• Title/Summary/Keyword: Normative values

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Normative values for the Grooved Pegboard Test in Adult (Grooved pegboard 검사의 정상성인의 표준치에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Teak-Young
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2001
  • Dexterity is defined in the present study as interdigital manipulative skill or the fine manipulative movements of objects held between the thumb and fingers. The Grooved pegboard test has been used to evaluate dexterity requring visual-motor coordination. The purpose of this study was to standardize the completion time of the Grooved pegboard test in different age groups and gender. Normative values for the Grooved Pegboard Test was developed on the sample of 282 healthy volunteers (89 men and 183 women). Subjects were stratified according to gender and dominant hand and were subdivided into six groups by blocking. The results of this study were as follows: 1) There was a significant difference in completion time between dominant and nondominant hand in both men and women groups (p<.05). 2) There were significant differences in completion time between men and women group (p<.05) 3) There were significant differences in completion time among age groups (p<.05).

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Comparison of conventional lateral cephalograms with corresponding CBCT radiographs

  • Park, Chang-Seo;Park, Jae-Kyu;Kim, Huijun;Han, Sang-Sun;Jeong, Ho-Gul;Park, Hyok
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was performed to assess the compatibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) synthesized cephalograms with conventional cephalograms, and to find a method for obtaining normative values for three-dimensional (3D) assessments. Materials and Methods: The sample group consisted of 10 adults with normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. They were imaged using conventional and CBCT cephalograms. The CBCT cephalograms were synthesized from the CBCT data using OnDemand 3D software. Twenty-one angular and 12 linear measurements from each imaging modality were compared and analyzed using paired-t test. Results: The linear measurements between the two imaging modalities were not statistically different (p>0.05) except for the U1 to facial plane distance. The angular measurements between the two imaging modalities were not statistically different (p>0.05) with the exception of the gonial angle, ANB difference, and facial convexity. Conclusion: Two-dimensional cephalometric norms could be readily used for 3D quantitative assessment, if corrected for lateral cephalogram distortion.

New three-dimensional cephalometric analyses among adults with a skeletal Class I pattern and normal occlusion

  • Bayome, Mohamed;Park, Jae Hyun;Kook, Yoon-Ah
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.62-73
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    • 2013
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess new three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric variables, and to evaluate the relationships among skeletal and dentoalveolar variables through 3D cephalometric analysis. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired from 38 young adults (18 men and 20 women; $22.6{\pm}3.2$ years) with normal occlusion. Thirty-five landmarks were digitized on the 3D-rendered views. Several measurements were obtained for selected landmarks. Correlations among different variables were calculated by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient values. Results: The body of the mandible had a longer curve length in men ($102.3{\pm}4.4$ mm) than in women ($94.5{\pm}4.7$ mm) (p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the maxillary basal curve length. Men had significantly larger facial dimensions, whereas women had a larger gonial angle ($117.0{\pm}4.0$ vs. $113.8{\pm}3.3$; p < 0.001). Strong-to-moderate correlation values were found among the vertical and transverse variables (r = 0.71 to 0.51). Conclusions: The normative values of new 3D cephalometric parameters, including the maxillary and mandibular curve length, were obtained. Strong-to-moderate correlation values were found among several vertical and transverse variables through 3D cephalometric analysis. This method of cephalometric analyses can be useful in diagnosis and treatment planning for patients with dentofacial deformities.

The Preliminary Study for Normative Current Perception Threshold values in the Korean Adults (성인의 Current Perception Threshold 예비조사)

  • Park, Dae-Gyu;Chun, Sung-Hong;Jeon, Jae-Soo;Kim, Yong-Ik;Hwang, Kyung-Ho;Park, Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 1997
  • Background : The Current Perception Threshold (CPT) provides an objective, quantitative gauge of sensory nerve integrity which is obtainable from any cutaneous site. CPT measurement can confirm and quantify or rule out dysfunction of nerve through comparison with established normative values ($Neuval^{TM}$ CPT database). The aim of this study is to compare collected data from Korean adults with $Neuval^{TM}$ CPT database. Method : Normative data from 5 standard test site in face, hand, toe were obtained from 50 healthy adults. Three frequencies(5, 250, 2000 Hz) were stimulated with $Neuromoter^{(R)}$ CPT device. Results : The results of our data were statistically significantly different than Neuval data except in face, but within normal range. Sensory Threshold increased as the frequency of the stimulus changed from 5 Hz to 250 Hz to 2000 Hz., and from face to hand to toe. Conclusion : CPT testing is a valuable neurologic testing modality that is noninvasive and highly reliable for diagnosis and evaluation of sensory nerves where neuropathy is suspected.

