted inpatients per nursing staff were associated with longer lengths of stay as well as a higher risk of readmission. More adjusted inpatients per registered nurse and adjusted inpatients per nursing staff were also associated with increased hypnotics use but a lower risk of psychiatric emergency treatment. Nurse staffing levels were not significantly associated with the use of injected psycholeptics for chemical restraint. Conclusion: Lower nurse staffing levels are associated with negative health outcomes of psychiatric inpatients. Policies for improving nurse staffing toward an optimal level should be enacted to facilitate better outcomes for psychiatric inpatients in Korea.
Nursing involves deep human interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients. But in modem Korea, the nurse - patient relationship tends to be ritualistic and mechanestic. Patients usually express the hope that nurses be more tender and kind. Patients expect nurses to express their warmth especially through nonverbal behaviour. This study was conducted to identify patients' preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth. Through the confirmation of these preferences, nurses may learn how to enhance their interpersonal relationships with patients. Subjects for the study were 73 patients who had been admitted to a university teaching hospital for at least three days and agreed to be interviewed by the investigator. The interactions were studied nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. The interview schedule was expecially designed by the investigator to measure the nurse's posture, the distance between the nurse and the patient, the nurse's eye contact, facial expression, hand motion and head nodding. Data analysis included frequencies, percentages and X²-test. The results of this study may be summerized as follows : 1. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds. Preferred nurse's posture was sitting(50.7%) or standing(49.3%) opposite the patient. Preferred distance between the nurse and the patient was close to the bed(93.2%), less than 1m. Preferred eye contact was directed to the patient's eyes or their affected part (41.1%). Preferred facial expression was a smile(97.3%). Preferred hand motions were light gestures(41.1%). Patients preferred head nodding which approved their own opinions(69.9%). 2. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverval expressions of warmth during administration of oral medication. Preferred nurse's posture was standing and waiting to confirm that the medication had been taken(58.9%). Preferred distance from the patient was at arm's length, 0.5-1m(64.4%). Patients preferred direct eye contact(58.9%) and a smile(94.5%). Patients preferred that the nurse put the medicine directly the patient's hand(64.4%). Whether the nurse nodded her head or not was not considered important. 3. The relation of general characteristics and patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. During nursing rounds, the age of subjects(p＝0.010) and the standard of education(p＝0.026) related to the distance between the nurse and the patient. The sick hospital ward related to the eye contact(p＝0.017) and facial expression(p＝0.010). During administration of oral medication, the age of subjects(p＝0.044) and days of hospital treatment (p＝0.043) and the sick hospital ward(p＝0.0004) related to the facial expression. From this study, nurses can learn what kind nonverbal expressions of warmth are preferred by patients during rounds and administration and thus will enhance nurse- patient interpersonal relationships.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
It is important for nurses to try to improve their interpersonal relationship and communication skill. The purpose of this study was to examine the nurse's inerpersonal conflict and expression with physicians, other nurses and patients & their caregivers. A convenient sample of 62 RN-BSN students were recruited. The data collection was done from August, 2001 to September, 2001. Nurses experienced the most conflicts with high-positioned nurses, then doctors, patients and their families, administrators, nurse-aid, nurse colleagues and lower-positioned nurses. There was a significant correlation between nurse's interpersonal conflict with doctors and nurse's age & career, between with high-positioned nurses and region of hospitals & nurse's position. The expression that nurses least-like from physicians was 'Do it as order'. From other nurses was 'manner of speech such like order'. And from patients and their family was 'naming such like young lady or sisters'. The other side, the expression that nurses most like expression from physicians and ohter nurses was 'You are excellent'. From patients and their family was 'You are kindness'. In conclusion, it is necessary to improve nurse's communication skills and interpersonal relationships.
