• Title/Summary/Keyword: Northern Thailand

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HPV Detection and Genotyping in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Northern Thailand

  • Siriaunkgul, Sumalee;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Utaipat, Utaiwan;Lekawanvijit, Suree;Khunamornpong, Surapan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3773-3778
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    • 2014
  • Background: The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in northern Thailand and the clinicopathological difference with regard to HPV infection status. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of vulvar SCC diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. HPV infection was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers MY09/11 and GP5+/6+. HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array Genotyping Test, followed by type-specific PCR targeting the E6/E7 region of HPV16/18/52 if the Linear Array test was negative. The histologic slides of vulvar lesions and the medical records were reviewed. Results: There were 47 cases of vulvar SCC included in the study (mean patient age $57.9{\pm}13.2$ years). HPV infection was detected in 29 cases (62%), all of which had single HPV infections. HPV16 accounted for 23 (49%). The patients with HPV-positive SCC had a significantly younger mean age than those with HPV-negative tumors (52.7 years vs 66.2 years, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in tumor stage distribution with regard to the status of HPV infection. The presence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) of usual type (basaloid or warty) was significantly more frequent in HPV-positive cases compared with HPV-negative cases (62% vs 6%, p<0.001), whereas differentiated-type VIN was more common in HPV-negative cases (24% vs 0%, p=0.019). Conclusions: HPV infection was detected in 62% of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand. HPV16 was the predominant genotype similar to the data reported from other regions. HPV-positive SCC occurred in younger patients compared with HPV-negative SCC, and was associated with usual-type VIN. Vaccination against HPV16/18 may potentially prevent almost one half of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand.

Population-based Cervical Cancer Screening Using High-risk HPV DNA Test and Liquid-based Cytology in Northern Thailand

  • Siriaunkgul, Sumalee;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Kasatpibal, Nongyao;Khunamornpong, Surapan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6837-6842
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    • 2014
  • Background: Northern Thailand is a region with a high cervical cancer incidence. Combined high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA testing and cytology (co-testing) has increasingly gained acceptance for cervical cancer screening. However, to our knowledge, data from a population-based screening using co-testing have not been available in this region. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the performance of cytology and hrHPV test in women in northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: Cervical samples were collected for hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing and liquid-based cytology from women aged 30 to 60 years who were residents in 3 prefectures of Chiang Mai in northern Thailand between May and September 2011. Women with positive cytology were referred to colposcopy, while women with positive for HC2 only were followed for 2 years. Results: Of 2,752 women included in this study, 3.0% were positive in both tests, 4.1% for HC2 only, and 1.3% had positive cytology only. At baseline screening, positive HC2 was observed in 70.6% among cytology-positive women compared with 4.3% among cytology-negative women. The prevalence of positive HC2 or cytology peaked in the age group 35-39 years and was lowest in the age group 55-60 years. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse lesions (HSIL+) were histologically detected in 23.5% of women with positive baseline cytology and in 9.8% of women with positive baseline HC2 only on follow-up. All women with histologic HSIL+ had positive baseline HC2. Conclusions: The hrHPV test is superior to cytology in the early detection of high-grade cervical epithelial lesions. In this study, the prevalence of histologic HSIL+ on follow-up of women with positive hrHPV test was rather high, and these women should be kept under careful surveillance. In northern Thailand, hrHPV testing has a potential to be used as a primary screening test for cervical cancer with cytology applied as a triage test.

Characteristics of expansive soils improved with cement and fly ash in Northern Thailand

  • Voottipruex, Panich;Jamsawang, Pitthaya
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.437-453
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    • 2014
  • This paper studies the swelling and strength characteristics of unimproved and improved expansive soils in terms of the swell potential, swelling pressure, rate of secondary swelling, unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio (CBR). The admixtures used in this study are locally available cement and fly ash. The soils used in this study were taken from the Mae Moh power plant, Lampang Province, in northern Thailand. A conventional consolidation test apparatus was used to determine the swelling of the soil specimen. The optimum admixture contents are determined to efficiently reduce the swelling of unimproved soil. The rate of secondary swelling for unimproved soil is within the range of highly plastic montmorillonite clay, whereas the specimens improved with optimum admixture contents can be classified as non-swelling kaolinite. A soil type affects the swelling pressure. Expansive soil improvement with fly ash alone can reduce swelling percentage but cannot enhance the unconfined compressive strength and CBR. The strength and swelling characteristics can be predicted well by the swelling percentage in this study.