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Comparison of cone-beam computed tomography cephalometric measurements using a midsagittal projection and conventional two-dimensional cephalometric measurements

  • Jung, Pil-Kyo;Lee, Gung-Chol;Moon, Cheol-Hyun
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.282-288
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    • 2015
  • Objective: This study investigated whether it is possible to use a two-dimensional (2D) standard in three-dimensional (3D) analysis, by comparing the angles and lengths measured from a midsagittal projection in 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with those measured by 2D lateral cephalometric radiography (LCR). Methods: Fifty patients who underwent both LCR and CBCT were selected as subjects. CBCT was reoriented in 3 different methods and the measuring-points were projected onto the midsagittal plane. Twelve angle values and 8 length values were measured on both LCR and CBCT and compared. Results: Repeated measures analysis of the variance revealed statistically significant differences in 7 angular and 5 linear measurements among LCR and 3 types of CBCT (p < 0.05). Of these 12 measurements, multiple comparisons showed that 6 measurements (ANB, AB to FH, IMPA, FMA, Co-Gn, Go-Me) were not significantly different in pairwise comparisons. LCR was significantly different from 3 types of CBCT in 3 angular (SN to FH, interincisal angle, FMIA) and 2 linear (S-Go, Co-ANS) measurements. The CBCT method was similar for all measurements, except for 1 linear measurement, i.e., S-N. However, the disparity between the mean values for all parameters was within the range of clinical measurement error. Conclusions: 3D-CBCT analysis, using midsagittal projection, is a useful method in which the 2D-LCR normative values can be used. Although the measurements changed with reorientation, these changes were not clinically significant.

Mentolabial angle and aesthetics: a quantitative investigation of idealized and normative values

  • Naini, Farhad B.;Cobourne, Martyn T.;Garagiola, Umberto;McDonald, Fraser;Wertheim, David
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.39
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    • pp.4.1-4.7
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    • 2017
  • Background: This study is a quantitative evaluation of the influence of the mentolabial angle on perceived attractiveness and threshold values of desire for surgery. Methods: The mentolabial angle of an idealized silhouette male Caucasian profile image was altered incrementally between $84^{\circ}$ and $162^{\circ}$. Images were rated on a Likert scale by pretreatment orthognathic patients (n = 75), lay people (n = 75) and clinicians (n = 35). Results: A mentolabial angle of approximately $107^{\circ}$ to $118^{\circ}$ was deemed the most attractive, with a range of up to $140^{\circ}$ deemed acceptable. Angles above or below this range were perceived as unattractive, and anything outside the range of below $98^{\circ}$ or above $162^{\circ}$ was deemed very unattractive. A deep mentolabial angle ($84^{\circ}$) or an almost flat angle ($162^{\circ}$) was deemed the least attractive. In terms of threshold values of desire for surgery, for all groups, a threshold value of ${\geq}162^{\circ}$ and ${\leq}84^{\circ}$ indicated a preference for surgery, although clinicians were least likely to suggest surgery. The clinician group was the most consistent, and for many of the images, there was some variation in agreement between clinicians and lay people as to whether surgery is required. There was even more variability in the assessments for the patient group. Conclusions: It is recommended that in orthognathic and genioplasty planning, the range of normal variability of the mentolabial angle, in terms of observer acceptance, is taken into account as well as threshold values of desire for surgery. The importance of using patients as observers in attractiveness research is stressed.

Influence of gender on Dysphonia Severity Index : A study of normative values (성(性)이 DSI(Dysphonia Severity Index)에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Young-Jin;Lee, Jae-Hong;Kim, Chang-Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1161-1169
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    • 2012
  • This study was investigate the usefulness of the DSI according to gender. The present study evaluated DSI in Korean population and Thirty voluntary participants (15 males, 15 females) who had G0 on the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenics, Strain(GRBAS) and lived in Kyunggi-Do or Seoul, from March 2011 to June 2011. Maximum phonation time, the Highest fundamental frequency, the Lowest intensity, and Jitter(%) were measured using CSL 4500(Kay Pentax. USA). The experimenter explained the subjects the experimental condition and procedures and demonstrated the procedures, prior to the experiment. The result of in this study showed that the difference between males and females were not significants, although the Fhi was higher for females than for males. Therefore, We conclude that the DSI is a useful instrument to objectively measure the severity of dysphonia.

