• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$

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A Study on Ion Distribution and Behavior of Acidrain in Mokpo and Yeochon Area (목포, 여천지역 강수의 무기이온 성분농도와 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 오길영;양수인;이완진
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the constituents of inorganic ions of precipitation in Mokpo and Yeochon area from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 1997. The volume-weighted mean pH of precipitation was 5.7(4.8~7.8) at Mokpo, and 5.6(5.1~7.4) at Yeochon area, respectively. The non-seasalt(nss) anion concentrations were found in order of $nss-SO^{2-}_4>NO^-_3>nss-Cl^-$ at two areas. The portion of $nss-SO^{2-}_4;and;NO^-_3$ was 71~84% out of anions. The the non-seasalt cation concentrations were found in order of $NH^+_4>nss-Ca^{2-}>nss-Mg^{2+}>nss-K^-$ at two areas. The portion of $NH^+_4;and; nss-Ca^{2+}$ was 85~92% out cations. Compared regionally the year concentraton of $nss-SO^{2-}_4$, the result of Yeochon was 3 times higher than that of Mokpo in 1996, while the results of two regions were almost similar in 1997. The reason was that Yeochon was restricted area of the use of 0.5% sulfur B-C oil, controlled air pollution emission area, controlled semitotal amounts of air pollution emission area and partial operating of factories in 1997. There were no ions having high correlation with $H^+,;but;nss-SO^{2-}_4,;NO^-_3,;NH^+_4;and;nss-Ca^{2+}$ showed high correlation coefficient each other. It seems that these ions have little correlation with $H^+$ because they are washed out on binding state. Factor analysis showed that the first factor was complicated factor containing anthropogenic and soil resource, the second factor was sea-salt resource and the third factor was independent behavior of hydrogen at Mokpo. While, the first factor was complicated factor containing anthropogenic and sea-salt resource, the second factor was $Ca(NO_3)_2$ salt and the third factor was $NH^+_4;and;SO^{2-}_4$ synergied by resource and combination at Yeochon.

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Snow Influence on the Chemical Characteristics of Winter Precipitation (강설이 겨울철 강수의 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Gong-Unn;Kim, Nam-Song;Oh, Gyung-Jae;Shin, Dae-Yewn;Yu, Du-Cheol;Kim, Sang-Baek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2007
  • To know the differences in ionic compositions in rain and snow as well as snow influence on the chemical characteristics of winter precipitation, precipitation samples were collected by the wet-only automatic precipitation sample, in winter(November-February) in the Iksan located in the northwest of Chonbuk from 1995 to 2000. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of water-soluble ion species, in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The mean pH of winter precipitation was 4.72. According to the type of winter precipitation, the mean pH of rain was 4.67 and lower than 5.05 in snow. The frequencies of pH below 5.0 in rain were about 73%, while those in snow were about 30%. Snow contained 3 times higher concentrations of sea salt ion components originated from seawater than did rain in winter, mainly $Cl^-,\;Na^+$, and $Mg^{2+}$. Neglecting sea salt ion components, $nss-SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$ were important anions and $NH_4^+$ and $nss-Ca^{2+}$ were important cations in both of rain and snow. Concentrations of $nss-SO_4^{2-}$ was 1.3 times higher in rain than in snow, while those of $nss-Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3^-$ were 1.5 and 1.3 times higher in snow, respectively. The mean equivalent concentration ratio of $nss-SO_4^{2-}/NO_3^-$ in winter precipitation were 2.4, which implied that the relative contribution of sulfuric and nitric acids to the precipitation acidity was 71% and 29%, respectively. The ratio in rain was 2.7 and higher than 1.5 in snow. These results suggest that the difference of $NO_3^-$ in rain and snow could be due to the more effective scavenging of $HNO_3$ vapor than particulate sulfate or nitrate by snow. The lower ratio in snow than rain is consistent with the measurement results of foreign other investigators and with scavenging theory of atmospheric aerosols. Although substantial $nss-SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$ were observed in both of rain and snow, the corresponding presence of $NH_4^+,\;nss-Ca^{2+},\;nss-K^+$ suggested the significant neutralization of rain and snow. Differences in chemical composition of non-sea salt ions and neutralizing rapacity of $NH_4^+,\;nss-Ca^{2+}$, and $nss-K^+$ between rain and snow could explain the acidity difference of rain and snow. Snow affected that winter precipitation could be less acidic due to its higher neutralizing rapacity.

