• Title, Summary, Keyword: Northeast Thailand

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Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn;Kompor, Ponthip;Chavenkun, Wasugree;Kujapun, Jirawoot;Norkaew, Jun;Ponphimai, Sukanya;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Rujirakul, Ratana;Padchasuwan, Natnapa;Pholsripradit, Poowadol;Eksanti, Thawatchai;Phatisena, Tanida;Loyd, Ryan A;Kaewpitoon, Soraya J
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6825-6830
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    • 2015
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

Evaluating Flood Risk Area using GIS and RADARSAT Data-A Case Study in Northeast Thailand

  • Mongkolsawat, C.;Thirangoon, P.;Suwanwerakamtorn, R.;Karladee, N.;Paiboonsak, S.
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.7-9
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate flood risk area by integrating GIS and RADARSAT data. The study area, Northeast Thailand, is subject to flood during the rainy season. The main data used in this evaluation included RADARSAT data, landform and topographic map. The evaluation was conducted by overlay operation of flood area in 2001, land form and buffer region beyond the flood areas with the selection criteria defined. Most of the flood risk areas were found in the low lying land form within the buffer region. The cloud penetrating capabilities of SAR is only a source of information for effectively assessment of flood risk area in Northeast Thailand.

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Lack of Participation of the GSTM1 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer Development in Northeast Thailand

  • Natphopsuk, Sitakan;Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa;Settheetham, Dariwan;Ishida, Takafumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1935-1937
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    • 2015
  • The potential association between the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer was investigated in Northeastern Thailand. DNA was extracted from buffy coat specimens of 198 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 198 age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping of the GSTM1 was conducted by using two PCR methods, a short- and a long-PCR. Distribution of the GSTM1 genotypes in between the cases and the controls was not significantly different (p>0.5 by ${\chi}^2$ test). The results suggest that the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in the northeast Thai women.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opisthorchis viverrini Infections in Upper Northeast Thailand

  • Thaewnongiew, Kesorn;Singthong, Seri;Kutchamart, Saowalux;Tangsawad, Sasithorn;Promthet, Supannee;Sailugkum, Supan;Wongba, Narong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6609-6612
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    • 2014
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is an ongoing public health problem in Northeast Thailand. Despite continuous efforts for decades by healthcare organizations to overcome this problem, infection rates remain high. To enable related personnel to identify and address the various issues effectively, a cross-sectional study was performed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for opisthorchiasis. The target group was 3,916 Thai residents of Northeast Thailand who were 15 or over. Participants were recruited using the 30 clusters sampling technique. The data were gathered through questionnaires, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and stool examinations for parasite eggs (using the Modified Kato Katz method). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inference statistics; in order to ascertain the risk factors and test them using the odds ratio and multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of opisthorchiasis was 22.7% (95%CI: 0.26 to 0.24). The province with the highest prevalence was Nakhorn Phanom (40.9%; female to male ratio =1:1.2). The age group with the highest prevalence was 40-49 year olds. All age groups had a prevalence >20%. Four of seven provinces had a prevalence >20%. The factors related to opisthorchiasis were (a) sex, (b) age (especially > 50), (c) proximity and duration living near a water body, and (d) eating raw and/or fermented fish. In order to reduce the prevalence of opisthorchiasis, the focus in populations living in upper Northeast Thailand should be changing their eating behaviors as appropriate to their tradition and context.

Development of a Spatial Database on the Remains of Ancient Villages in Northeast Thailand

  • Yoshikatsu, NAGATA;Songsiri, Walailak;Vallibhotama, Srisakra
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.814-816
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    • 2003
  • Remote sensing allows automatic and continual spatial data acquisition. However, it is powerless to accumulate spatial data from the past. On the other hand, social and human scientists have already created rich academic descriptions of the past with fragmentary images, but without accurate geo-references. Such a legacy of information will eventually become useless, regardless of its importance or the researcher's passion. There is thus an urgent need to help assemble the lifetime research results of social scientists, so that future generations can easily access them.

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Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini and Use of Praziquantel among a Working-age Population in Northeast Thailand

  • Saengsawang, Phubet;Promthet, Supannee;Bradshaw, Peter
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2963-2966
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    • 2013
  • Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) due to eating certain traditional freshwater fish dishes is the principal risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in Northeast Thailand where the infection is endemic and the incidence of this form of primary liver cancer has been the highest in the world. This paper is the second report of a prospective research project to monitor the impacts of a national liver fluke control programme in a rural community of Northeast Thailand. A sample of 684 villagers aged 20-65 years completed an interview questionnaire and were tested for infection using the Kato thick smear technique. The questionnaire was designed for the exploration of associations between OV infection, previous treatment with praziquantel, and knowledge and beliefs about the drug. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 37.2% and was highest in the 20-35 year age group, in those with a university degree and in those employed in the government sector. As many as 91.8% reported eating fish dishes known to place them at risk of infection. In the multiple regression analysis, previous use of praziquantel and lack of knowledge about whether or not the drug has a protective effect against re-infection were the only factors related to OV infection ($OR_{adj}$= 2.31, 95%CI =1.40-3.79 and $OR_{adj}$= 1.95, 95%CI= 1.24-3.05). The findings were discussed in terms of the possibly unwise dependency on praziquantel as a primary element in a control programme.

Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in the Lower Part of Northeast Thailand: a Hospital-based Case-control Study

  • Manwong, Mereerat;Songserm, Nopparat;Promthet, Supannee;Matsuo4, Keitaro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5953-5956
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    • 2013
  • Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common cancer in Northeast Thailand. It is also a crucial health problem for Thai people. Various risk factors for CCA have been identified in the upper part of Northeast Thailand, but no similar studies of risk factors have been conducted in the lower parts of the region. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with CCA in the resident population. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted during 2009-2012 with the recruitment of 123 CCA cases and 123 non-CCA patient controls, matched for sex, age and residential area. Information was collected by interview with a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assays of anti-OV antibodies. Associations between various personal factors, dietary habits, family history, the presence of anti-OV antibodies and CCA were analyzed using multiple conditional logistic regression. Results: Patients who consumed raw meat (beef, pork) and alcoholic beverages ${\geq}3$ times per week had a higher risk of CCA than non-consumers ($OR_{adj}$=4.33; 95%CI=1.14-16.35 and $OR_{adj}$=2.13; 95%CI=1.00-4.55, respectively). Patients who had a family history of cancer had a higher risk than those who did not ($OR_{adj}$=4.34; 95%CI=1.80-10.43). Also, patients who had anti-OV antibodies (AU>23.337) had a higher risk than those whose anti-OV antibodies were below the cut-off ($AU{\leq}23.34$) ($OR_{adj}$=3.09; 95%CI=1.04-9.16). Conclusions: As is the case in the upper part of Northeast Thailand, OV infection is a crucial risk factor for CCA in people who live in lower part of the region. Similarly, a family history of cancer and the consumption of alcohol are risk factors for CCA.

Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand

  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J;Rujirakul, Ratana;Wakkuwattapong, Parichart;Matrakool, Likit;Tongtawee, Taweesak;Panpimanmas, Sukij;Pengsaa, Prasit;Jomkoa, Darawan;Joosiri, Apinya;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2973-2977
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    • 2016
  • Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income <4,000 baht per month (4.82%), and living in Khon Sawan district (8.43%). Participants had a high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

Recharge mechanism using electromagnetic ground conductivity survey and tritium concentration analyses of groundwater in salt affected area, Northeast Thailand

  • Imaizumi Masayuki;Sukchan Somsaku;Ishida Satoshi;Tsuchihara Takeo;Ohonishi Ryouichi
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.344-351
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    • 2003
  • Hydrogeological survey and geochemical analysis were carried out in Phra Yun area, Northeast Thailand, which is a typical salt-affected area for an understanding of hydrogeological groundwater behaviours. Geological survey reveals the presence of G1 and F1 faults. Electromagnetic ground conductivity prospecting shows that the high conductivity zones of 15 mS/cm or more are distributed at underground of the G1 and F1 faults where saline groundwater is discharged. The distribution patterns of tritium concentration show that high tritium concentration zones of groundwater were recharged from pond and river. On the assumption that the annual average tritium concentration of precipitation in Northeast Thailand is same as tritium concentration of precipitation in Tokyo and groundwater flows as piston flow, the age of recharging precipitation of groundwater with 15 TU in 1997 could be estimated at 1967-1970 years. The velocity of groundwater flow was calculated to be $5.3{\times}10^{-7}\;m/s\;and\;2.1{\times}x10^{-6}\;m/s$ respectively from a duration time of 30 years and distance of groundwater flow 500m -2000m from the pond and river to the investigation wells. Because the estimated values of velocity of groundwater flow are compatible with the hydraulic conductivities, it is considered that 30 years is a reasonable period for recharging groundwater.

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Risk Factors for Oral Cancer in Northeast Thailand

  • Loyha, Kulchaya;Vatanasapt, Patravoot;Promthet, Supannee;Parkin, Donald Maxwell
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5087-5090
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    • 2012
  • Oral cancer is a common site of head and neck cancer, and is relatively frequent in Northeast Thailand. The objective of this hospital-based, case-control study was to determine associations with risk factors. A total of 104 oral cancer cases diagnosed between July 2010 and April 2011 in 3 hospitals were matched with control subjects by age, sex and hospital. Data were collected by personal interview. There were significant associations between oral cancer and tobacco smoking (OR=4.47; 95%CI=2.00 to 9.99), alcohol use among women (OR=4.16; 95%CI=1.70 to 10.69), and betel chewing (OR=9.01; 95%CI=3.83 to 21.22), and all three showed dose-response effects. Smoking is rare among Thai women (none of the control women were smokers), but betel chewing, especially among older women, is relatively common. We did not find any association between practicing oral sex and oral cancer.