• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northern Thailand

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A Study on Planning of The Thai Traditional House - Focus on Central and Northern Region - (태국 전통주택의 평면적 특성에 대한 고찰 - 중부, 북부 지방을 중심으로 -)

  • Ju, Seo-Ryeung;Kim, Bo-Mi
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2011
  • The characteristics of traditional Thai houses are post-and-beam structure, lifted floor on pillars, and gabled roof as like as houses in other Southeast Asia countries. However 'charn', connective terrace among each room, is the most unique element in Thai houses which make the area under the 'charn' cool and useful. In Thailand, there are number of housing types caused by historic, social, cultural and geographic factors. This research is focused on comparative study of planning of traditional Thai houses of central and northern region, which have the biggest differences in between. Thai traditional house in central region has symmetrical arrangement on layout and when family members are added, they extend 'charn' and attach another building. While in Northern region, the 'charn' is located not in the center and in the front, and the direction of the main building is perpendicular to the length direction of the veranda. This research has a limitation to be generalized because just two region in Thailand were analyzed and the numbers of case studies were few. Nevertheless, we expect this paper to be a primary guidance to understand Thai traditional houses and we also expect that our research area will cover the all areas in Thailand and finally expand to conclude the commonality and diversity of traditional houses in Southeast Asia in the future.

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Breast Cancer in Lampang, a Province in Northern Thailand: Analysis of 1993-2012 Incidence Data and Future Trends

  • Lalitwongsa, Somkiat;Pongnikorn, Donsuk;Daoprasert, Karnchana;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8327-8333
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    • 2016
  • Background: The recent epidemiologic transition in Thailand, with decreasing incidence of infectious diseases along with increasing rates of chronic conditions, including cancer, is a serious problem for the country. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. Lampang is a province in the upper part of Northern Thailand. A study was needed to identify the current burden, and the future trends of breast cancer in upper Northern Thai women. Materials and Methods: Here we used cancer incidence data from the Lampang Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the local incidence of breast cancer. Joinpoint analysis, age period cohort model and Nordpred package were used to investigate the incidences of breast cancer in the province from 1993 to 2012 and to project future trends from 2013 to 2030. Results: Age-standardized incidence rates (world) of breast cancer in the upper parts of Northern Thailand increased from 16.7 to 26.3 cases per 100,000 female population which is equivalent to an annual percentage change of 2.0-2.8%, according to the method used. Linear drift effects played a role in shaping the increase of incidence. The three projection method suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women aged 50 and above, increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current early detection measures increase detection rates of early disease. Preparation of a budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential.

Utilization of Information from International Observation Trials for the Introduction of New Crops: An Introduction of Azuki Bean Varieties from China to Thailand

  • Xin, Chen;Volkaert, Hugo;Chatwachirawong, Prasert;Srinives, Peerasak
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2008
  • Azuki bean has never been commercially grown in Thailand, due in part to a lack of suitable varieties. A core collection of 114 azuki bean accessions, originally from different parts of China(northern, central, southern) representing the germplasm of Chinese land races, were evaluated in the experimental field of the Institute of Vegetable Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China from June to October 2004. The same experiment was repeated at Kamphaeng Saen campus of Kasetsart University, Thailand from February to May 2005. Yield, yield components, and agronomic traits were recorded in all accessions in order to identify certain genotypes for further investigation. The statistical parameters that were used as indicators of phenotypic variation were mean, coefficient of variability(CV), correlation coefficient(r), range, mean difference, and phenotypic clustering of the accessions. The results indicated that the azuki bean varieties planted in Kamphaeng Saen were shorter, earlier in growing duration, and lower in plant height, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, and pods per plant as compared to when they were grown in China. This discrepancy was caused largely by the combined effect of temperature, rainfall, and day length. The traits that were rather stable in both locations were branches per plant and seeds per pod. Azuki bean varieties from northern China showed higher response to the changing environments compared with those from central and southern China. Some agronomic traits showed high correlation coefficient between the environments in Thailand and China. The CV of agronomic traits in both locations were ranked in descending order as follows: seed yield per plant, pods per plant, branches per plant, plant height, 100-seed weight, seeds per pod, and growing duration. The CV of seeds per pod and branches per plant were almost the same in both locations. Yield per plant in China correlated well(r=0.75) with pods per plant, but not with the other traits. Based on their response to both environments, the azuki bean accessions can be broadly divided into four groups, viz. northern 1, northern 2, central, and southern. This implied that there was more diversity, but probably less stability among the accessions originating from northern China.