Concentration and Pollution Characteristics of Secondary Aerosol Components Over the Yellow Sea by Ship-Borne Observation in Spring, 2015 (2015년 봄철에 선박으로 관측한 서해상 이차에어로졸 성분의 농도 및 오염 특성)

  • Ko, Hee-Jung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Cha, Joo Wan;Ryoo, Sang-Boom
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2017
  • The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ particles over the Yellow Sea of Korea were collected by ship-borne observation during two cruises in spring, 2015. Their water-soluble ionic components such as $NH_4^+$, $Na^+$, $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$, $Cl^-$, $F^-$, $CH_3COO^-$, $HCOO^-$, and $CH_3SO_3^-$ were analyzed, in order to examine the pollution characteristics of the secondary aerosol components. The comparative study of particle size distribution has resulted that $NH_4^+$, $nss-SO_4^{2-}$, $nss-Mg2+$, $nss-K^+$, $HCOO^-$, and $CH_3SO_3^-$ species mostly existed in fine particle mode. Meanwhile, nss-F-and sea-salt species were distributed in both fine and coarse particle mode, $NO_3^-$, $nss-Ca^{2+}$, $CH_3COO^-$ species were rich in coarse particle mode. The concentrations of secondary pollutants($nss-SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$, $NH_4^+$) increased in fine particles, and those of natural components ($nss-Ca^{2+}$, Sea-salt) increased in coarse particles. $NH_4^+$ exists as the form of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$, and mostly as $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ in fine particles. $NH_4NO_3$ has lower content compared to $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, and it mostly existed in fine particles at Yellow Sea I and in coarse particles at Yellow Sea II. The concentration ratios of $NO_3^-/nss-SO_4^{2-}$ for Yellow Sea I and Yellow Sea II were 0.52 and 0.16 in coarse particles, and they were 0.64 and 0.38 in fine particles, respectively, showing that the stationary source emissions were more important than mobile source emissions in Yellow Sea II (except Passage II-4).

Role of Transport on Aerosol Concentration at Crater Lake, Oregon USA (미국 오레곤주 Crater Lake의 에어로졸 농도에 미치는 수송의 역할)

  • 전병일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.669-677
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of role of transport on aerosol concentration at Crate Lake, Oregon USA for 1988.3~1999. 5. The IMPROVE program is a cooperative measurement effort governed by a steering committee composed of representatives from USA federal and regional-state organizations. Also IMPROVE sampler is designed to obtain a complete signature of the composition of the airborne particles affecting visibility. According to 10-day backward isentropic trajectory analysis, the frequency of local, marine and Asian trajectory showed 33.1%(335 cases), 47%(478 cases), 5.2%(53 cases) respectively. The monthly variation of nss $SO_4^{2-}$, nss S, $NO_3^-$, K and C showed the double peak pattern, high in April~May and August~september and showed the lowest concentration in Winter. The other constituents concentration except for Cl$^{[-10]}$ , Na, Mg was high in local trajectory than marine trajectory. A ratio nss $SO_4^{2-}$ to $SO_4^{2-}$ was 90.5% in marine trajectory and 98% in local trajectory. It suggest that the aerosol in Crater Lake was effected by salt. The annual mean concentration of nss $SO_4^{2-}$ and nss S decreased but the springtime concentration increased.

Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 fine particles collected at 1100 site of Mt. Halla during spring seasons between 1998 and 2004 (1998-2004년 봄철에 한라산 1100 고지에서 채취한 PM2.5 미세먼지의 화학 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Hyung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Hong, Sang-Bum;Ko, Hee-Jung;Lee, Won
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.383-392
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    • 2007
  • The water soluble components were analyzed in the $PM_{2.5}$ fine particles collected at the 1100 site of Mt. Halla for the spring seasons between 1998 and 2004. The $PM_{2.5}$ mass concentrations were within $13.4{\pm}9.6{\sim}21.7{\pm}20.0{\mu}g/m^3$, and the concentrations of ionic components were in the order of nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ > $NH{_4}{^+}$ > $NO{_3}{^-}$ > $Ca^{2+}$ > $K^+$ > $Na^+$ > $Cl^-$ > $Mg^{2+}$, in which the concentration of nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$($3.41{\pm}2.42{\mu}g/m^3$) was the highest. The concentrations of $NH{_4}{^+}$, $SO{_4}^{2-}$, and $NO{_3}{^-}$, the secondary pollutants, were respectively 0.60~1.50, 2.86~4.42, and $0.24{\sim}1.57{\mu}g/m^3$, which had occupied 88 % of the total ionic components, on the other hand, the concentrations of marine species were less than 5 %. The nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ showed the high correlation with $NH{_4}{^+}$, $K^+$, so that $NH{_4}{^+}$ and nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ might exist in the form of $(NH_4)_3H(SO_4)_2$ and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ in fine particles. From the backward trajectory analysis, in case of high concentrations of $NH{_4}{^+}$ and nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ simultaneously, the air masses were originated and stagnated at the east region of China for a while, then moved into the atmosphere of Jeju. However, in case of $NO{_3}{^-}$ and nss-$Ca^{2+}$, the air masses originated at China and Siberia were moved into Jeju via the eastern China.

