In this study, the Inter-Korea Fisheries Cooperation Project was divided into four categories: North Korea's Fisheries Infrastructure Development Project, Fisheries Cooperation Project, Human Exchange Project, and North Korea Fisheries Investment Project. First, North Korea's fisheries infrastructure development projects include North Korea's fisheries resource research project, it's fisheries resource development project, and joint enforcement on illegal operation of Chinese ships. Second, fisheries cooperation projects include the operation of the North-South common fish area in the West Sea, the fishing project in North Korea's East sea, and the import of North Korean seafood. Third, human exchange projects include training of aquaculture technicians in North Korea, technology transfer and training of fishing vessels, and boarding of North Korea's fisherman in Korean fishing vessels. Fourth, North Korea's fisheries investment projects include aquaculture facilities and aquaculture feed support, aquatic product processing facilities and technology transfer, and fishery equipment support. However, as international sanctions are maintained in the international community to North Korea, Inter-Korea Fisheries cooperation, however, should be promoted according to the level of easing of international sanctions as international sanctions are maintained in the international community to North Korea. First, North Korea's fisheries resource research project, North Korea's fisheries resource creation project, joint enforcement on illegal operation of Chinese ships, and operation of the common fish area in the West Sea can be promoted if international sanctions are maintained at present, promote North Korea's fisheries resource research project. Second, boarding of North Korean's fisherman in Korean fishing vessels, conducting the fishing project in North Korea's East sea, and importing North Korean seafood can be aided if commercial transactions are possible with North Korea. Third, South Korea will support aquaculture facilities and aquatic feed, fisheries processing facilities and technology transfer, fishery equipment support, training of fisheries and aquaculture technicians, fishery fishing technology transfer, and training of fisherman when a comprehensive economic cooperation project is possible with North Korea.
The commercial relationship between South and North Korea is defined under the concept of economic relation and cooperation. To resolve any dispute that can arise from the trade and investment relations between South and North Korea, 'Agreement on the Procedures to Resolve Commercial Arbitration of South-North Korea' came into force in August 2003. Commercial Arbitration Committee of South-North Korea will be organized as the member lists of the committee were exchanged in July 2006 between South and North Korea. This committee must become a central system to settle the trade and investment disputes between South and North Korea. North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act was enacted to provide the foreign investors with the safe measures in their investments such as dispute resolution. But this Act can not dispute the trade and investment disputes between South and North Korea. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the activation of arbitration between South and North Korea by studying Commercial Arbitration Committee of South-North Korea introduced by Agreement on the Procedures to Resolve Commercial Arbitration of South-North Korea and Agreement on the Construction and Operation of Commercial Arbitration Committee of South-North Korea and finding the problems and solutions of Commercial Arbitration Committee of South-North Korea.
The point of Bush administraion’s foreign policy is to support the promotion and stability of Democracy in Iraq and counter terrorism and spread of WMD with his strong propulsive force caused by his reelection. In such an environment, there are his leadership, his team, himself, Kim Jung Il, and a new understanding of North Korea after September 11 as the effective factors of Bush administration’s policy toward Pyongyang. Bush administration’s foreign policy of North Korea also shows the process of North Korea’s nuclear weapon program and the future scenario of the Korean Peninsula with "the persistence of solving North Korea’s nuclear weapon program such as the method having done in Lybia", "the holding unconditional talks with Pyongyang, and "the continual concerns with human rights in North Korea." The purpose of Bush administration’s foreign policy of North Korea is to make North Korea do not support terrorism rather than remove the nuclear weapon in North Korea. The process of outlining South Korea’s policy toward North Korea must be considered for "national interest" with reasonable analyses not just hopes For this, South Korea must access systematically human rights of North Korea, prepare projects for a daring approach on North Korea, and strengthen South Korea’s defense ability toward North Korea with deep alliance with U.S and systematize the mutual understanding channel between U.S and South Korea. In conclusion, South Korea must try to get specific methods and practices about Bush administration’s foreign policy of North Korea with national wisdom
South Korea imports more than one hundred tons of fishery products every year from China, Japan, North Korea, etc. However, imported North Korean fishery products was only 4% of the total fishery products imported in 2007. Though South-North Trade as inter-Korean trade is exempted from tax, imports of North Korean fishery products have not been activated owing to import restrictions, insufficient quality control etc. Expanding imports of North Korean fishery products seems, however, to contribute to lessen the supply and demand unbalance in fishery products of South Korea. It will especially gratify a part of fresh and cold fishery products demand. Therefore, we need to expand the imports of North Korean fishery products by quality control improvement, reformation of origin certifying system, import liberalization etc. This study researches the demand and supply of fishery products of South and North Korea, the actual conditions of imports of North Korean fishery products, and suggests strategies to expand their imports. As the greatest reason to oppose imports of North Korean fishery products is the pricing pressure of domestically produced fishery products due to imports of North Korean fishery products, we need to research and analyze the distribution channels, retail markets, sales prices of imported North Korean fishery products to verify that imports of North Korean fishery products has not caused lower pricing of domestically produced fishery products.