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
The factors that affect the nurse-patient interaction were identified. Sixty-six nurses participated in the cross-sectional survey. Based upon the literature, the factors were classified into 4 categories : the patient, the nurse, the family caregiver, and the situational factors. The data were collected with the open-and closed-ended questionnaire developed by researchers. In the closed-ended questionnaire, the significant factors differentiating the best-liked from the least-liked caring situation were found in all factors except the nurse factors. None of the nurse factors was found to be significant. In patient factors, the physically attractive stereotype was found to affect patient-nurse interaction. As expected, family caregiver factors were found to affect the nurse-patient interaction. The content analysis was done to identify the specific factors affecting nurse-patient interaction. In both of the best-liked and the least-liked caring situations, the patient factors were the most contributing causes as likely as 68.51% and 66.45%, respectively. Some factors that nurses perceived as causes for the best-liked and the least-liked to care were presented. In conclusion, these results show that nurses are influenced by stereotypes in caring patients. So, some programs to increase awareness of the biases of nurses are included in in-service education. Also the incentives to encourage nurses are needed.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
Purpose: Nursing in Korea was started by foreign nurse missionaries. This study was intended to recognize the foreign nurse missionaries contribution with the development of Yonsei nursing education in Korea. Method: This study used an historical study approach. The study target was foreign nurse missionary contributions during 1895~1917. The data was collected from the existing historical nursing studies and Korean Mission Field. Result: Since A.P. Jacobson, the first nurse missionary from the North Mission branch in America in 1895, there were 16 missionaries sent to Korea. Among them, 14 missionaries worked for Severance Hospital Nurse Training School. 7 missionaries served less than 10 years and 5 missionaries stayed in Korea more than 20 years. E.L. Shields served the longest time with 42 years in Korea. They contributed not only in nursing education and services in the hospital, but also public health in the community. Conclusion: Foreign nurse missionaries were a cornerstone for nursing development in Korea. They contributed by not only starting nursing education, but also giving women freedom into Korean society. The historical research regarding foreign nurse missionaries during early 1900s helped to recognize their effort for Korean nursing and society.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the perceived relationship among professional self-concept, head nurse's leadership, and nursing clinical competency by clinical nurses. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 601 nurses working at the five general hospitals in four provincial cities, Gyeungbuk, Korea. Data were collected from July 14, 2010 to August 31 and analyzed by SPSS/PC ver 18.0 programs. Results: Professional self-concept and head nurse's leadership were slightly above the middle average, but nursing clinical competency was good. According to participants' age, marital status, job satisfaction, and length of service, there were perceptional differences in professional self-concept, head nurse's leadership, and nursing clinical competency. Nursing clinical competency could be explained by head nurse's leadership, professional self-concept, job satisfaction and length of service. Head nurse's leadership was independent variable affecting nursing clinical competency, professional self-concept was partial mediating variable, and job satisfaction and length of service were extraneous variables. Conclusion: It is concluded that head nurse's leadership is more important than professional self-concept to improve nursing clinical competency. Nursing managers should plan various strategies to improve head nurse's leadership and professional self-concept, to increase clinical nurses' job satisfaction and length of service.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
The purpose of this study was to identify whether ethical values of nursing students are deontological or utilitarinian. The subjects of this study were consisted of 163 nursing students. The data was collected from September 3 to 30, 1997. Sub-scale of Nursing Ethical Values(Lee, 1990) were used to measure human life area, nurse-patient relationship area, nurse-nursing task relationship area, nurse-colleague relationship area. Data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows program. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. The students took the position of utilitarian slightly in human life area. 2. The students took deontological position slightly in nurse-patient relationships area. 3. The students took deontological position slightly in nurse-nursing task relationships area. 4. The students took deontological position greatly in nurse-colleague relationships area. 5. There were significant relationship between nurse-colleague relationship area and both human life area and nurse-patient relationship area(p< .01). 6. The ethical values of human life area related to religion(p< .01) and attitude of nursing(p< .05). The ethical values of nurse-colleague relationships area related to attitude of nursing(p< .01).
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.