Breast Cancer in Lampang, a Province in Northern Thailand: Analysis of 1993-2012 Incidence Data and Future Trends

  • Lalitwongsa, Somkiat;Pongnikorn, Donsuk;Daoprasert, Karnchana;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8327-8333
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    • 2016
  • Background: The recent epidemiologic transition in Thailand, with decreasing incidence of infectious diseases along with increasing rates of chronic conditions, including cancer, is a serious problem for the country. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. Lampang is a province in the upper part of Northern Thailand. A study was needed to identify the current burden, and the future trends of breast cancer in upper Northern Thai women. Materials and Methods: Here we used cancer incidence data from the Lampang Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the local incidence of breast cancer. Joinpoint analysis, age period cohort model and Nordpred package were used to investigate the incidences of breast cancer in the province from 1993 to 2012 and to project future trends from 2013 to 2030. Results: Age-standardized incidence rates (world) of breast cancer in the upper parts of Northern Thailand increased from 16.7 to 26.3 cases per 100,000 female population which is equivalent to an annual percentage change of 2.0-2.8%, according to the method used. Linear drift effects played a role in shaping the increase of incidence. The three projection method suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women aged 50 and above, increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current early detection measures increase detection rates of early disease. Preparation of a budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential.

Environmental Factors Influencing Tree Species Regeneration in Different Forest Stands Growing on a Limestone Hill in Phrae Province, Northern Thailand

  • Asanok, Lamthai;Marod, Dokrak
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.237-252
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    • 2016
  • Improved knowledge of the environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of tree species in limestone forest is urgently required for species conservation. We examined the environmental factors and tree species characteristics that are important for colonization in diverse forest stands growing on a limestone hill in northern Thailand. Our analysis estimated the relative influence of forest structure and environmental factors on the regeneration traits of tree species. We established sixty-four $100-m^2$ plots in four forest stands on the limestone hill. We determined the species composition of canopy trees, regenerating seedlings, and saplings in relation to the physical environment. The relationships between environmental variables and tree species abundance were assessed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and we used generalized linear mixed models to examine data on seedling/sapling abundances. The CCA ordination indicated that the abundance of tree species within the mixed deciduous forest was closely related to soil depth. The abundances of tree species growing within the sink-hole and hill-slope stands were positively related to the extent of rocky outcropping; light and soil moisture positively influenced the abundance of tree species in the hill-cliff stand. Physical factors had a greater effect on tree regeneration than did factors related to forest structure. Tree species, such as Ficus macleilandii, Dracaena cochinchinensis, and Phyllanthus mirabilis within the hill-cliff or sink-hole stand, colonized well on large rocky outcroppings that were well illuminated and had soft soils. These species regenerated well under conditions prevailing on the limestone hill. The colonization of several species in other stands was negatively influenced by environmental conditions at these sites. We found that natural regeneration of tree species on the limestone hill was difficult because of the prevailing combination of physical and biological factors. The influence of these factors was species dependent, and the magnitude of effects varied across forest stands.

Morphology and Molecular Identification of Echinostoma revolutum and Echinostoma macrorchis in Freshwater Snails and Experimental Hamsters in Upper Northern Thailand

  • Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn;Wongsawad, Chalobol;Wongsawad, Pheravut;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.499-511
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    • 2020
  • Echinostome metacercariae were investigated in freshwater snails from 26 districts in 7 provinces of upper northern Thailand. The species identification was carried out based on the morphologies of the metacercariae and adult flukes harvested from experimental hamsters, and on nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Twenty-four out of 26 districts were found to be infected with echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails with the prevalence of 40.4%. The metacercariae were found in all 6 species of snails, including Filopaludina martensi martensi (21.9%), Filopaludina doliaris (50.8%), F. sumatrensis polygramma (61.3%), Bithynia siamensis siamensis (14.5%), Bithynia pulchella (38.0%), and Anenthome helena (4.9%). The echinostome metacercariae found in these snails were identified as Echinostoma revolutum (37-collar-spined) and Echinostoma macrorchis (45-collar-spined) morphologically and molecularly. The 2-week-old adult flukes of E. revolutum revealed unique features of the cirrus sac extending to middle of the ventral sucker and smooth testes. E. macrorchis adults revealed the cirrus sac close to the right lateral margin of the ventral sucker and 2 large and elliptical testes with slight indentations and pointed posterior end of the posterior testis. The ITS2 and nad1 sequences confirmed the species identification of E. revolutum, and the sequences of E. macrorchis have been deposited for the first time in GenBank. The presence of the life cycle of E. macrorchis is a new record in Thailand and the snail F. doliaris as their second intermediate host seems to be new among the literature.

Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Cervical Cancer Patients in Upper Northern Thailand

  • Thongsak, Natthapat;Chitapanarux, Imjai;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon;Bunyatisai, Walaithip;Sripan, Patumrat;Traisathit, Patrinee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.5011-5017
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. There have been several studies indicating that risk is associated with geographic location and that the incidence of cervical cancer has changed over time. In Thailand, incidence rates have also been found to be different in each region. Methods: Participants were women living or having lived in upper Northern Thailand and subjected to cervical screening at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Generalized additive models with Loess smooth curve fitting were applied to estimate the risk of cervical cancer. For the spatial analysis, Google Maps were employed to find the geographical locations of the participants' addresses. The Quantum Geographic Information System was used to make a map of cervical cancer risk. Two univariate smooths: x equal to the residency duration was used in the temporal analysis of residency duration, and x equal to the calendar year that participants moved to upper Northern Thailand or birth year for participants already living there, were used in the temporal analysis of the earliest year. The spatial-temporal analysis was conducted in the same way as the spatial analysis except that the data were split into overlapping calendar years. Results: In the spatial analysis, the risk of cervical cancer was shown to be highest in the Eastern sector of upper Northern Thailand (p-value <0.001). In the temporal analysis of residency duration, the risk was shown to be steadily increasing (p-value =0.008), and in the temporal analysis of the earliest year, the risk was observed to be steadily decreasing (p-value=0.016). In the spatial-temporal analysis, the risk was stably higher in Chiang Rai and Nan provinces compared to Chiang Mai province. According to the display movement over time, the odds of developing cervical cancer declined in all provinces. Conclusions: The risk of cervical cancer has decreased over time but, in some areas, there is a higher risk than in the major province of Chiang Mai. Therefore, we should promote cervical cancer screening coverage in all areas, especially where access is difficult and/or to women of lower socioeconomic status.