This study examines the technical level of North Korea's S&T and identifies areas for potential North-South cooperation. First, North Korean media is analyzed for situations and trends from 2010 to 2015. Despite some commendable achievements, North Korean S&T remains lacking in basic science and commercialization potential. Despite an awareness of the importance of international cooperation, North Korea is hampered by international sanctions and their own caution, consequently concentrating their efforts on China. Details of their cooperation reflect their interests and needs to a certain extent, although their collaborations were mainly in the form of meetings and conferences rather than active joint research. To assess the potential areas of cooperation with South Korea, this study also draws on interviews with NGOs and professionals working with North Korea. The country's present situation is analyzed and some practical examples of possible cooperation is suggested. North Korea has the potential to expand its cooperation not only with South Korea but with many other countries. North Korea also promisingly expresses interest in cooperation.
Purpose: North Korea is a very close country geographically and culturally, but the nation has been one of the most secretive countries in the world. However, in recent years, North Korean society has been known to rapidly change its economic environment as well as its diplomatic and political environment. Since the gaining power of Jong-un, Kim in 2012, the North Korean government has implemented a new set of economic policies. North Korea has embraced limited market systems and mechanisms that have become a part of the formal planned economy. This study is concerned with the recent changes in the market and marketing activities of the communist country. It also seeks to gain an understanding of the changing market behavior of North Korean consumers. The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of the market environments of North Korea and to provide appropriate implications for practitioners and researchers. Research design, data and methodology: Academic access to information that can understand North Korea's reality is minimal. Therefore, this study was conducted based on a qualitative analysis of secondary data. The existing literature on North Korea, related news and reports were the basis of the analysis. Analysis of secondary data related to North Korea was the main methodology of the study. Results: The official ideology of North Korea rejected most aspects of marketing, and yet there were marketing activities in North Korea. This article focuses on the development of market and marketing activities in North Korea during the recent years. This study indirectly confirmed that the market function is being activated in North Korea, and the basic functions of marketing such as advertisement, price, and distribution are being formed. In this process, the activation of the 'Jangmadang(market)' played a significant role. Conclusions: Research shows that North Korea is rapidly developing its own market function. In addition, marketing activities such as advertising and pricing strategies seem to be unprecedentedly active. However, due to changes in the political environment, the future development of North Korea's marketing is still in flux. Efforts to improve mutual understanding through continuous research are required.
North Korea conducted a total of six nuclear tests from the 1st test of 2006 to September, 2017. North Korea developed an armed forces security strategy at the level of regime protection and defense to respond to U.S. hostile policy. However, it is certain that strategic goals of North Korea's nuclear test were to overcome a crisis in North Korea's regime through US-North Korea negotiation and complete nuclear armed forces for socialist unification on the Korean Peninsula. North Korea's continuous nuclear test is a direct factor in threatening peace on the Korean Peninsula and an indirect factor in security dynamics of Northeast Asia. The U.N. Security Council has enforced sanctions against North Korea through six resolutions against North Korea's reckless nuclear test for the past 10 years. However, Kim Jong-Un's regime is in a position to stick to simultaneous pursuit of nuclear and economic development in spite of anti-North sanction of international society including U.N. and U.S.A. It is understood that North Korea was stimulated to conduct intense nuclear test as U.N. and U.S.A's anti-North sanction was not effective on North Korea. Full-scale and local wars are expected as military options, one of anti-North sanctions of the Trump administration. The Trump administration has attempted diplomatic pressure strategy as a secondary boycott unlike previous administrations. Nevertheless, North Korea has stood against U.N. and U.S.A's anti-North sanction with brinkmanship tactics, announcing full-scale military confrontation against U.S. It is judged that North Korea will pursue simultaneous nuclear weapons and economic development in terms of regime survival. North Korea will have less strategic choices in that its regime may collapse because of realistic national strategy between U.S.A. and China.