Composition and pollution characteristics of TSP, PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols at Gosan site, Jeju Island (제주도 고산지역 TSP, PM2.5 대기에어로졸의 조성 및 오염 특성)

  • Lee, Soon-Bong;Kang, Chang-Hee;Jung, Duk-Sang;Ko, Hee-Jung;Kim, Haeng-Bum;Oh, Yong-Soo;Kang, Hae-Lim
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.371-382
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    • 2010
  • TSP and PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols have been collected at Gosan site of Jeju Island, and their compositions were analyzed to understand the pollution characteristics. The composition ratios of nss (non-sea salt)-$SO_4^{2-}$ and $NH_4^+$ were higher in Gosan site than those in other Korean background and urban sites. However the composition ratio of $NO_3^-$ was conversely lower in Gosan site. From the study of aerosol components according to particle sizes, the anthropogenic nss-$SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$ and $NH_4^+$ components were mostly existed in the fine particles. But the nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $Na^+$, $Cl^-$ and $Mg^{2+}$ originated from soil and marine sources were distributed relatively in the coarse particles. In the seasonal comparison, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Fe, Ca and $NO_3^-$ increased in spring season, and nss-$SO_4^{2-}$ showed higher concentration in summer and spring seasons. Based on the factor analysis, the atmospheric aerosols in Gosan site have been found to be influenced largely by anthropogenic sources, and next by marine and soil sources. The backward trajectory analyses showed that the concentrations of nss-$SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$, Pb and nss-$Ca^{2+}$ increased when the air mass moved from Chinese continent to Jeju area. On the other hand, their concentrations decreased when the air mass moved in from the North Pacific Ocean.

Long-term Variation of Ionic Constituent Concentrations in TSP at Jeju Island (제주지역 TSP 이온성분 농도의 장기 변화)

  • Ko, Hee-Jung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Kim, Won-Hyung;Lee, Soon-Bong;Kang, Hwa-Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.420-431
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    • 2010
  • The water-soluble components have been analyzed from the total suspended particulate (TSP) collected at Gosan site of Jeju Island for ten years (1997~2006), and the long-term variations of ionic constituent concentrations have been investigated in order to understand the pollution characteristics of atmospheric aerosols. Their mean concentrations were in the order of nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ > $Na^+$ > ${NO_3}^-$ > $Cl^$ > ${NH_4}^+$ > nss-$Ca^{2+}$ > $K^+$ > $Mg^{2+}$. The ${NO_3}^-$ concentrations had increased somewhat smoothly compared to those of ${SO_4}^{2-}$ for the past 10 years, possibly indicating the recent energy consumption pattern changes in China. The concentrations of ionic aerosol components showed mostly higher values during the Asian Dust storm periods, and the concentration ratios of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, ${NO_3}^-$, and nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ between the Asian Dust and Non-Asian Dust periods were 6.9, 2.4, and 1.3, respectively. The anthropogenic nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$, ${NO_3}^-$, ${NH_4}^+$ and the soil originated nss-$Ca^{2+}$ components showed high concentrations as the air parcels were moved from the Asia continent, on the other hand, their concentrations were relatively low as moving from the Northern Pacific into the Gosan area.