Cloning and Expression of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase Gene from Paenibacillus sp. T16 Isolated from Hot Spring Soil in Northern Thailand

  • Charoensakdi, Ratiya;Murakami, Shuichiro;Aoki, Kenji;Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien;Limpaseni, Tipaporn
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2007
  • Gene encoding cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase), from thermotolerant Paenibacillus sp. T16 isolated from hot spring area in northern Thailand, was cloned and expressed in E. coli (JM109). The nucleotide sequences of both wild type and transformed CGTases consisted of 2139 bp open reading frame, 713 deduced amino acids residues with difference of 4 amino acid residues. The recombinant cells required 24 h culture time and a neutral pH for culture medium to produce compatible amount of CGTase compared to 72 h culture time and pH 10 for wild type. The recombinant and wild-type CGTases were purified by starch adsorption and phenyl sepharose column chromatography and characterized in parallel. Both enzymes showed molecular weight of 77 kDa and similar optimum pHs and temperatures with recombinant enzyme showing broader range. There were some significant difference in pH, temperature stability and kinetic parameters. The presence of high starch concentration resulted in higher thermostability in recombinant enzyme than the wild type. The recombinant enzyme was more stable at higher temperature and lower pH, with lower $K_m$ for coupling reaction using cellobiose and cyclodextrins as substrates.

Increases of Antibiotic Resistance in Excessive Use of Antibiotics in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Northern Thailand

  • Suriyasathaporn, W.;Chupia, V.;Sing-Lah, T.;Wongsawan, K.;Mektrirat, R.;Chaisri, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1322-1328
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    • 2012
  • Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from both quarter teat-tip swabs and their quarter milk samples were evaluated in smallholder dairy farms in northern Thailand with excessive use of antibiotics (HIGH) compared with normal use (NORM). Results from teat-tip swab samples showed that the percentage of Bacillus spp. resistance to overall antibiotics was significantly lower in the NORM group than that of the HIGH group, whereas, the resistance percentage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the NORM group was higher than that of the HIGH one. The overall mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples were environmental streptococci (13.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.4%), and Corynebacterium bovis (4.5%). Both staphylococci and streptococci had significantly higher percentages of resistance to cloxacillin and oxacillin in the HIGH group when compared to the NORM one. An occurrence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria was also observed in the HIGH group. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy farms with excessive use of antibiotics had a higher probability of antibiotic-resistant pattern than the farms with normal use.

Performance of HPV DNA Testing with Hybrid Capture 2 in Triaging Women with Minor Cervical Cytologic Abnormalities (ASC-US/LSIL) in Northern Thailand

  • Khunamornpong, Surapan;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Siriaunkgul, Sumalee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10961-10966
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    • 2015
  • Background: Minor cervical cytologic abnormalities include atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Approximately 10-20% of women with minor cytologic abnormalities have histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial or worse lesions (HSIL+). In Thailand, women with minor cytologic abnormalities have a relatively high risk of cervical cancer, and referral for colposcopy has been suggested. A triage test is useful in the selection of women at risk for histologic HSIL+ to reduce the colposcopy burden. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of high-risk HPV DNA test in triage of women with minor cytologic abnormalities in northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: All women with ASC-US/LSIL cytology who were referred to our colposcopy clinic from October 2010 to February 2014 were included. HPV DNA testing was performed using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). All patients received colposcopic examination. Accuracy values of HC2 in predicting the presence of histologic HSIL+ were calculated. Results: There were 238 women in this study (121 ASC-US and 117 LSIL). The HC2 positivity rate was significantly higher in the LSIL group than in ASC-US group (74.8% versus 41.0%, p<0.001). Histologic HSIL+ was detected in 9 women (7.4%) in the ASC-US group and 16 women (13.7%) in the LSIL group (p=0.141). There was no histologic HSIL+ detected among HC2-negative cases (sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%). The performance of HC2 triage was highest among women aged >50 years with ASC-US cytology. An increase in the cut-off threshold for positive HC2 resulted in a substantial decrease of sensitivity and negative predictive value. Conclusions: HPV DNA testing with HC2 shows very high sensitivity and negative predictive value in triage of women with minor cervical cytologic abnormalities in northern Thailand. An increase of the cut-off threshold for HC2 triage is not recommended in this region.