The dissimilarities between South and North Korea have persisted in spite of the reconciliation campaign by both countries. The situation of the cleft lip & palate of North Korea was very unclear until now. The purpose of this study is to understand all the current facts of cleft lip & palate in North Korea so that we can find ways of helping North Korea in this field of medicine. The present data and analysis are extracted from North Korean textbooks. The results are as follow. 1. In North Korea, patients with CLP are treated by oral surgeons or maxillofacial surgeons. The detailed contents about the CLP are well described in the North Korean textbooks for the dental students. 2. The terminology of CLP in North Korea has changed from time to time, but the present terminology not being so different from South Korean counterpart. So there will be no particular problems in mutual communication. 3. The main classification for CLP in North Korea originated from Kernahan & Stark's classification as is with South Korea. 4. The incidence of CLP is 1 : 1,000-1,200 in North Korea, which is lower than that of South Korea. There is, however, some difference between the North and South Korean CLP in detailed statistics. 5. We found the North Korean physicians have shown much interest in pursuing the etiology and the prevention of CLP. 6. The timing of CLP operations varied a lot in North Korea. There was recommendation by few for the operation in much late age than in South Korea. 7. The classical operation techniques of cleft lip have changed. For unilateral cleft lip Tennison-Randall method was replaced by Millard I method: and for bilateral cleft lip LeMesurier method was replaced by Veau III and Tennison methods. But for cleft palate Pushback palatoplasty has been utilized consistently.
Recently, there has been an increasing interchange between South Korea and North Korea. Accordingly, there has been active research to understand the society and culture of North Korea, it has been attempted to have comparative study about nursing education to increase understanding between South and North Korea. In the current educational system, 12 years of education is required for entering a nursing college or university in South Korea, but there are only 10 years for entering nursing college in North Korea. After finishing undergraduate studies one can enter graduate school for a masters degree and or a doctoral degree, but there is a longitudinal relation to medical education in North Korea. Regarding the number of nursing educational institutions, there are 50 BSN programs & 61 Diploma programs in South Korea and 11 Diploma programs in North Korea. In regards to curriculum, South Korea has diverse subjects for general education for freshmen, then is subjects to basic specialities sophomore year, and speciality subject and clinical practices from junior year corresponding to the student's intentions. North Korea has minor subjects for general education and basic specialities in freshmen, speciality subjects sophomore year, speciality subjects and clinical practice in the junior year that may not correspond with the student's intentions. The most outstanding difference in the curriculum is North Korea has various subjects for oriental medicine with clinical application. North Korea also does not teach computer science and English is at a very low level. In clinical practice, South Korea has various settings for clinical practice including community health institutions under the nursing professor or clinical instructor. However, North Korea has limited settings for clinical practice (general hospitals) under a doctor's instruction. Also both South and North Korea have a similar licensing system. Therefore, there must be many more studies regarding North Korea, especially in nursing and nursing education in order to decrease differences and confusion between the Koreas and to prepare for a future unification.
The international community's sanctions against North Korea, triggered by North Korea's nuclear tests and by missile development in the country, are considered the strongest sanctions in history, banning exports of North Korea's major items and limiting imports of machinery and oil products. Accordingly, North Korea's trade volume decreased to the level of collapse after the sanctions, meaning that the sanctions against North Korea were considered to be effective. However, according to this paper, which analyzed the price fluctuations of refined petroleum products in North Korea through the methodology of an event study, the market prices of oil products were only temporarily affected by the sanctions and remained stable over the long run despite the restrictions on the volumes of refined petroleum products introduced. This can be explained by evidence that North Korea has introduced refined oil supplies that are not much different from those before the sanctions through its use of illegal transshipments even after the sanctions. With regard to strategic materials such as refined oil, the North Korean authorities are believed to be desperately avoiding sanctions by, for instance, finding loopholes in the sanctions to meet the minimum level of demand.
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