Pollution Characteristics of Rainwater at Jeju Island during 2009~2010 (2009~2010년 제주지역 강우의 오염 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Ju;Bu, Jun-Oh;Kim, Won-Hyung;Lee, Yoon-Sang;Hyeon, Dong-Rim;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.818-829
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    • 2013
  • The collection of rainwater samples was made at Jeju area during 2009~2010, and the major ionic species were analyzed. In the comparison of ion balance, conductivity, and acid fraction for the validation of analytical data, the correlation coefficients showed a good linear relationship within the range of 0.966~0.990. The volume-weighted mean pH and electric conductivity were 4.9 and $17.8{\mu}S/cm$, respectively, at the Jeju area. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of ionic species in rainwater were in the order of $Cl^-$ > $Na^+$ > $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$ > $NH_4{^+}$ > $NO_3{^-}$ > $Mg^{2+}$ > $H^+$ > $nss-Ca^{2+}$ > $HCOO^-$ > $K^+$ > $PO_4{^{3-}}$ > $CH_3COO^-$ > $NO_2{^-}$ > $F^-$ > $HCO_3{^-}$ > $CH_3SO_3{^-}$. The ionic strength of rainwater was $0.26{\pm}0.21$ mM during the study period. The composition ratios of ionic species were such as 50.1% for the marine sources ($Na^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Cl^-$), 30.9% for the anthropogenic sources ($NH_4{^+}$, $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^-}$), and 4.7% for the soil source ($nss-Ca^{2+}$), and 3.1% for organic acids ($HCOO^-$, $CH_3COO^-$). From the seasonal comparison, the concentrations of $NO_3{^-}$, $nss-Ca^{2+}$, and $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$ increased in winter and spring seasons, indicating a reasonable possibility of long range transport from Asia continent. Especially, the acidifying contributions by major inorganic acids ($nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$ and $NO_3{^-}$) and organic acids ($HCOO^-$ and $CH_3COO^-$) were 87.6% and 12.4%, respectively. In comparison by sectional inflow pathway of air mass during the rainy sampling days, the concentrations of $nss-SO_4{^{2-}}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ were relatively high when the air mass was moved from the China continent into Jeju area.

Compositions and pollution characteristics of total suspended particles (TSP) at 1100 Site of Mt. Halla (한라산 1100 고지 총부유분진(TSP)의 조성 및 오염 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Hyung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Jung, Duk-Sang;Go, Hui-Jeong;Lee, Won
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.304-315
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    • 2008
  • The total suspended particles (TSP) collected at the 1100 site of Mt. Halla have shown higher compositions for the anthropogenic components followed by marine and soil originated ones. The concentrations of the soil originated nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Fe, Ca components have been increased in spring, and the anthropogenic $NH{_4}^+$, $K^+$, nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ components showed high concentrations in June. Meanwhile, the concentration of $NO{_3}^-$ as same as nss-$Ca^{2+}$ was higher in spring. It's likely due to the influence of its long-range transport from China. Compared to the non-Asian Dust periods, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Ca, and Fe have been increased 7.2~9.5 times in Asian Dust storm periods, and those of nss-$SO{_4}^{2-}$ and $NO{_3}^-$ were 1.3 and 3.8 times, respectively. From the factor analysis, the TSP compositions were influenced mainly by anthropogenic emission sources, followed by oceanic and soil sources. The backward trajectory analysis has shown that the concentrations of the anthropogenic and soil components were increased when the air parcels had been moved into Jeju island via China in a northwesterly wind.

Chemical Composition Characteristics of Size-fractionated Particles during Heavy Asian Dust Event in Spring, 2010 (2010년 봄철 고농도 황사의 입경별 화학조성 특성)

  • Lee, Dong-Eun;Kim, Won-Hyung;Ko, Hee-Jung;Oh, Yong-Soo;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.325-337
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    • 2013
  • The size-fractionated aerosol samples have been collected at Gosan Site of Jeju Island during the spring season of 2010, in order to examine the chemical composition characteristics of the Asian Dust and Non-Asian Dust particles. The concentrations of ${HCO_3}^-$, Al, and nss-$Ca^{2+}$ in $PM_{10}$ had tremendously increased during the heavy Asian Dust (March 20, 2010). The concentration ratios of Asian Dust to Non-Asian Dust for the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$, ${HCO_3}^-$, Al, Fe, Ti, Mn) were 12.2~30.7, meanwhile those for the anthropogenic species (nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$, ${NH_4}^+$, ${NO_3}^-$, $K^+$, Zn, Pb, and Cu) were 2.9~7.8. During the heavy Asian Dust event, the concentration increase of ${NO_3}^-$ in $PM_{2.5}$ were much more apparent than those of nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ and ${NH_4}^+$, and the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$ and ${HCO_3}^-$) showed much higher concentration increase. The neutralization factor of $NH_3$ was higher than that of $CaCO_3$. However, the neutralization factor of $CaCO_3$ in $PM_{10}$ was exceptionally high during the heavy Asian Dust, showing the evidence of heavy migration of soil particles. From the study for size fractionated particles, it was found that nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$ and ${NH_4}^+$ were mostly distributed in fine particle mode, on the other hand, ${NO_3}^-$ existed evenly in both fine and coarse particle modes, and the soil species (nss-$Ca^{2+}$, Al, Fe, etc.) were mainly in the latter mode. During the heavy Asian Dust, in particular, the concentrations of ${NH_4}^+$, nss-${SO_4}^{2-}$, $K^+$, Zn, and Pb had increased in coarse particle mode as well.