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Population-based Cervical Cancer Screening Using High-risk HPV DNA Test and Liquid-based Cytology in Northern Thailand

  • Siriaunkgul, Sumalee;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Kasatpibal, Nongyao;Khunamornpong, Surapan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6837-6842
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    • 2014
  • Background: Northern Thailand is a region with a high cervical cancer incidence. Combined high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA testing and cytology (co-testing) has increasingly gained acceptance for cervical cancer screening. However, to our knowledge, data from a population-based screening using co-testing have not been available in this region. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the performance of cytology and hrHPV test in women in northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: Cervical samples were collected for hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing and liquid-based cytology from women aged 30 to 60 years who were residents in 3 prefectures of Chiang Mai in northern Thailand between May and September 2011. Women with positive cytology were referred to colposcopy, while women with positive for HC2 only were followed for 2 years. Results: Of 2,752 women included in this study, 3.0% were positive in both tests, 4.1% for HC2 only, and 1.3% had positive cytology only. At baseline screening, positive HC2 was observed in 70.6% among cytology-positive women compared with 4.3% among cytology-negative women. The prevalence of positive HC2 or cytology peaked in the age group 35-39 years and was lowest in the age group 55-60 years. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse lesions (HSIL+) were histologically detected in 23.5% of women with positive baseline cytology and in 9.8% of women with positive baseline HC2 only on follow-up. All women with histologic HSIL+ had positive baseline HC2. Conclusions: The hrHPV test is superior to cytology in the early detection of high-grade cervical epithelial lesions. In this study, the prevalence of histologic HSIL+ on follow-up of women with positive hrHPV test was rather high, and these women should be kept under careful surveillance. In northern Thailand, hrHPV testing has a potential to be used as a primary screening test for cervical cancer with cytology applied as a triage test.

HPV Detection and Genotyping in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Northern Thailand

  • Siriaunkgul, Sumalee;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Utaipat, Utaiwan;Lekawanvijit, Suree;Khunamornpong, Surapan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3773-3778
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    • 2014
  • Background: The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in northern Thailand and the clinicopathological difference with regard to HPV infection status. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of vulvar SCC diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. HPV infection was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers MY09/11 and GP5+/6+. HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array Genotyping Test, followed by type-specific PCR targeting the E6/E7 region of HPV16/18/52 if the Linear Array test was negative. The histologic slides of vulvar lesions and the medical records were reviewed. Results: There were 47 cases of vulvar SCC included in the study (mean patient age $57.9{\pm}13.2$ years). HPV infection was detected in 29 cases (62%), all of which had single HPV infections. HPV16 accounted for 23 (49%). The patients with HPV-positive SCC had a significantly younger mean age than those with HPV-negative tumors (52.7 years vs 66.2 years, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in tumor stage distribution with regard to the status of HPV infection. The presence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) of usual type (basaloid or warty) was significantly more frequent in HPV-positive cases compared with HPV-negative cases (62% vs 6%, p<0.001), whereas differentiated-type VIN was more common in HPV-negative cases (24% vs 0%, p=0.019). Conclusions: HPV infection was detected in 62% of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand. HPV16 was the predominant genotype similar to the data reported from other regions. HPV-positive SCC occurred in younger patients compared with HPV-negative SCC, and was associated with usual-type VIN. Vaccination against HPV16/18 may potentially prevent almost one half of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand.

Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Cervical Cancer Patients in Upper Northern Thailand

  • Thongsak, Natthapat;Chitapanarux, Imjai;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon;Bunyatisai, Walaithip;Sripan, Patumrat;Traisathit, Patrinee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.5011-5017
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. There have been several studies indicating that risk is associated with geographic location and that the incidence of cervical cancer has changed over time. In Thailand, incidence rates have also been found to be different in each region. Methods: Participants were women living or having lived in upper Northern Thailand and subjected to cervical screening at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Generalized additive models with Loess smooth curve fitting were applied to estimate the risk of cervical cancer. For the spatial analysis, Google Maps were employed to find the geographical locations of the participants' addresses. The Quantum Geographic Information System was used to make a map of cervical cancer risk. Two univariate smooths: x equal to the residency duration was used in the temporal analysis of residency duration, and x equal to the calendar year that participants moved to upper Northern Thailand or birth year for participants already living there, were used in the temporal analysis of the earliest year. The spatial-temporal analysis was conducted in the same way as the spatial analysis except that the data were split into overlapping calendar years. Results: In the spatial analysis, the risk of cervical cancer was shown to be highest in the Eastern sector of upper Northern Thailand (p-value <0.001). In the temporal analysis of residency duration, the risk was shown to be steadily increasing (p-value =0.008), and in the temporal analysis of the earliest year, the risk was observed to be steadily decreasing (p-value=0.016). In the spatial-temporal analysis, the risk was stably higher in Chiang Rai and Nan provinces compared to Chiang Mai province. According to the display movement over time, the odds of developing cervical cancer declined in all provinces. Conclusions: The risk of cervical cancer has decreased over time but, in some areas, there is a higher risk than in the major province of Chiang Mai. Therefore, we should promote cervical cancer screening coverage in all areas, especially where access is difficult and/or to women of lower socioeconomic status.