Net Center of Pressure Analysis during Gait Initiation Patient with Hemiplegia : a pilot study (편마비 환자의 보행시작 시 총 압력중심 변화 : 사전연구)

  • Hwang, S.H.;Park, S.W.;Choi, H.S.;Kim, Y.H.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2010
  • Gait initiation is a transitional process from the balanced upright standing to the beginning of steady-state walking. Dysbalanced gait initiation often causes stroke patients to fall. The net center of pressure, measured by two triaxial force plates from twenty healthy subjects and two stroke patients, was investigated to assess asymmetry of gait initiation in hemiparetic subjects. The time interval and distance of the net center of pressure(CoP) moved from the initiation point to the toe off(S1) and from the toe off to the initial contact(S2) were calculated during gait initiation of normal and stroke patients. When the patient with right hemiplegia(A) initiated his gait with right foot, the time interval and the distance of the net CoP in S1 and S2 were smaller than that of normal subjects' values. However, he initiated the gait with left foot(unaffected side) the time interval and the distance of net CoP in S1 were larger than normative values. Differently, the patient with left hemiplegia(B) has shown that larger time interval and distance in S1 and smaller time interval and distance in S2 in both sides. His asymmetry(with which side the gait initiated) was not significant. It is too early to conclude that these results could be general characteristics of the stroke patients because the variations were large and moreover, the level of motor recovery of the patients was different. However, it is expected that these trials could help to set up the strategy of the therapy for the rehabilitation or prevention of fall in stroke patients.

Normative anthropometry and proportions of the Kenyan-African face and comparative anthropometry in relation to African Americans and North American Whites

  • Virdi, Saurab S.;Wertheim, David;Naini, Farhad B.
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.41
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    • pp.9.1-9.14
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    • 2019
  • Background: There is no normative craniofacial anthropometric data for the Kenyan-African population. The purpose of this investigation was to determine normative anthropometric craniofacial measurements and proportional relationships for Kenyans of African descent and to compare the data with African Americans (AA), North American Whites (NAW), and neoclassical canons. Methods: Twenty-five direct facial anthropometric measurements, and 4 angular measurements, were taken on 72 Kenyan-African participants (age range 18-30 years) recruited at the University of Nairobi in Kenya. The data were compared with AA and NAW populations, and neoclassical canons. Descriptive statistics of the variables were computed for the study population. Results: Significant differences between both Kenyan males and females were detected in forehead height (~ 5 mm greater for males, ~ 4.5 mm for females), nasal height (reduced by ~ 4 mm in males, ~ 3 mm in females), nasal width (8-9 mm greater), upper lip height (> 3 mm), and eye width (greater by ~ 3 mm) compared to NAW subjects. All vertical measurements obtained were significantly different compared with NAW. Differences were observed in comparison with AA subjects, but less marked. Mouth width was similar in all groups. Angular measurements were variable. Neoclassical canons did not apply to the Kenyan population. Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements of NAW showed clear differences when compared with the Kenyan population, and variations exist with comparative AA data. The anthropometric data in terms of linear measurements, angular measurements, and proportional values described may serve as a database for facial analysis in the KenyanAfrican population.

Cervical Screening Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Treatment with Cryotherapy in Fiji

  • Fong, James;Gyaneshwar, Rajaneshwar;Lin, Sophia;Morrell, Stephen;Taylor, Richard;Brassil, Ann;Stuart, Anne;McGowan, Catherine
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10757-10762
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of VIA screening with cryotherapy and to record normative values for indicators anticipated in similar low resource settings. Women aged 30-49 years were targeted, resulting in 1961 women screened and treated at two primary health care (PHC) centres near Suva, Fiji. Recruitment was through provision of information, education and communication (IEC). Referrals to a gynaecology outpatient department (OPD) at a referral hospital occurred throughout the screening pathway. Participation was 32% (95%CI 31-33%), higher in iTaukei (Melanesians) women (34%, 95%CI 33-36) compared to Fijians of Indian descent (26%, 95%CI 24-28). Regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated significantly lower participation in those of Indian descent, and age groups 35-39 and 45-49 years. Of those examined by VIA, 190 were positive with aceto-white lesions (9.9%), within the expected range of 8-15%, with minor geographic and ethnic variation. Positive VIA results were more common in the peri-urban area, and in those aged 35-39 years. Of women aged 30-49 years, 59 received cryotherapy (none of whom had significant complications), 91 were referred to OPD, two cervical carcinomas were identified and eight cervical intra-epithelial neoplasms (CIN) II-III were diagnosed. These results provide normative findings from a community-based VIA screening program for other similar low resource settings.