Chemical Characterisation of Organic Functional Group Compositions in PM2.5 Collected at Nine Administrative Provinces in Northern Thailand during the Haze Episode in 2013

  • Pongpiachan, Siwatt;Choochuay, Chomsri;Chonchalar, Jittiphan;Kanchai, Panatda;Phonpiboon, Tidarat;Wongsuesat, Sornsawan;Chomkhae, Kanokwan;Kittikoon, Itthipon;Hiranyatrakul, Phoosak;Cao, Junji;Thamrongthanyawong, Sombat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3653-3661
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    • 2013
  • Along with rapid economic growth and enhanced agricultural productivity, particulate matter emissions in the northern cities of Thailand have been increasing for the past two decades. This trend is expected to continue in the coming decade. Emissions of particulate matter have brought about a series of public health concerns, particularly chronic respiratory diseases. It is well known that lung cancer incidence among northern Thai women is one of the highest in Asia (an annual age-adjusted incidence rate of 37.4 per 100,000). This fact has aroused serious concern among the public and the government and has drawn much attention and interest from the scientific community. To investigate the potential causes of this relatively high lung cancer incidence, this study employed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy to identify the chemical composition of the $PM_{2.5}$ collected using Quartz Fibre Filters (QFFs) coupled with MiniVol$^{TM}$ portable air samplers (Airmetrics). $PM_{2.5}$ samples collected in nine administrative provinces in northern Thailand before and after the "Haze Episode" in 2013 were categorised based on three-dimensional plots of a principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation. In addition, the incremental lifetime exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ of both genders was calculated, and the first derivative of the FTIR spectrum of individual samples is here discussed.

Characteristics of expansive soils improved with cement and fly ash in Northern Thailand

  • Voottipruex, Panich;Jamsawang, Pitthaya
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.437-453
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    • 2014
  • This paper studies the swelling and strength characteristics of unimproved and improved expansive soils in terms of the swell potential, swelling pressure, rate of secondary swelling, unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio (CBR). The admixtures used in this study are locally available cement and fly ash. The soils used in this study were taken from the Mae Moh power plant, Lampang Province, in northern Thailand. A conventional consolidation test apparatus was used to determine the swelling of the soil specimen. The optimum admixture contents are determined to efficiently reduce the swelling of unimproved soil. The rate of secondary swelling for unimproved soil is within the range of highly plastic montmorillonite clay, whereas the specimens improved with optimum admixture contents can be classified as non-swelling kaolinite. A soil type affects the swelling pressure. Expansive soil improvement with fly ash alone can reduce swelling percentage but cannot enhance the unconfined compressive strength and CBR. The strength and swelling characteristics can be predicted well by the swelling percentage in this study.

Usage of Indigenous Material for Sustainable Construction at Mae-Hae, Thailand - Focused on Rammed Earth Method - (태국 매해 지역에서의 지속가능한 건축재료 활용연구 - 흙다짐 공법을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Doo-Soon;Jeong, Sang-Mo
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2013
  • Limited resources for construction material in the Mae-Hae region, a remote Northern Thailand, acted as an impetus to introduce a new way for constructing their dwellings. The new construction material brought new construction methodology, namely, using earth and bamboo which are indigenous materials, readily available for them to use. Using indigenous material at Mae-Hae region was most ecological and logical method for establishing sustainable dwellings both in terms of monetary and ecological reasons. Prior to the construction at Mae-Hae, Thailand, series of experimental tests on the strength of rammed earth were performed off site at our university and also brought soil samples from the actual job site at Mae-Hae for detailed soil analysis. Through the tests, integrity of the earth and characteristics of the soil were established to build a small senior citizen center as an example. This appropriate technology is expected to contribute to the sustainable construction at Mae-Hae.

Molecular Variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus Complex in Thailand and Myanmar

  • Sanpool, Oranuch;Intapan, Pewpan M.;Thanchomnang, Tongjit;Janwan, Penchom;Nawa, Yukifumi;Blair, David;Maleewong, Wanchai
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.677-681
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    • 2013
  • Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region.